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Full text of "The organists & composers of S. Paul's cathedral"

CORNELL 

UNIVERSITY 

LIBRARY 




MUSIC 



Cornell University Library 
ML 396.B94 



The organists & composers of S. Paul's c 





3 1924 022 191 880 




Cornell University 
Library 



The original of tliis book is in 
tlie Cornell University Library. 

There are no known copyright restrictions in 
the United States on the use of the text. 



http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924022191880 



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THE S. PAUL'S CATHEDKAL ORGAN, 

As IT Appeared upon the Sceeen, from 1697 till 1860. 

{From a Sketch puhlisked in the Ilandhooh to S. Paul's, 
hy E. M. Cummings. Dean's Verger, 1867). 

Tha case was soniewliat modified in 1SV2 to suit its altered position, but its 
general aspect lemaius the same. 



Hh — — — " - — ->^ 



Z1bTE 



©rganists &, Composers 



S. Ip>aur8 Catbebral. 



3obn S. Bumpue 

(Member of tbe S. ©aul's Bcclesiologfcal Societg.) 

" The Lord hath been mindful of us, ^nd He shall bless ub . . . . 
He shall bless them that fear the Lord ; both small and great. 

The Lord shall increase you more and more, you and your children." 

* * * 

iptlnteO for tbe author bs 

JBowOen, 1bu&0on Si Co., 23. iReJ* Xfon Street, Ibolborn. 

Eonfion. 

I 89 I. 

-K^* *^ 



BowDEN, Hddson & Co., Pkintees, 23, Ekd Lioh Street, Holboru, W.C 



Co 

EDMUND HART TURPIN, ESQ., 
Mus.D.Cantuar., &^c., 6^c, 

THESE PAGES 

ARE 

CORDIALLY INSCRIBED 

BY 



INTRODUCTION. 



The following papers have appeared, at various times, in 
the columns of The Musical Standard. 

In response to urgent requests .from many persons, 
including several cathedral organists and musicians of 
distinction, they are now re-published, with considerable 
additions, in a collected form. 

Appended will be found some account of the Cathedral 
organ and the various alterations and improvements it has 
undergone from time to time. 

Short biographical notices of the principal English com- 
posers, incidentally alluded to in the body of the work, have 
likewise been introduced, together with a list of their chief 
contributions to Church music. 

Considerable pains have been taken to ascertain the 
correct dates of birth, death, and appointments of each 
composer. In some cases it has been found impossible to 
verify these exactly, and, for such shortcomings, the reader's 
kind indulgence is asked. 



Glebblakds, 

Stoke Nbwington, 

All SainU Day, 1890. 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER I. 

iNTEODUCrOEY. 

CHAPTER II. 

The Organists and Composees of the Old Cathedeal. 

CHAPTER III. 

Organists and Composers of S. Paul's during the 18th 
Century. 

CHAPTER IV. 

Miss Hackett and her Labours on behalf of thk 

Choristers' School. The Organists and 

Composers of S. Paul's during the 

present Century. 

CHAPTER V. 

Music at S. Paul's Cathedral at the Present Day. 

APPENDIX A. 

A Full Account of the Organ— Past and Present— in 
S. Paul's Cathedral. 

APPENDIX B. 

List of Anthems by Composers of S. Paul's Cathedral 

GIVEN IN Clifford's Collection (1664). 

APPENDIX C. 

Short Biographical Sketches of the Principal English 

Church Composers alluded to incidentally 

in the Body of the Work, with Lists 

or their Compositions, 

etc., etc. 




THE 



ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

OF 

S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 



CHAPTER I. 

The three Metropolitan Choirs, as, for many years, 
those of S. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, and the Chapel 
Royal were termed, have been renowned from time 
immemorial for the very large number of eminent 
Church musicians trained in their choral schools, or 
who became connected with them in later life as 
minor canons, organists, or singers. In point of 
fact, a detailed account of every composer of dis- 
tinction attached to the three above choirs frorh time 
to time would form a goodly portion of a history of 
cathedral music. 

It has been said, and with considerable truth, that 
whatever of grace, and grandeur, majesty and beauty 
belongs to the school of Anglican Church music, has 
been, in a very great measure, nourished and reared 
in our cathedrals and collegiate churches, which were, 
and still are, schools in which a number of future 
musicians are constantly being trained; where the 



i TBB ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

choicest compositions of the great English and con- 
tinental masters are daily before them as models; and 
where a pure and classic taste is generated and spread, 
not only in the particular choir, but throughout the 
entire circle of which the cathedral city forms the 
centre. 

Although Westminster can boast among her alumni 
some of the proudest names in the history of English 
ecclesiastical music — Gibbons, Purcell, Blow, Croft, 
and Cooke, for example — it will be seen by the reader 
of the ensuing sketches that our great metropolitan 
cathedral of S. Paul is by no means lacking in 
interesting musical associations, and can point to 
names equally honourable and distinguished. 

The fabric and services of the old cathedral, both 
before and after the Reformation, have been described 
in the most graphic and fascinating manner by the 
Rev. Dr. Simpson (Sub-dean, Minor Canon and 
Librarian) in his book Chapters in the History of Old 
S. Pants. For further information concerning the 
same, the reader is referred to Dean Milman's learned 
work The Annals of S. Paul's — like Dean Stanley's 
Memorials of Westminster, a book, which, when 
once taken up, is with great difficulty, laid aside. 
Mr. William Longman's handsome volume. The 
Three Cathedrals dedicated to S. Paul in London, 
also contains much valuable and interesting informa- 
tion, though perhaps of a more architectural cha- 
racter. To students of the history of Old S. Paul's 
the sumptuous pages of Dugdale, with their accom- 
panying fine plates by Hollar, are, of course, indis- 
pensable. 

Before the Reformation, the pomp and splendour 
of the various ceremonials at S. Paul's probably 
exceeded those of any other cathedral in England. 
The Use followed was that of Sarum. On Sept. 
1 8th, 1547, the Litany was first chanted in English at. 



OF S. PAULAS OATHilDRAL. 



S. Paul's, " between the Quire and the High Altar, 
the singers kneeling half on one side and half on the 
other." At the same time the Epistle and Gospel at 
High Mass were ordered to be said in English. Two 
years later the Mass was put down, and in 1552, the 
new Book of Common Prayer was first made use of. 

In the reign of Queen Mary, the rites and cere- 
monies which existed before the Reformation were 
revived. Fabyan in his Chronicle mentions tiiat, 
in 1553, "on S. Katherine's daye after Evensong 
began the Quere of Paules to goe about the steple 
singing with lightes after the olde custom," and 
Strype the historian tells us that, on Oct. i8th (S. 
Luke's Day), 1554, Philip, King of Spain, "came 
down on horseback from Westminster unto Paul's, 
with many lords, being received under a canopy at 
the West end. And the Lord Vincent Mcaitague 
bare the sword afore the king. There he heard Mass 
sung by Spaniards, a Spanish bishop celebrating." 
When Elizabeth came to the throne the ritual was 
again modified, to meet the requirements of the 
reformed service. 

A most interesting paper on the architecture, ritual, 
and various ceremonies of Old S. Paul's was prepared 
for the S. Paul's Ecclesiological Society, by the Rev. 
Mackenzie E. C. Walcott, Precentor of Chichester, 
shortly before his death in November, 1880. It was 
subsequently read by Minor Canon Kelly, and 
printed in the Society's Transactions, Vol I., p. 177. 

It will be premised that S. Paul's is one of the nine 
cathedrals of the Old Foundation, Le., one of those 
whose internal constitutions were unchanged by 
Henry VIII. at the time of the Reformation, having 
been cathedrals, par excellence, from the earliest tirhes^ 
It may be as well to mention here that the remaining 
eight cathedrals of the Old Foundation are York, 
Chichester, Exeter, Hereford, Lichfield, Lincoln, 



4 TBB ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Salisbury, and Wells. The four Welsh cathedrals of 
Bangor, S. Asaph, Llandaff, and S. David's, fall 
under this category, as do also the whole of the Irish 
cathedrals with the exception of the Holy Trinity, 
commonly called Christ Church, in Dublin, which was 
changed from a monastic to a secular establishment 
in 1541. 

The remaining . thirteen English cathedrals, viz., 
Bristol, Canterbury, Carlisle, Chester, Durham, Ely, 
Gloucester, Norwich, Oxford, Peterborough, Roches- 
ter, Winchester, and Worcester, together with Christ 
Church, Dublin, were all remodelled by Henry VHI 
at the time of the dissolution of the monasteries, and 
are therefore termed cathedrals of the New Founda- 
tion. Before that period nine of these had been 
simultaneously monasteries and cathedrals, five had 
been simply monasteries, the sees of Bristol, Chester, 
Gloucester, Oxford, and Peterborough, being then for 
the first time created. Canons and prebendaries, 
with other officers, were substituted for monks ; the 
new constitutions of these places being apparently 
modelled on that of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
founded about two hundred years before. The foun- 
dations of Ripon and Manchester are of modern date, 
as are also those of S. Albans, Truro, Liverpool, New- 
castle, Southwell, and Wakefield. Of these five last- 
named (with the exception of Southwell) there are, as 
yet, no settled musical foundations, corresponding 
with those of the ancient cathedrals. 

The endowments of S. Paul's in its original state 
were for a Bishop, thirty Canons or Prebendaries, a 
number of Chantry Priests (at one time no less than 
two hundred), and twelve Minor, or Petty Canons. 
Subsequently thirty Vicars were added as substitutes 
for the absent Canons. These latter, all of whom 
were either in orders, or preparing to take them, 
shared among themselves the various ministerial duties 



OF s. Paul's catbedral. 



such as the celebration of Masses and other solemn 
offices of religion. Various other matters fell under 
their supervision, such as attendance on the sick and 
poor ; the instruction of the choristers and grammar- 
boys ; the transcription of the great service-books 
placed on the lecterns and stalls, such as missals, anti- 
phonaries, graduals, vesperals and processionals — 
there was no cheap music-printing in handy octavo 
size in those days ; the distribution of alms, and the 
management of the revenues. They were bound to 
assist at all canonical hours, and to keep perpetual 
residence. 

To the above officials must be added the children 
of the choir, the young men educating for the service 
of the Church (a Theological College, as we should 
now probably term it), the boys of the Grammar 
School of S. Paul (founded by Bishop Richard de 
Belmeis), the sacristans, bedesmen, and other lay- 
officers too numerous to particularize. The whole 
formed a beau ideal Cathedral of the Old Foundation, 
thdn the first conception of which, according to Mr. 
Freeman, there was never a more beautiful scheme. 

At first, the entire jurisdiction of this large com- 
munity belonged to the Bishop, but he, having exten- 
sive duties to perform in the diocese, the office of 
Dean was established, and in whose hands the chief 
government of the Cathedral has ever since remained. 

Next to the Dean ranked the Frecentor, his stall in 
most Cathedrals, but not, however, in S. Paul's, being 
the first on the left hand side, on entering the choir ; 
that of the Dean occupying a corresponding position 
on the right. 

The office of Precentor in early times was no mere 
nominal one, as it is now. It was his duty to super- 
intend the singing men and boys, to draw up and 
settle the hebdomadal tables of the Tones and hymns, 
to commence the canticles, to overlook the choir 
generally and, in some cases, to distribute copes an4 



6 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

regulate processions. Thus we see that at S. Paul's, 
that most important office of ordering the music was 
regarded as it ought to be, worthy the personal super- 
intendence of one of the Great Dignitaries, who him- 
self took part in the performance. 

The Precentorship, since the death of the Rev. 
Almeric Belli in 1886 (he had held the stall since 
1 819), has been merged into the canonry at present 
in the tenure of the Rev. H. Scott Holland: This gen- 
tleman, from his knowledge and appreciation of all 
that is beautiful and true in Church music, and the 
hearty interest which he takes in the choir and all 
things appertaining thereto, may be said to have 
revived in his person something of the ancient title. 

As years rolled on the office of Precentor became 
quite a sinecure, not only at S. Paul's, but in all our 
cathedrals of the Old Foundation, a deputy being 
chosen from among the Minor Canons bearing the 
title of Succentor. In the cathedrals of the New 
Foundation no provision was made for the office of 
Precentor, one of the Minor Canons receiving the 
title. 

The statutable remuneration of the Precentor of 
S. Paul's was liberal in the extreme. It was derived 
from fourteen houses in and near S. Paul's Church- 
yard, and the valuable manor and rectory of Bishop's 
Stortford, Hertfordshire. Mr. Belli, during his long 
tenure of office, was seen at S. Paul's very seldom 
indeed, thereby causing Sydney Smith, the witty 
Canon, to remark that a more appropriate title for him 
would have been "the Absenter." 

The Chancellor or Magister Scholarum was next in 
the rank of the Majores FersoncB, his duties being to 
read the Divinity Lecture, to appoint a Grammar 
Master for the choristers, and to act as secretary or 
scribe to the Dean and Chapter. The office is now 
annexed to a canonry, as is also that of Treasurer, 
the next dignitary in rank. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



In some instances, as in that of old S. Paul's, the 
Treasurer was not merely the bursar of the Chapter, 
but he also had charge of the whole instrumenta ecclesi- 
astica; such as the copes, chasubles, dalmatics, stoles, 
albs, surplices, and other vestments ; the altar-frontals 
and richly-jewelled crucifixes, monstrances, candle- 
sticks, censers, and eucharistic plate ; the gorgeously- 
illuminated missals and other service-books, in all of 
which the cathedral, in pre-Reformation times, was enor- 
mously rich. Dugdale, in his Monasticon, gives a list 
of these valuable possessions, filling thirteen folio 
pages.* All these treasures, which increased in number 
and value yearly, were too much for the care of one 
man : a deputy was therefore nominated from among 
the Vicars called the Sacrist, and under him were 
three Vergers. One of the Minor Canons is styled 
" Sacrist " at this day. 

Next came the five Archdeacons, viz., of London, 
Middlesex, Essex, Colchester, and S. Alban's.t Of 
these the first two only now hold stalls. 

We now come to the thirty Major Canons or Fre- 
bendaries, who have not varied from their original 
number. In primitive times they resided in close 
proximity to the cathedral, but, in later years, having 
rich lands and farms allotted to them out of the 
cathedral estates, the greater part of them absented 
themselves from the church and its services, and were, 
very properly, excluded from participation in the 
general revenues, which were shared among those 
who continued to reside and perform their ministerial 
functions. 

In former days the number of these Prebendaries, 
as they were termed, was seven, to correspond with 
the seven canonical hours of prayer, viz., Matins, 

rV See also "The Inventarie of ye Plate, Jewells, Copes, Vestements, 
Tunacles, Albes, Bells, and other ornaments, appertayninge to the Cathedrall 
Church of S. Paule in London, 1552 "—printed in The Bcdesiologist for June 
1856 (No. cxiv, N.S., No. Lxxvm) from Records in the Augmentation Office, 
t TYx Archdeacon of S. Alban's had no stall in the choir, 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Lauds, Prime, Tierce, Sext, Nones, Vespers, and 
Compline. Since the Reformation the number of the 
Canons Residentiary has been restricted to four, one 
of whom was, until 1840, the Dean. These four con- 
tinue to take their turn of residence, viz., three months 
in the year each ; their duties, for the most part, being 
confined to preaching on Sunday afternoons, and at 
other stated times, and to reading the Lessons on 
Sunday evenings. They occasionally officiate in place 
of the Minor Canons at the short services and cele- 
brations of the Holy Communion, held daily in the 
Crypt and North-West Chapels. 

From the remaining twenty-six Prebendaries no 
other duties are expected than to preach in the cathe- 
dral in their turn, either on Sunday mornings, or on 
the afternoons of Saints' days. They are, however, 
enjoined by the Statutes to appear as frequently as 
they are able, in order that the dignity of the services 
may be fully sustained. 

Over the stall of each Prebendary in the old cathe- 
dral was the name of the manor or estate from whence 
his endowment was derived, together with the Anti- 
phon (in Latin) of one of the five Psalms he was 
bound by the ordinance of Bishop Maurice daily to 
repeat "privately, to the glory of God, and for the 
more fully answering the intention of the founders 
and benefactors." , Exactly the same arrangement has 
been followed in the stalls of the present cathedral. 
Each Prebendary is still admonished, on his installa- 
tion, to remember these Psalms. 

Dr. Simpson, in his Chapters in the History of Old 
S. PauVs, mentions that Dean Donne, when holding 
the prebendal stall of Chiswick, preached a course of 
sermons on the Prebendary of Chiswick's five Psalms, 
beginning "My soul truly waiteth." The following 
passages, like many of those found in the works of the 
Elizabethan and Carolean Divines, are quaintly beauti- 
ful : — " The Psalrnes are the nianna of the Church. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 



As the whole Booke is manna, so these five Psalmes 
are my Gomer,* which I am to fill and empty every 

day of this manna Every daye, God receives 

from us (the Prebendaries), howsoever we be divided 
from one another in place, the Sacrifice of Praise in 
the whole Booke of Psalmes. And, though we may 
be absent from this Quire, yet wheresoever dispersed, 
we make up a Quire in this service of saying over all 
the Psalmes every daye." t 

A most interesting part of the establishment of S. 
Paul's now claims our attention. It is the College of 
Minor Canons, or (as they are frequently called in old 
accounts) Petty Canons. 

This college is of very ancient foundation ; coeval in 
fact with the cathedral itself. The twelve members 
who composed this honourable body were incorpor- 
ated under the title of the Warden and College of 
Minor Canons by King Richard II. in 1394, and still 
possess the royal charter and seal granted to them by 
that monarch. They were endowed with lands, and 
the rectory of S. Gregory by S. Paul was appropriated 
to their use. A statute, issued by the Dean and 
Chapter in 1364, sets forth that "they excel in honour 
and diiiuity all chaplains in the cathedral, that they 
officiate at the High Altar in the stead of the Greater 
Canons.J and that they are to wear almuces of fur 
after the manner of the Greater Canons, instead of 
almuces of black cloth such as chaplains wear." 

Like the Canons Residentiary, the Minor Canons 

* Or Omer, as our present English version (1611) has it. See Exodus, 
xvi. , 32-36. 

t " Oh ! reader, scoff not ; it concerns thine own soul : try in Faith to steal 
from the world each day some little time for holy meditation on a Saviour's 
love, beside thy past and present communings. A saint of old found years 
full of lessons in one single verse (Psalm XXXIX, i).— Open thy heart still 
oftener to Him. " Man of Sorrows," He will comfort thee, guide thee, 
delight thee, and give thee thy heart's desire. May the sweetest music of 
those five sweet psalms be the balm they have yielded to thy torn heart — as 
constant as the undying ripple of ether may the recollection of their sweetness 
be." — Rev. Wm. S. George Patterson, Subchanter, Vicar Choral an4 
Divinity Lectqrer of Lichfield Cathedral (1857). 
} As they do at this day. 



10 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

formerly had houses assigned to them in the immedi- 
ate neighbourhood of the cathedral. The Rev. John 
Entick, writing in his Survey of London (published in 
four volumes in 1766, by Dr. Johnson's excellent 
friends, the Messrs. Dilly of the Poultry) mentions 
that " at the extremity of the South side of S. Paul's 
churchyard is S. Paul's College, or the college or 
place of residence for the Petty Canons, which is in a 
small court backwards, consisting of divers houses 
appropriated to each stall." This place was still in 
existence in 1807 when David Hughson published his 
History of London, in which he tells us that " at the 
entrance from Ludgate Street is a narrow entry leading 
to S. Paul's College, where are lodgings for such of 
the Minor Canons who chuse to reside." 

By this we may infer that they were not bound to live 
here ; for, as a rule, they held benefices in the city — 
some of them in the country — to which a house was 
usually attached. 

S. Paul's College must have been demolished 
before 1830, as in that year the Liber Ecdesiasticus or 
Revenues of the Church was published, and in which 
it was stated that the Minor Canons had then no 
houses assigned to them for residence. It may be 
said that S. Paul's College has, of late years, been 
re-established, in the shape of a group of houses in 
Amen Court, built exclusively for the use of the Minor 
Canons. 

Whenever a vacancy occurred in the college the 
fellows were privileged to nominate two candidates, 
whom they presented to the Dean and Chapter, and 
one of whom that body was required to elect. A 
fine voice, a knowledge of Church music, and an irre- 
proachable life were, and still are, indispensable 
requisites. 

This ancient corporation became, in 1875, the sub- 
ject of Parhamentary legislation. The objects of the 
"S. Paul's Cathedral lx>ndon Minor Canonries Act" 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. ii 

were to bring the constitution of the Corporation of 
Minor Canons into accordance with the Cathedral Act 
of 1840,* and thus to place beyond dispute the legal 
character of the tenure of their stalls, by those Minor 
Canons who had been appointed after the year 1840; 
to define the duties of the Minor Canons more expli- 
citly in accordance with modern requirements ; to 
equalize their incomes and raise them m all cases to a 
sufficient amount ; to prohibit their holding benefices 
together with their minor canonries, and to make 
provision for their retirement after the age of fifty-fi^^e. 
Such legislation was rendered necessary by the reduc- 
tion of the number of Minor Canons from twelve to 
six, in accordance with the Cathedral Act of 1840, 
and four Minor Canons are now holding stalls under 
the new conditions. A like number of the old founda- 
tion are still living. 

The duties of the Minor Canons of S. Paul's consist 
in saying and singing the daily offices in the choir, in 
celebrating the Holy Communion, and in preaching 
from time to time. Some members of their body 
are charged with the mastership of the choristers and 
the spiritual oversight of the servants of the Cathedral ; 
while others hold classes or give lectures in religious 
or useful knowledge among the young men who are en- 
gaged in business in the city. The Dean and Chapter 
hope, that as the new constitution of the Minor Canons 
comes more fully into play, the great importance of the 
services which they can render to the Cathedral and to 
the citizens of London will become increasingly apparen t. 

The emoluments of the Minor Canons appointed 
under the above Act are an income of ^300, during 
the first, or year of probation, and oi £^00 per annum 
afterwards, together with a house in Amen Court. 

Before the changes mentioned above, a much closer 
connexion existed between the Minor Canons and the 

• See " The English Cathedral Service— its origin, its decline, and its 
Resigned extinction," by Professor Taylor, 8vo, 1845. 



12 



TSB ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



choir, than at the present day. The Minor Canons 
were required to take their several parts in all the 
services and anthems ; and, whenever they occurred, 
the solos and verses were not unfrequently allotted to 
them. 

The subjoined list of the members of the old 
college with the founders of each stall may not be 
without its interest at this point. The various incum 
bents are those holding office in 1834. Among them 
the reader will, doubtless, recognize some familiarnames. 



stalls. Incumbents. Founders of the Stalls. 

{ IV. and y. Ever- 

1. Sub-Dean. Rev. Henry Fly, D.D. ] don and J. Bel- 

( meyn. 

2. Senior Car- Rev. H. J. Knapp, M.A. ( Walter, Alice, and 

dinal. ) William Neale, 

3. Junior Car- Rev. Christopher Packe, 1 and Nicholas 
B.A. ( Farendon. 

Geoffrey Edmunds, 
and Nicholas 
Canon. 

Allen Hot ham. 

Fulke and Ph. Bas- 
seit and Nicholas 
Husband. 

Allen Hot ham and 
John de S. Mary 
Church. 

Stephen and Rich- 
ard Gravesend. 

Hamond Rigwell 
and Alex. .Swer- 
ford. 

Richard Foliot and 
Richard Glouces- 
ter. 

Richard de New- 
port. 
Rev. E. G. A. Beckwith, \ Robert and John 
M.A. I Chishull 

A word or two, before we proceed, on the term 
" Cardinal " used in the above table, for it is an offic^ 



4. Epistolar. 

5. Gospeller. 

6. Warden. 

7. SarHst. 

8. 

9. Librarian. 

10. 

II. 

12. Succentor. 



Rev. R. H.Barham.B.A. ■ 
Rev. W. J. Hall, M.A. 
Rev. J. W. Vivian, D.D. ■ 

Rev. James Lupton, A.M. ■ 

Rev. J. T. Bennett, M.A. ■ 

Rev. R. Collier Pack- 
man, B.A. 

Rev. R. Shutte, B.A. 

Rev. J. V. Povah, M.A. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 13 

peculiar to S. Paul's throughout the Anglican world. 
It is impossible to say when the term came into use, 
but when Richard II. granted the Minor Canons their 
Charter of Incorporation in 1394, mention is made in 
that document of the Cardinals as follows : — " quorum 
duo dicuntur Cardinales." Again : In the Harleian 
collection of manuscripts in the British Museum, there 
is a volume entitled hragmenta Historipolitica Mis- 
cellanea Successiva, collected by one Thomas Gybbons, 
who says, " The Church of S. Paule had, before the 
time of the Conquerour, two Cardinalls, which office 
still continue {sic). They are chosen by the Dean and 
Chapter out of the number of the twelve Petty Canons 
and are called Cardinales Chori. Their office is to 
take note of the absence or neglect of all the Quire, 
and weekly to render account thereof to the Dean and 
Chapter. They administer likewise Ecclesiastical 
sacraments to the ministers of the Church, and their 
servants, etc. Not any Cathedral Church in England 
hath Cardinalls besides this ; nor any beyond seas 
are to be found dignified wyth this title, saving the 
Churches of Rome, Ravenna, Aquilea, Millan, Pisa, 
Beneucnt in Italy, and Compostella in Spayn. The 
Cardinalls have the best pre-eminence in the Quire 
aboye all next to the Sub-deane, and the best stalls." 
Besides visiting the sick the two Cardinals (denomi- 
nated respectively the Senior and Junior Cardinals) 
were "to teach weekly the Catechism to the choristers, 
and to deliver a note to the Dean of those who did 
not profit or who were negligent or stubborn." The 
term " Cardinal " has never become obsolete at S. 
Paul's, the present Senior Cardinal being the Rev. W. 
H. Milman, holder of the seventh minor canonry, 
and the present Junior Cardinal, the Rev. W. J. Hall, 
holder of the tenth minor canonry.* 

* For further information respecting the Pauline Cardinals, the reader is 
referred to the late Precentor Wallcott's Sacred ArcJuxologjft z868. 



14 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



The Canons and other clergy of S. Paul's were 
enjoined by the Statutes to exercise great hospitality. 
A lingering tradition of this prevailed in 1831, in which 
year the good, clever, laughter-loving and witty Canon, 
the Rev. Sydney Smith (then recently appointed) wrote, 
in his usual racy manner, to the Countess of Morley as 
follows : — " I have taken possession of my preferment. 
The house is in Amen Corner, — an awkward name on 
a card, and an awkward annunciation to the coach- 
man on leaving any fashionable mansion. I find too 
(sweet discovery !) that J give a dinner every Sunday, 
for three months in the year, to six clergymen and six 
singing-men,* at one o'clock. Do me the favour to 
drop in as Mrs. Morley. I did the duty at S. Paul's; 
the organ and music were excellent My resi- 
dence is in February, March, and July." 

Many good things were said on these occasions 
and some capital stories have been preserved. The 
Dean (Dr. Copleston, Bishop of Llandafif ) used, some- 
times, to entertain the same party at the Deanery. 
" At one of these gatherings," says the Rev. R. Dalton 
Barham, in the Memoir of his father, the Rev. R. H. 
Barham (from 1821 to 1845, one of the Minor 
Canons of St. Paul's, and the well-known author of 
The Ingoldsby Legends), " a certain Doctor of Divinity 
was present. He gave himself considerable airs, and 
at length turned in rather an impertinent way to my 
father and said : ' Pray, Mr. Barham, can you tell me 
how it is that you gentlemen of S. Paul's wear the 
scarf? I was not aware that a Minor Canon was 
entitled to the distinction.' 'I leave my brethren,' 
replied my father, ' to answer for themselves : for my 
part I wear the scarf as Priest-in-Ordinary to the King, 
an office which gives me the rank of Chaplain.' ' Ah, 

* That is the Minor Canons and Vicars-Choral who had officiated at the 
Morning Service which commenced at a quarter to ten. In 1839 Sydney 
Smith let his house in Amen Court to Barham, and went to live at 56, 
Green Street, Grosvenor Square, where he died on Feb. 22nd, 1843.— JiSiB. 



OF S. PAULS CATHSB-RAL. I 5 

indeed ! I beg your pardon. I was not aware— ' 
' No apology is necessary,' said my father ; ' but, as 
you have set the example of putting questions, perhaps 
you will allow me to ask in return how you came to 
wear an Oxford doctor's hood, when, if I mistake not, 
yours is an Aberdeen degree ? ' The Bishop was 
delighted." 

Mr. William Hawes, from 1812 to 1846, the much- 
respected Almoner and Master of the Choristers^ 
would sometimes give a luncheon on Sundays at his 
handsome house facing the river, on the Adelphi 
Terrace, Strand — a very different place, by the way, to 
the contiguous and commodious, but somewhat dull 
and bizarre-looking building where the boys are at 
present boarded — to such of the Priests and Gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal who also held appointments 
at S. Paul's, and who, having taken part in the twelve 
o'clock service at the former, were proceding to the 
quarter-past three service at the latter. Barham, and 
the talented, but erratic, Priest of the Chapel Royal, 
the Rev. Edward Cannon (a most singular being, who 
has been introduced to the world under the name 
of " Godfrey Moss " in Theodore Hook's novel, 
Maxwell) were frequently present on the above occa- 
sions. 

The custom of giving these Residentiary dinners 
was discontinued in 1843, and a money payment sub- 
stituted. 

At the latter end of the 14th Century there were 
thirty Vicars Choral at S. Paul's, who had, like the 
Minor Canons, some of the attributes of a corporate 
body, possessing estates, etc., of their own ; but during 
Colet's tenure of the Deanery (1505 — 1519) their 
number had, by some means or other, dwindled 
down to the miserably inadequate number of six ; and 
this, together with twelve boys, was the numerical 
strength of the choir at the most important cathedral 



id fH£ ORGANISTS AkD COMPOSERS 



in England until the year 1873. The musical staff was 
then completely reorganized, twelve additional Vicars 
Choral being appointed, makmg the average number 
eighteen. At the same time the number of boys was 
raised from twelve (eight was the statutory number, 
but there were generally probationers or " practising 
boys,") to something between thirty anil forty, in 
order to meet the requirements of the greatly expanded 
musical services. 

When the King of Prussia visited this country in 
1842, he expressed a wish to hear service at S. Paul's, 
his taste for Church music having been, doubtless, 
formed by the magnificent unaccompanied anthems 
for double choir, " Judge me, O God," and " Why 
rage fiercely the heathen," composed by Mendelssohn 
expressly for the Dom or Cathedral at Berlin. Accord- 
ingly, on Sunday morning, January 30th, he attended 
the service with the Duke of Cambridge, and Bishop 
Blomfield preached the sermon The capitular 
authorities knew the miserably crippled state of their 
choir, and actually beat up recruits for the nonce. 
The stalls of the cathedral were filled by men who had 
never been seen in them before, and His Majesty was 
deluded into the beUef that, in the array of surpliced 
singers before him, he saw and heard the regular choir 
of S. Paul's. 

One of the Vicars Choral acted as Organist, con- 
siderable additions being made to his salary by Dean 
Godolphin in the reign of George I. Another ot the 
Vicars officiated as Almoner or Master of the Choristers, 
a personage of whom we shall have a great deal more 
to say later on. Down to the year 1675 one of the 
MinorCanonshad held the appointment, and after 1848 
one of that body was again invested with the title, which 
is now attached to the stall held by the Rev. J. H. 
Coward. The office has, however, been a merely nomi- 
nal one since the reconstruction of the choral school. 



OF !?. PAULS CATHJUnRAL. \J 



The duties of the Almoner {Eleemosynarius) of S. 
Paul's, as defined by the statutes, were to maintain 
a certain number of boys, of good disposition and 
respectable parentage, for the service of the choir ; to 
watch over their moral conduct with extraordinary 
solicitude, and to see that they attended proper 
masters for their education, with a view to their 
future ministry in the church. The stipend of the 
Almoner was derived from fifteen houses within the 
City of London, and two small estates at Acton. 

During the earlier years of the present century, the 
Almonry and choristers' school of S. Paul's were 
the subjects of frequent judicial contests, and the 
Chapter had a very able, courageous, and pertinacious 
litigant in the person of Miss Maria Hackett, of whose 
life and labours we hope to treat more fully hereafter. 

Ere we close this section a few words must be said 
about the school for the choristers and grammar boys. 
This establishment, dedicated to S. Paul, was under 
the immediate jurisdiction of the capitular clergy, and, 
for many years, was held in very high esteem as a 
seminary of sound religious and musical training. 

It was founded by Richard de Belmeis, who was 
consecrated Bishop of London, a.d., iio8, and its 
revenues were considerably augmented by Richard I., 
Henry IIL, and Edward IL The school property 
seems to have escaped unscathed through all the 
troubles of the early Anglican Church, and was spared 
at the time of the Reformation. 

Shortly after this, the school appears to have sunk 
into disesteem, but at what exact time, and under what 
circumstances this ancient choral seminary lost its pres- 
tige, and how its funds were misappropriated, has always 
been a matter of perplexity. It has, however, been 
conjectured that it was its degraded condition which 
'nduced Dean Colet to transfer his patronage to an 
entirely new foundation on a much more liberal scale. 



1 8 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

and to place the government of it in the hands of lay 
patrons, viz., the Mercers' Company. Thus, the Cathe- 
dral clergy ceased to have any interest or votes in the 
establishment usually known as S. Paul's School, only 
just removed from its original site at the eastern end 
of S. Paul's Churchyard to Kensington. 

The relation of the Cathedral or Choristers' School 
to S. Paul's has always been a somewhat intricate 
subject with historians. Dean Nowell, in 1584, en- 
deavoured to procure admission to Colet's foundation 
for the choristers. The question of their admission 
vpas raised by Bishop (afterwards Archbishop) Laud, 
in the reign of Charles I. In 181 1, it was again 
mooted. The answer, however, appears to have been 
always in the negative; and rightly so, for the choris- 
ters had their own proper endowments, which had 
been wrested from them, in many cases by their own 
guardians, and it is not until our own day that their 
full title to them has been recognized, and the true 
S. Paul's School established once more upon almost 
its original site. The school, which we are accus- 
tomed to call S. Paul's, was dedicated in reality to 
Christ Jesu in Pueritia (i. e. teaching the Jewish 
Doctors at the age of twelve years), and His Blessed 
Mother, S. Mary, but, if it were ever known by this 
name, its proximity to the Cathedral must have caused 
that early to be forgotten, and so, between the two 
schools bearing the name of S. Paul, it was not unna- 
tural that some confusion should arise. 

Subsequently, we shall hope to recur more fully, as 
occasion may require, to the very interesting subject of 
the choristers of S. Paul's, and the various circum- 
stances attending their education and musical training. 

To those unacquainted with the choral arrange- 
ments of S. Paul's the following table may be of interest 
as showing the present disposition of the stalls of the 
various dignitaries mentioned in the foregoing account. 



OF S, PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



19 



The arrangement is, in most particulars, the same as 
that originally planned. The stalls of the Greater Dig- 
nitaries, instead of being returned at the West end of 
the choir, as formerly, are now placed in a line with 
hose of the Prebendaries, &c. 

Decani Side. 
(Beginning at the right hand on entering the choir). 

Decanns — The Dean. 

Canonicus Residentiarius I. — First Residentiary Canon. 

Canonicus Residentiarius III. — Third Residentiary Canon. 

Thesaurarius — The Treasurer. 

Canomctis Minor I. — First Minor Canon. 

Canonicus Mitior III, — Third Minor Canon. 

Unoccupied seat. 

Benedictus Dominus Deus.* 

Bonum est confiteri. 

Snlvum me fac Domine. 

Fundamenta ejus. 

Quid gloriaris in malitia. 

Cnnfitehor 7ibi in ioto. 

Dominus iliuminatio mea. 



Stall. 
I. 

2. 

3- 
4- 
S- 
6. 

7- 
8. 

9- 
lo. 
II. 

12. 

>3- 

14. 

IS- 
16. 

17- 
18. 



Prebend, of Finsbury. 

,, Chamberlainwood. 

„ Holbourn. 

„ Harleston. 

„ Portpoole. 

„ Mora. 

„ Cantlers 

Kent-Town. 

„ Twyford. 

„ Mapesbury. 

„ Oxgate. 
Unoccupied seat. 



alias 



Deus mJsereaiur nostri. 
Memento Domine, David. 
Domine ex audi. 



The Bishop's Stall. 



19- 
20. 
21. 

22. 

23- 

24. 



Unoccupied seat. 
Prebend, of Sneating. 
„ Wenlock's 

Barn. 
Prebend. of Brownswood. 
,, Rugmere. 
Eald^treet. 



Deus, Deus, Meus. 
Quamadmodutn desiderat. 

Deu^ judicium Tuumregi da. 
Ad Dominum cum tribularer. 
Dominus regnavit, exuitet 
terra. 

25. Canonicus Minor V. — Fifth Minor Canon. 

26. Canonicus Minor VII.. — Seventh Minor Canon. 

27. Canonicus Minor IX. — Ninth Minor Canon. 

* The initiatory portion of the Psalter, which each Prebendary was erijoined 
to repeat daily. The names of the stalls and Latin mottoes are inscribed in 
gold letters on a blue ground. 



20 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSKIiS 



28. Canonicu! Minor — Minor Canon (unnumbered). 

29. Uninscribed stall. 

30. Unoccupied seat. 

Thr Bishop's Throne. 



Stall. 
2 

3- 
4- 
5- 
6 

7- 
8. 

9 

10. 
II. 
12. 
13- 
14- 
15- 

16. 

17- 

18. 



Canto ms Side. 
(Beginning at the left hand on entering the choir). 

Archidiacomis Londinensis—Ths Archdeacon of Lond<in. 

Canonicus Residentiarius II. — Second Residentiary Canon, 

Pmcentor — The Precentor. 

Cancellarius — The Chancellor. 

Canonicus Minor II. — Second M inor Canon. 

Canonicus Mmor IV. — Fourth Minor Canon. 

Unoccupied seat. 

Bfatus vir. qui non abiit. 

Miserere mei^ Deus. 

Voce mea. 

Bead quorum remissa. 

Exaude, Domine, justiciam. 

Deficit in salutare anima. 

Deus sietit in Synagoea. 

In convertendo Dominus cap- 
tivitatem. 

Noli emulari. 

Confiiemini Domino, etc., di 
cant qui. 



19- 
20. 

21. 
22. 

23. 

24. 

25- 
26. 
27. 
28. 
29. 
30- 



Prebend, of Totenhall. 

Caddington Minor. 

S. Pancratius. 

Reculversland. 

Weld land. 

Hoxton. 

Ealdland. 

Islington. 



Wilsden. 
Consumpta per 
Mare. 
Unoccupied seat. 

The Lord Mayor's Stall, 
Unoccupied seat. 
Prebend, of Bromesbury, 



„ Neasden 

,, Newin'gton. 

„ Caddington Major. 

,, Chiswick. 
Archidiaconus Middlesexim. 
Canonicus Minor VIII. 



Beatus vir, qui timet Domi- 

nu7n. 
Domine, ne in furore, 
Confitemini Domino. 
Omnes gentes plaudite. 
Nonne Deo subjecta. 
The Archdeacon of Middlesex. 
Eighth Minor Canon. 



Canonicus Minor X. — Tenth Minor Canon. 
Canonicus Minor — Minor Canon (unnumbered). 
Uninscribed stall. 
Uninscribed stall. 



Previous to the removal of the organ-screen in i860, 
the western returned stalls were thus arranged : — On 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



the right hand side on entering the choir, those of the 
Dean and Archdeacon of Essex : on the left hand side, 
those of the Archdeacon of London and the Precentor. 
The three last-named stalls, however, being but rarely 
occupied by the dignitaries whose titles they bore, 
were assigned to the three Canons Residentiary, who, 
up to a certain time, held prebendal stalls in addition, 
their proper seats being in the several stalls bearing 
the names of their prebends. Thus, in the year 1834 
the Rev. Dr. Blomberg was Prebendary of Weldland, 
the Rev. Sydney Smith of Neasden, and the Rev. 
James Tate of Consumpta per Mare. The Dean, who 
up to the year 1840 held a Canonry in addition, was 
Prebend of Hoxton. This arrangement does not now 
exist. 

Before the alterations in i86o, the second of the 
South lateral, or Decani, stalls was assigned and in- 
scribed to the Treasurer ; the Archdeacon of Colches- 
ter occupying the twenty-third stall, near the extremity 
of the same range. Corresponding stalls on the North, 
or Cantoris side were for the Chancellor and Arch- 
deacon of Middlesex — the Prebendal stalls following 
on, on both sides, in the same order as at present. 

The seats for the Vicars Choral and choristers, 
together with a raised desk for the Minor Canon 
chanting the service, are placed beneath the organ in 
front of the first six Decani stalls. A similar arrange- 
ment is observed on the Cantoris side. Before the 
present order of things the Minor Canon on duty for 
the wQc\i{Hebdomadaritts) chanted the service from his 
stall, in whatever part of the choir it might be. In 
most of our Cathedrals this use is still followed. 

It is worthy of remark that, in Hollar's fine view of 
the interior of the choir of Old S. Paul's looking east, 
as given in Dugdale, no subsellia are shewn — merely a 
double range of stalls, returned at the western end, 
with desk fronts ; while a row of forms appears to con- 



22 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



stitute the remaining accommodation of the choir. It 
is possible that the Vicars sat in the stalls with the 
Minor Canons and other clergy, and that the boys 
occupied these forms below. In the foreign churches 
desk-fronts for the boys are quite the exception. 
The writer has noticed that at the cathedrals of 
Bayeux, Amiens, Beauvais, &c , the Cantors occupy 
the subsellia, with merely an iron desk in front of them 
to support the huge service books ; while the boys are 
placed on a series of low wooden pedestals. It is 
probable that such an arrangement prevailed at old S. 
Paul's. 

Before i860, the choristers' desks, handsomely 
wrought in iron, were placed in front of the subsellia 
or " long seats " (as they are familiarly termed at S. 
Paul's) towards the western end of the choir. After 
that time and until 1871, they were situated at the 
eastern end, just beyond the Bishop's stall and Lord 
Mayor's seat. The altar was in the recess, underneath 
the East window. It is now placed in the chord of 
the apse. The pulpit was at the end of the northern 
stalls opposite the Bishop's throne. 

In the midst of the choir, on the beautiful white 
marble pavement stood the great brazen eagle lectern, 
" with God's Holy Word thereon," surrounded by rail- 
ings of burnished brass, in which (facing East) was 
placed the fald-stool, for the two Minor Canons to 
chant the Litany at. When, at certain times, the sun 
shone, it gleamed full on this magnificent lectern, 
and, with its rays, flooded the sacred page, which 
illumined thus, spoke eloquently of Him who said, 
"Let there be Light." 



^ 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



CHAPTER II. 

The Organists and Composers of the Old 
Cathedral. 

The foregoing preliminary observations will help us 
to proceed with a few notes on the most important 
musicians connected from time to time with Old 
& Paul's. 

An honoured name meets us on the threshold. It 
is that of John Redford, who was organist, almoner, 
and master of the choristers between the years 1491 
and 1547. The only composition, unhappily, by 
which Redford is now remembered appears to be a 
singularly beautiful, melodious, and (for the early 
period at which it was written) expressive motett, 
" Rejoice in the Lord alway." This composition has, 
of late, been most judiciously revived at S. Paul's — 
having lain long neglected — and is sung occasionally 
at the unaccompanied services on Fridays. It is also 
used as an Introit during the season of Advent, at 
which period it is particularly appropriate 

This anthem is in the key of C major, and it is not 
unlikely that Purcell was indebted for some of its 
sweet phrases, when writing his ever-charming "Bell 
Anthem " to the same words many years later. Sir 
John Hawkins inserted it in his History of Musk, as 
an illustration of the Church style prevalent in the 
middle of the fifteenth century. Dr. Rimbault like- 
wise printed it in the fine collection of pieces by 
English and Italian composers of the same period, 
edited by him for the Motet Society in 1842. 

A practice existed in Redford's time of impressing 
choristers in various parts of the country, for the 



24 THE OMGAiVJUTS AXD COMPOSERS 

service of S. Paul's and the Royal Chapels, when 
" sondrie men " with " placards " or warrants were 
empowered to seize all boys with good " brestes " or 
voices. 

Thomas Tusser, the well-known author of the Five 
Hundred Points of Husbandrie was, as he himself 
tells us, in the following quaint rhyme, one of the im- 
pressed boys : — 

" Thence,* for my voyce, I must (no choice) 
Away of force, like posting horse, 
Kor sondrie men had placards then 

Such childe to take : 
The better breste, the lesser test, 
To serve the Queene, now there, now here : 
for tyme so spent I may repent, 
And sorrow make. 

" But mark the chance, myself to 'vance. 
By friendship's lot to Paule's 1 got ; 
So found I grace a certain space 

Still to remain 
With Redford there, the like nowhere 
For cunning such, and virtue much, 
By whom some part of Mustek's art 

So did I gain. 

" From Paule's I went to Eton sent. 

To learn straightways the Latin phrase," etc. 

Some of John Redford's compositions for "the 
organs " were included in a manuscript collection 
made by Thomas Mulliner, Master of S. Paul's 
School If.e., the Cathedral School), who succeeded 
him as Almoner. 

Mulliner trained many pupils who, in after years 
enriched the Tudor period with their various com- 
positions. It has been affirmed by some historians 
that Tallis received his musical education at S. Paul's 
under this personage, but there is no satisfactory 
evidence to support the assertion. 

from Walliiigford. 



OF S. PAULS OATHEimAL. 



William Byrde, Tallis' great friend and contem- 
porary was, no doubt, a chorister. Dr. Rimbault 
mentions that some of our musical historians have 
overlooked the fact of his being attached to the choir 
of Old S. Paul's, and accordingly treat it as a matter 
of some surprise that his name should not occur in 
the list of Queen Mary's Chapel establishment. Byrde 
was Senior Chorister of S. Paul's in 1554, when his 
age would have been about fifteen years, and his name 
appears at the head of the school in a petition for the 
restoration of certain obits and benefactions, which 
had been seized under the Act for the Suppression of 
Colleges and Hospitals in the reign of King Henry 
Vin. This petition, which is preserved among the 
records of the Exchequer, was granted and confirmed 
by letters patent 14th Eliz. (printed in Dugdale's 
S. PauTs : edition of 1818), and the payments con- 
tinued to be received by Mr. Hawes, the Almoner of 
S. Paul's, in 1846. 

Byrde must have been endowed with extraordinary 
musical precocity, for, we find that, while a chorister 
of S. Paul's, between 1553 and 1558, he composed a 
short Mass which was printed by the Musical Anti- 
quarian Society in 1841, being the first of a series of 
archaic publications issued by that body. 

Among Redford's predecessors was one John Goode, 
who appears to have held in combination the offices of 
Minor Canon, Junior Cardinal, and Custos (or War- 
den) of the College ; Succentor, Almoner, and Master 
of the Choristers. The following inscription on his 
monument, in the South aisle of S. Faith's Church, 
underneath old S. Paul's, was given by Dugdale : — 

Perpetuis Annis — memores estote Johannis 

Goode, Succentoris — Cardinalisque Minoris 

Canonici, cujus — ope nomen duke JESU jus 

Hie habet, et colitur — per et hunc Eleemosyna scitur 

Distribui, Tutor fuit et Puerisque ; Minorum 

Collcgii Custos, dum vixit Canonicomm. 

Hinc migrat M. C. quater LXque Decembris : seterna 

Virgo Dei Mater prsestet sibi regna superna. 



26 THE OROAmSTS AND COMPOSERS 



Edward Pearce (or Piers) succeeded Mulliner as 
Almoner. According to The Old Cheque Book of the 
Chapel Royal, it appears that he had been one of the 
Gentlemen of that choir, and " yealded up his place 
there, for the Mastership of the children of Poules " 
in the year 1600. One of his most eminent pupils 
was Thomas Ravenscroft, who, in 1621, compiled 
The Whole Booke of Fsalms. No doubt many of 
these grand, massive old tunes were sung at the out- 
door sermons at Paul's Cross, when, according to 
Master Thomas Mace, author of " Musick's Monu- 
ment," five thousand voices sometimes poured foith 
their praises to God, in one mighty strain of melody.* 

Martin Pierson,| Mus.B., was Almoner in 1613. 
In 1630 he printed a collection of music with the 
following singular title : — Mottects, or grave Chambre 
Musique, contayning Songes of 5 Partes of severall 
Sortes, some ful and some Verse, or Chorus, but all 
fyt for Voyces and Viols wyth an Organ Parte, 
which, for want of Organs, may be perforin'' d on Vir- 
ginals, Base Lute, Pandora or Irish Harpe. Also a 
Mourning Song of Sixe Parts for the Death of the late 
Right Honorable Sir Fulke Grevil, Knt. 

Somewhat anterior to the above appeared another 
work of Pierson's, viz., Private Musique or the First 
Booke of Ayres and Dialogues, contayning Songes of 4, 
5, and 6 Partes of severall sortes, and being Verse and 
Chorus is fyt for Voices and Viols. And for want of 
Viols they may be perform' d to either the Virginall or 
Lute, where the proficient can play upon the Ground, 
or, for a shift, to the Bass Viol alone. All made and 

• " You may now sometimes see at S. Paul's Cross, after the service, six 
thousand persons, old and young, of both sexes, all singing together and 
praising God." — Extract of a letter fi-om John Jewell, Bishop of Salisbury, to 
Peter Martyr, 1560. A full account of that most interesting relic of the 
past, S. Paul's Cross (the foundations of which were discovered at the N. E. 
angle of the Cathedral in 1879), and of the sermons preached there, may be 
read in Dr. Simpson's Chapters in the History of Old S. Paul's. 

t Several variaiions occur among historians, in the spelling of the name 
of this composer ; such as Peerson, Peirson, Pearson, and Person. 



OF S. PAULS CAThEDRAL. 



composed according to ye rules of Art. The last piece 
in the above collection, we are informed by the com- 
poser was " made for the King and Queene's Enter- 
taynment at Highgate on May Day, 1604," 

The words of The Mourning Song ("More than most 
fair ") and those of several others in the two collections 
mentioned above, will be found in Mr. A. H. Bullen's 
tasteful publication. Lyrics from the Elizabethan Song 
Books (1886), and in a second series bearing the same 
title (1888). 

Pierson's Church compositions include a Service in 
medio chori in the key of A minor, and two motetts or 
anthems, " Blow up the trumpet," and " Bow Thine 
ear." None of the above have ever been printed, but 
copies are preserved in the magnificent MS. collection 
of Tudor and Stuart Church Music, in the library of 
Peterhouse College, Cambridge. 

Pierson wrote some esteemed madrigals, among 
which "O sweetly sleep" has long been popular. He 
contributed (together with Byrde, Dowland, Gibbons, 
Wilbye, Ferabosco, and others) to licighton's Teares 
or Lamentacions of a sorrowful soule, and, dying in the 
latter part of the year 1650 was buried in S. Faith's 
Church, beneath the choir of the Cathedra',. He 
appears to have bequeathed a legacy of ;^ioo to the 
poor of Marsh, in the parish of Dunnington, Isle of 
Ely, "to be laid out in a purchase for their use." 

Martin Pierson's tenure of the Almonry stretched 
considerably into the Protectorate, during which time 
the choral service was suppressed at S. Paul's, as it 
was at every other cathedral. The endowments 
of the office, however, do not appear to have been 
sequestered by the Parliament, so during the latter por- 
tion of his career he probably enjoyed the emoluments 
without being required to fulfil any of his duties. 

Pierson's successor, Randall or Randolph Jewett, 
endeavoured to hold the mastership on the same easy 



28 THE ORaAXISTS AND COMPOSERS 



terms, but, at the Restoration was " peremptorily sum- 
moned by the Dean and Chapter to return to London, 
and settle there, and to do the duty of his place in 
teaching and preparing choristers for the service of 
the Cathedral." 

Contemporary with Martin Pierson, during the 
reigns of the first two Stuart sovereigns, flourished 
Simon Ives, and Thomas Cranford, who were both 
Vicars-Choral of Old S. Paul's. Many glees, catches, 
and rounds by Ives were printed in the famous collec- 
tion made by John Hilton in 1652, entitled Catch that 
Catch can. One of his catches, " Come, honest 
friends," has been included in many collections, ancient 
and modern, and is very spirited. Cranford was a com- 
poser of a similar type, but no Church music of im- 
portance by either of them appears to be extant. 

Slovenliness and irreverence in choirs are usually 
looked upon as the characteristic features of the Geor- 
gian period of churchmanship. These things, however, 
existed in the later days of Old S. Paul's, and the MS. 
returns at Bishop Bancroft's Visitation in rsgS are 
very sorry reading. 'I he services were, no doubt, 
kept up at the usual hours, but evidence of careless- 
ness and neglect is everywhere visible. The boys of 
the choir spent "their tyme in talk and hunting after 
spur-money, even in service-tyme ; the hallowinge and 
hootinge above in the steeple " were " intollorable at 
dyvers tymes." "In the upper quier where the comon 
(communion) table doth stand," there were "much irre- 
verente people walking with theyr hattes on their 
heddes, commonly all ye service-tyme, no man reprov- 
ing them for yt." The organ was so misused in the 
blowing and other ways, with jogging the bellows, that 
the bellows were broken; the bell ringers admitted 
persons into the organ-loft for money, to the decay of 
the instrument, the pipes being many of them under- 
foot, to the hazarding of the people below ; the choir- 



OP s. I'avl's cathedral. 29 



men came late to prayers " which causeth the service to 
continue long beyond his houre or maketh them irre- 
verently to knitt yt up " ; they were irreverent in their 
behaviour and " did use great undecencye in prayer- 
tyme, such as leaninge upon theyr elbowes, sleepinge, 
talkinge, and such-like to the scandal of the Church." 

Another writer at the above visitation frankly avows 
as follows : — " Item ; We be for the most parte of us 
very slacke in cominge into the queere after the bell 
is towlde, and when we be there, dyvers thinke the 
service very longe till they be gotten out of yt againe." 

A few words on the term "Spur-money," inci- 
dentally mentioned in the foregoing quotations. 

In a quaint pamphlet published in 1598, entitled 
The Children of the Chapel stript and whipt, occurs 
the following passage : — 

We think yt very necessayre that euerie querister should 
bringe wyth him to Church a Testament in English, and turne 
to euerie chapter as it is daily read, or some other good and 
Godly prayer booke, rather them spend theyr tyme in talk and 
hunting after "spur-money," whereon they set theyr whole mindes, 
and do often abuse yvers, if they doe not bestowe somewhat on 
them.* 

In 1622 the Dean of the Chapel Royal issued an 
order by which it was decreed : 

That if any Knight or other person entituled to wear spurs, 
enter ye Chappetl in that guise, he shall pay to ye quiristers ye 
accustomed fine ; but if he command ye youngest quirister to 
repeate hys '■ gamut,"t and he faile in ye so doing, the said Knight, 
or other, shall not pay ye fine. 

* The chpri-:ters of S. Paul's appear to have been most peremptory in 
their demand for spur money, and threatened imprisonment in the choir for 
one night to all who refused to give it them. 

t Gamut, i.e., gamma ut, the note G, which wa"? the Ut or Do of the 
lowest hexachord of the ancieiit system of Guido d'Arezzo. As these hexa- 
chords in ascending overlapped one another, and as the notes were named 
by cartoning the overlapping names, the task was a fair test of the boy's 
musical knowledge,' and amourted to the same thing as askng a sailor to 
box the compass. With many of our old cathedral musicians " gamut " 
means the key of G. Blow's Service in G (printed in Boyce's Cathedral 
Munc^ Vol. I., pp. 252 — 281), is commonly called his ''Gamut Service." 
The term is fast becoming obsolete. 



30 THB ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

The above curious extract is from the ancient 
Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal, and the following 
is an illustration of it. On one occasion the Duke of 
Wellington (who, by the way, like his father the Earl of 
Mornington, was an excellent musician), entered the 
Chapel Royal, S. James', "booted and spurred," and 
was, of course, called upon for the fine. His Grace, 
however, was equal to the occasion, and calling upon 
the youngest chorister to repeat his gamut, and " the 
little urchin " failing, the impost was not demanded. 
At some of our cathedrals, Peterborough for example, 
the custom lingered as late as 1850, and whenever a 
boy entered the choir of S. Paul's until comparatively 
recently, he was informed by his seniors that he was 
quite entitled to Spur-money — that is, if he could 
get it. _ 

Resuming our account of the musicians of Old S. 
Paul's, we come to Thomas Morley, who, after Red- 
ford, seems to have been the first organist of any im- 
portance. He probably received his primary educa- 
tion as a chorister and appears to have been organist 
of the Cathedral for some years previous to 1591. 
We learn from Nichols' Progresses, published in that 
year, that Queen Elizabeth, happening to be at Elve- 
tham in Hampshire, heard " a notable consort of six 
musicians," which so highly pleased her that "she 
gave a new name unto one of those Pavans made 
long since by Maister Thos. Morley then organist of 
S. Paul's Church." 

Morley graduated as Bachelor in Music at Oxford 
in 1588, and, soon after the year 1591 left S. Paul's, 
on his appointment as Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, of which same place he became, in the follow- 
ing year, Gospeller. He remained at the Royal Chapel 
until 1602, in which year, according to some, his 
death took place ; other historians, however, have 
asserted that this event occurred two years later. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 3 1 

None of Morley's Church compositions were 
printed during his life-time. Two services and an 
anthem '' Out of the deep," were included in the 
famous collection made by Minor Canon Barnard in 
1641, and a fine, solemn Burial Service was published 
by Dr. Boyce in the first volume of his Cathedral 
Music in 1760. This latter is now, however, but 
seldom sung, the famous joint composition of Croft 
and Purcell having taken its place. 

It is upon his Madrigals that the fame of Morley 
as an English composer mainly rests. He published, 
in 1594, Madrigals to Foure Voyces, and in 1601 
edited the famous collection known as The Triumphs 
of Oriana, or Aiadrigales to five and six Voyces con- 
posed by divers severall authors. The contributors to 
this work were the following : — John Benet, Thomas 
Weelkes, George Kirbye, Richard Carlton, Edward 
Johnson, Michael Cavendish, John Lisley, John 
Farmer, John Hilton, Robert Jones, Thomas Hunr, 
Thomas Bateson, John Milton (father of the poet), 
Michael Este, John Mundy, Ellis Gibbons, Richard 
Nichol-on, Thomas Tomkins, John Wilbye, George 
Marson, John Holmes, Francis Pilkington, Daniel 
Norcome and William Cobbold. They were all 
eminent composers, flourishing during the Tudor 
and early Stuart periods, and some of tht-m held 
C'''urch appointments. A fine edition of the Triumphs 
of Oriana was published by William Hawes in 1815, 
together with a preface containing much interesting 
bibliographical matter. 

Morley likewise published several books of Ay res, 
Fa Las, Ballets and Canzonets, a collection of the last- 
named, together with some madrigals, being newly 
edited about 18 16 by the Rev. William Woollams 
Holland, a Minor Canon of Chichester Cathedral, 
from 1809 to 1855. 

Morley's Plaine and Easie Introduction to Practicall 



THE OROANISTS AND COMPOSEliS 



Musique long held its ground as a text book. It was 
originally published in 1597, with a dedication to 
" the most excellent musician Maister William Birde." 
It was translated into several languages,and an edition 
was demanded so late as 1771. It was divided into 
three parts. " The first (so runs the title) teacheth 
to sing with all things necessarie for the knowledge of 
prickt song. The second treateth of descante and to 
sing two partes in one upon a plainsong or ground, 
with other things necessarie for a descanter. The 
third and last parte entreateth of compositions of three, 
foure, five, or more partes, with many profitable rules 
to that effect. With new songes of 2, 3, 4, and 5 
partes." 

The Rev. J. W. Burgon * in his Life and Times of 
Sir Thomas Greskam, 1839 (vol. ii., p. 465) speaking 
of the famous parishioners and inhabitants of the great 
merchant's locality, viz., the parish of S. Helen, 
Bishopsgate, says — " To this brilliant catalogue must 
be added the interesting name of Thomas Morley, 
the celebrated musician and writer of Madrigals ; who, 
as the parish register informs us, resided with his 
family in S. Helens : and often must Crosby Hall have 

re-echoed his sweet strains What is 

remarkable, William Byrde was also an inhabitant 
of the same parish, and it is well known that Wilbye 
the composer lived hard by.+ These facts harmonize 
well with Gresham's endowed lectureship for the pro- 
motion of the divine art, which Morley, Byrde, and 
Wilbye cultivated with so much success." 

Thomas Morley should not be confused with 
William Morley, one of the Gentlemen of the Chapel 
Royal in the time of George I., and the composer of 
the penitential double chant in D minor, supposed to 
be the earliest instance of that species of composition 

* Formerly Vicar of S. Mary the Virgin, Oxford, and late Dean of 
Chichester. 

t In Austin Friars. — J. S. B. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 33 



known. A similar piece of music by the Rev. Luke 
Flintoft (one of the Minor Canons of Westminster 
Abbey in 1727), is probably coeval with it. 

To William Mundy, a Vicar Choral of S. Paul's in 
1561, has been assigned by some (among them^ Bar- 
nard) the little Compline Anthem in the Key of G 
minor, " O Lord the Maker of all things," but which 
Dr. Tudway, Dean Aldrich, and Dr. Boyce have un- 
hesitatingly attributed to King Henry VIII. , whose 
skill in Church music is well known. From recent 
research, however, on the part of Dr. Armes, organist 
of Durham Cathedral, it seems that the anthem in 
question was composed by neither of the above per- 
sonages, but was the undoubted work of John Shep- 
harde, organist of Magdalen College, Oxford, in the 
middle of the sixteenth century. The circumstance 
of the words of the anthem being contained in the 
Compline Service in " Henry the Eighth's Primer," 
has, no doubt given rise to the error of its attribution 
to the King. 

Mundy, like many of his contemporaries, was one 
who, though outwardly conforming to the Reformed 
worship, retained a secret preference for that of the 
Church of Rome, since he is mentioned by Morley in 
his Introduction, together with Tallis, Byrde, and 
others as " never having thought it greater sac- 
riledge to spurne against the image of a Saint, 
than to take two perfect cordes of one kinde 
together.'" 

The compositions of Mundy, and those of all the 
musicians previously named, were probably among 
the first written to English words for the needs of the 
Reformed service, Latin having been the language 
hitherto uiyversally employed for Church use. 

William Mundy's son John, was the successor of 
Marbecke (author of the Booke of Gommon Fraier, 
Noted, 1550) as organist of the Free Chapel of S. 



34 TJIE ORGANISTS ANI) COMPOSERS 

George at Windsor. Both rnusicians are mentioned 
in some quaint rhymes at the end of a manuscript 
collection of motetts and madrigals transcribed in 
1591 by John Baldwine one of the lay clerks of S. 
George's. Recounting the celebrated composers of 
his time, he says : — 

I wi)l begine with White, Shepherd, Tye, and Tallis, 
Parsons, Gyles, Mundie, th'oulde one of the Queene's pallis ; 
Mundie yonge, th'oulde man's Sonne, and likewyse may moe, 
Their names would be too longe, therefore I let them goe. 

John Tomkins was organist of old S. Paul's from 
162 1 until 1624, in which year he resigned his post 
to become " Gentleman Extraordinary " of the Chapel 
Royal "for the next place of organist there." He 
came of a large and noted family of musicians. His 
father, Thomas Tomkins, for some time the Royal 
organist, and latterly of Worcester Cathedral, was the 
composer of a large nuinber of original services and 
anthems which were published in five separate parts, 
viz., four for the voices and one for the organ, in 1664; 
under the title of Musica Deo Sacra et Ecdesia Angli- 
caruz; or Music dedicated to the Honour and Service of 
God, and to the Use of Cathedrals and other Churches 
of England especially the Chapel Royal of King Charles 
I. This collection is now very rarely met with. It 
contained five complete Services,* and no less than 
one hundred and four full and verse anthems, for 
I, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, lo, and 12 voices.! The 
work was published posthumously, and Dr. Rim- 
bault surmises that it was edited by his nephew 
Thomas, who rose to be Chancellor of Exeter Cathe- 

* One of these, in the key of C, was printed by the Rev. Sir F. A, Gore 
Ouseley in his Collection of Services hy EnglUh Masters, folio, 1853. 

+ Of his anthems the three following fr-r five voices, were printed by the 
Rev. Sir Wm. H. Cope, M.A., Part. (Minor Canon of S. Peter's Westmin- 
ster), in his Collection, entitled, Anthems by Eminent Composers of the English 
Church, 8vo, 1849 :— " CTreatand marvellous," " He that hath pity," and " O 
Lord, I have loved the habitation." 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



35 



dral, and Rector of Lambeth until his death in 1675. 
It was advertised in 1666 " to be had at the Chaunter's 
house, Westminster." 

When John Tomkins died he received the rare 
compliment of burial in S. Paul's. None of his works 
have been handed down to us, so we are unable to 
form any estimate of his abilities as a composer, but 
he must have possessed some powers as a performer 
since he was described on his monument as " orga- 
nista sui temporis celeberimus," and on which it was 
further stated that he " ad cselestum chorum migravit, 
Septembris 27, a.d. 1638, setatis suae, 52." The fore- 
going inscription is mentioned by Dugdale in his 
S. Paul's, as being inscribed upon a marble stone in 
the North aisle, "super lapidum marmoreum in ala 
Boreali." 

In the days of which we are now treating, the 
organ in S. Paul's was placed over the North choir- 
stalls,* at their eastern extremity. The great organ 
case was of a handsome mediaeval design, and har- 
monized admirably with the exquisite Middle Pointed 
architecture of the choir. It had folding doors, to 



'^ At Canterbury Cathedral the organ, for many years, occupied a posi- 
tion similar to that of o'd S. Paul's (see the view of the interior of the choir 
looking East, given in Dart's History and Antiquities of the Cathedral Church 
of Canterbury, folio, 1726). It had a fine old Georgian case of a design 
similar to that of Worc-ster, before it was ruthle-s.sly destroyed, like those of 
many of our cathedrals, at restorations, and miserable caseless rows of 
pipes, often gaudily coloured, substituted for ihe grand old woodwork, as at 
Durham, for example. At Canterbury, the clioir-organ was corbelled 
out over the Northern stalls (or rather Corinihian wainscoting) put up, 
with the best intentions, by Archbishop Tenison in 1704. There was much 
excellent carving by Grinling Gibbons in these stalls, but they completely 
hid Prior de Estria's lovely and matchless screen (constructed 1304-5) which 
ran thewhole length of both sides of the choir, and which formed a more perfect 
finish to the lower woodwork than anything that could possibly be devised. 
The organ, rebuilt by Samuel Green, was tran^lerred to the western screen in 
1784, and in 18^8, Tenison's stall-work was removed, with the exception of 
tlie western return-stalls (which, happily, wertf left, and of which the effect 
is still admirable) thus disclosing to view Prior de Estria's dr-licate work as 
we now see it. Comparative'y recently the choir of Canterbury has been 
reseated throughout, and Tenison's iiibsella wholly removed. Larger 
seats have been placed for the choristers, in lieu of the old ones with the 
handsome brass book-desks (similar to those of S. Paul's up to 1871) which 



36 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

preserve the pipes from dust, which were closed when 
the instrument was not in use, and which were no 
doubt gorgeously illuminated with figures of saints 
and angels playing on various musical instruments. 
In some of the old engravings of the interior of the 
choir, these doors are depicted as standing open, 
thereby giving the organ the appearance of a triptich. 
Overhanging the richly-carved stalls was a small choir 
organ, forming, as at present, a screen for the per- 
former. A somewhat similar organ case, designed by 
Pugin was placed in the beautifully-restored chapel 
of Jesus College, Cambridge, in 1849. 

Tomkins was succeeded in the organistship by that 
good, honest old Church composer, Adrian Batten, 
who was born at Winchester about 1590, and educated 
as a chorister of the Cathedral under John Holmes. 
According to an old organ-book formerly in the pos- 
session of Mr. Hawes, Almoner of S. Paul's, Holmes 
was " organist of Winchester and afterwards of Salis- 
berrie" in the days of good Queen Bess. In this 
same book it was stated that some "songes of Mr. 
John Holmes were prickt from his own pricking in ye 
yeare 1635 by Mr. Adrian Batten, one of ye Vickers 

figure in Dart's view, and also in a very fine eneraving of the interior o 
the choir, taken from a similar pnint and published by Ward of Canterbury 
(1832) in the possession of the writer. 

At Westminster Abbey the organ was over the northern stalls until 1737, 
when a new instrument was erected upon the screen by Schreider and Jordan. 
At Winchester the organ has occupied a like pcsilion from time immemorial, 
and when Dr. S. S. Wesley proposed to remove it to the screen in 1849, he 
was unable to carry out his scheme, owing to strong opposition. At Win- 
chester College theorgjan is in the same position. At S. David's it was over 
the northern stalls until the recent erection upon Bishop Gower's magnificent 
rood-screen of a modern instrument by Willis. The side position has been 
adopted since the restorations at Bristol, Hereford, Durham, Chichester, 
Chester, Bangor, S. Asaph, LlandaflF, Worcester, Ely, Lichfield, and Salis- 
bury, in all of which cathedrals the organ had previously been placed upon 
the choir screen. The only cathedral organs retaining their original posi- 
tion on the screen now, are Gloucester, Exeter, York, Norwich. Peter- 
borough, Lincoln, Rochester, Wells, Carlisle, Manchester, Ripon, and 
Southwell. Likewise S. George's Chapel, Windsor, and several of tlie Co'- 
lege Chapels of Oxford and Cambridge. At Eton College the organ has 
been removed more than once, but is now upon the screen. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 37 

of S. Paule's in London, who, some tyme was his 
schoUer." 

In 1604 Batten came to London, and was installed 
as a lay vicar of Westminster Abbey, of which 
church Edmund Hooper was then organist. Twenty 
years later he removed to S. Paul's on being appointed 
organist and vicar choral there. He remained at the 
metropolitan cathedral until his death, which took 
place in 1637.* Some of Batten's biographers have 
asserted that he was living in the reign of King 
Charles II., "f but this statement is by no means likely 
to be correct, as several of his compositions were in- 
cluded in Barnard's Church Music {1641) and in which, 
as we shall presently see, no services or anthems by 
composers living at the time of its publication were in- 
cluded. This circumstance will, therefore, preclude 
the possibility of Batten's death at a later date. 

Adrian Batten wrote a considerable quantity of 
Church music in the pure and solemn style of Tallis. 
At Westminster his service and several of his anthems 
have been in constant use, most probably since the 
time they were first composed, and it is pleasant to 
think that they are still frequently drawn upon. At 
S. Paul's, however, he appears to be completely 
ignored. It is to be hoped that the present Succentor, 
who has, of late, made a few judicious revivals of 
old anthems, will, some day, restore Batten's 
compositions to their place in the daily cathedral 
service, and thus rescue them from the oblivion 
into which they have most undeservedly fallen. 

The Service, to which a passing allusion has just 
been made, is, in what is known to musicians, as the 
Dorian Mode, t'.e., the key of D minor formed out of 

* Dr. Boyce who is usually so accurate, has fallen into this error. 
t Several authorities give the year 1640 as that of Batten's death. It is, 
however, probable that 1637 is more correct ; for, on July 22nd of that 
year, letters of administration of the estate of Adrian Batten late of the 
parish of S. Sepulchre's, London, deceased, were granted by the Prerogative 
Court of Canterbury to John Gilbert of the City of Salisbury, clothier, with 
the consent of Edward, John and William Batten, his brothers. 



38 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



the notes of the scale of C, and like that of Tallis in 
the same mode, is written for the most part in the 
manner designated by Italian composers as lo stile 
famigliare, or in other words, in simple counterpoint 
of the first species, note against note, with little or no 
striving after effect, ingenious contrivances, or learned 
complications. Batten's music would, of course, be 
voted by admirers of the present advanced school of 
Church music as exceedingly dry, expressionless, and 
uninteresting ; but for use at certain seasons of the 
Church it is invaluable, its unworldly grandeur and 
solemnity of harmony being its great charm. 

Batten's morning service contains a setting of the 
Benedidus as well as the Jubilate, and the Commu- 
nion Service is completed by a Gloria in Excehis. 
Settings of the last-named hymn are rarely found 
among the works of any of our Cathedralists until 
those of the present day, choral celebrations having 
been formerly quite the exception. Tallis' celebrated 
service, written considerably anterior to that of Batten, 
is the only early one published in which the Euchar- 
istic Office is set chorally throughout. 

The Benedidus received considerable attention ai 
the hands of Tudor and Elizabethan composers, and 
we have some magnificent specimens, such as Gibbons 
in F, and Barrant in G minor ; in fact, these early 
Church musicians preferred the Betiedidus to the 
J'ubilate, but they rarely set both canticles when com- 
posing music for the morning service. Hence, Batten's 
service is valuable and interesting in two respects.* 



1. ,c Y^'i^ "^'' P""^' °'^ '''^ '7th, the whole of the i8th, and the first 

half of the present centuries, that most beautiful canticle the Benedictus, 
almost entirely dropped out of use as regards musical settings. The follow 
mg exainples, however, may be mentioned :— •Purcell in B fiat (c. i68o) ■ 
Aldrich m E minor (c. 1690) ; Nalsrn, Priest Vicar of York in G (1722) ' 
Rosfingrave, organist of Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, in F and C (c 
'74°); Bishop, organist of Winchester, in D (c. 1730); *Woodward, organist 
of Christ Church Cathedra , Dublin, in B flat (c. 1,71); «Dr. John Smith, 
Vicar Choral of S. Patricks Cathedral, Dublin, in B flat (c. UI37) ; *Wal- 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 39 

Three of Batten's anthems were printed by Boyce 
in his Cathedral Music, while several others were given 
among the Parish Choir Music (1846 — 1850), and in 
an excellent and tasteful collection edited, about the 
same period, by the Rev. Sir W. H. Cope, Bart, then 
Minor Canon and Librarian of Westminster, and now 
Vicar of Bramshill in Hampshire. 

The following is a list of Church compositions by 
Batten, which have been printed in modern times. 

SERVICE. 

In D minor. Te Deum, Beriedictus, Jubilate, Kyrie, Credo, 
Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis, Magnificat and Nunc Dimitris. 
(Printed by Juhn Goss and Jamrs Turle in their collection 
of Services and Anthems, Ancient and Modern, 2 vols, 1848. 

ANTHEMS. 
Deliver us, Lord* (full k 4 v). ) p^j^j^j ;„ g .^ ^^^^ j^ 
ffear my Prayer {(Mb. Sv) I Vol. II. ; in the ParisA 
Opraue the Lord, all ye heathen i f.^^- ^„j elsewhere, 
(full k 4 v). J 

Haste Thee, O God (full k 4 v). 1 

Let my complaint (ditto). 

Lord, we beseech Thee (ditto). Printed in the Rev. Sir W. 



Lord, who shall dwell {ivW'kd^').^ H. Cope's Anthems by 
Sing we merrily {{ul\ 3.4 v), com- f Eminent Composers of the 

posed 1623. English Church, Svo, 1847. 

When the Lord turned again \ 

(full k 4 v). J 

My soul truly waiieth (full k 4 v.) printed in the Parish [Choir 
Music. 

mislev in D (1843) ; *Elvey in F (c. 1844) ; *Slatter, Priest Vicar of Exeter, 
in F (c. 1848) ; *Ouseley in B minor (1853). Those_ marked with an asttrisk 
have been printed. Now-a-days a morning service is hardly considered 
complete without tlie Bmedictus, and many of the modern examples -sung at 
S. Paul's, such as Barnby, Staiiier, Martin, Seiby, Calkin, Tours, Garrett, 
etc., are of extreme beauty. 

* Dr. Gauntlett, edited in 1846 for Burns' Services and Anthems, a copy 
of " Deliver us O Lord," but completely spoilt it, by altering its fine poetical 
rhythm to a perfect drawl. He took away the old Dorian vigour of the 
opening phrase by putting in B fiat, and utterly unnerved its harmony . 
(vide word " God ") by substituting F for D in thebass. To the^mind of 
the writer Batten wanted none of Dr. Gauntleti's "improvements." Com- 
pare this copy with that furnished by Boyce. 



40 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

In Barnard's Church Music and in a large manu- 
script collection intended by the same compiler as 
materials for a second volume of a similar character, 
were given nearly all the aforesaid compositions by 
Batten, with the following additional ones : — 

SERVICES. 

Kyrie and Nicene Creed. 
Short Service for men's voices 
(dated July 15 th, 1622).* 



A short Service, 
First Verse Sei~uice. 
Second Verse Service. 



ANTHEMS. 



God, Thou art my righteous- 
ness. 

*Q how happy a thing it is. 

praise the Lord, laud ye. 

praise God in His holiness. 

'^Out of the deep. 

* Praise the Lord, my soul. 

*Turn Thou us. Good Lord 
(for Ash Wednesday). 



Almighty God (composed in 

the Plague Time, 1625). 
Christ our Paschal Lamb. 
Godliness is great riches. 
*Have mercy upon me, O God. 
Hear the prayers, our God. 
Hide not Thou Thy face. 
Lord, / am not high minded, 
O clap your hands. 
God, the King of Glory, 

In the magnificent manuscript collection of early 
English Church music at Peterhouse College, Cam- 
bridge, are to be found the following compositions by 
Batten. (Those pieces indicated by an asterisk in 
the foregoing list, are also included in the Peterhouse 
collection) : — 

SERVICES, 
t A Litany in F (printed by the Rev. John Jebb, D.D., in his 

Choral Responses and Litanies of the Church of England, 

Vol I., 1847). 
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in G minor. 
Christ rising, (Easter anthem, according to the Prayer Book 

Version, before the final review). 

* Possibly this service was written for one of the ** play weeks " or holi. 
days after certain festivals. No doubt the children of the choir of S. Paul's 
enjoyed their holidays and their half-holidays in 1622 as they do at tlie 
present day. 

\ It must not be supposed that the Litany in ordinary use was the only 
composition of the kind ever written. Many of our organists, etc., wrote 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



41 



ANTHEMS. 



Blessed are all those. 

Heat my prayer, and with 

Thine ears. 
Holy, Holy, Holy (for Trinity 

Sunday), 
Jesus said {fax S. Peter's Day). 



I heard a voice Jrom heaven 
(for Michaelmas Day). 

Lord, let me know mine end. 

O Lord, Thou hast searched me 
out. 

Ponder my words. 



A very curious old organ-book in the possession 
of the writer contains Batten's first verse service 
mentioned above, and a large number of his anthems, 
including two or three not given by Barnard. The 
same book comprises a very florid and curious accom- 
paniment to Gibbons' service in F, which, by the 
way, is transposed from F into G. 

Burney, the musical historian, did not entertain a 
very exalted opinion of Batten's Church music when 
he wrote that he was " a good harmonist of the old 
school, without adding anything to the common stock 
of ideas, both in melody or harmony, with which 
the art was furnished long before he was born. Nor 
did he correct the errors with which former times 
abounded." This criticism, like many of Burney's is 
hardly just. Batten's service and his anthems, " Hear 
my prayer," and " Lord we beseech Thee," are quite 



settings of the Litany — some obselete, others still in constant use. At the 
cathedral of Lichfield a sequence of four is in use on Sundays, Wednesdays, 
and Fridays, comprising those of Tallis, Wanless, Loosemore, and W. King, 
besides the common Litany. Thit of Wanless (organist of ^York Minster, 
c. X700) in C minor, is eminently touching and beautiful, as is also that of 
Loosemore (organist of Exeter Cathedral after the Restoration) in D minor. 
Samuel Wesley wrote a very fine Litany, a fact which may not be generally 
known. 

At Durham Cathedral, the Litany is chanted by two Minor Canons ; at 
York by two Priest Vicars Chora] ; at Lincoln by two Lay Vicars ; and at 
Lichfield and Exeter by one Priest Vicar and one Lay Vicar. At S. Paul's 
the Litany was ordered, at Bishop Compton's visitation in 1696, to be sung 
by " two Minor Canons in the midst of the choir." This beautiful custom 
has of recent years been disused, the only survival of it being the chanting of 
the Litany at the faldstool, as far as the Lord's Prayer, by the Minor 
Canon officiating at the Lectern ; the remainder being sung by the Minor 
Canon who has previously chanted the prayers. The readf r should, if pos- 
sible, consult Dr. Jebb s learned and valuable work^ The Choral Hesponses 
and Litanies of tJie Church of England, 2 vols, folio, 1847-57, for further 
information on the above subject. 



42 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



equal in pathos and construction to anything pro- 
duced by contemporary musicians. Indeed, an exa- 
mination of the above scores will prove that many of 
his progressions, harmonies, and modulations evince 
a considerable amount of daring for the period at 
which he wrote. That Batten was not wholly unin- 
fluenced by Orlando Gibbons (for a short time con- 
temporary with him at Westminster Abbey) may be 
seen in several of the phrases of his little festival 
anthem in the key of F, " Sing we merrily unto God, 
our strength." 

Allusion has been made more than once in the 
course of these papers to Barnard's collection of 
Church music. It is now time to describe that 
famous work in full, for its compiler was one of the 
Minor Canons of S. Paul's in 1641. Unfortunately, 
no further details of his career are forthcoming. 

The full title of this collection was as follows : — 
The First Booke of Selected Church Mustek, consisting 
of such Services and Anthems, as are now in use in the 
Cathedrall and Colle^att Churches of the Kingdome. 
Never before printed. Whereby such bookes as were 
heretofore with much difficulty and charges transcribed 
for the use of the Quire, are now, to the saving of much 
labour and expence publisht for the generall good of all 
such as shall desire them, either for publick or private 
exercise — Collected out of divers approved authors 
by John Barnard, one of the Minor Canons of the 
Cathedrall Church of S. Paul, London. Printed by 
Edward Griffin, and are to be solde at the signe of ye 
Three Lutes in S. Paul's Alley, 1641. 

This work, the first of its kind of any magnitude, 
was dedicated to King Charles I., and published in 
ten folio volumes, viz. : Medius (or Treble), ist and 
2nd Counter Tenor (or Alto), Tenor, and Bassus (or 
Bass) for the Decani side of the choir ; and a like 
number for the Cantoris side. These, however, are 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 43 

not mere duplicates of the former as the Decani 
passages are not given in the Cantoris books, nor 
vice versd. 

It is sad to think that no absolutely perfect copy 
of this matchless and judicious selection of early 
Church music is now known to exist. This may be 
accounted for, partly by the work not having been 
printed in vocal score, and partly on account of the 
time at which it was issued ; for the choral service 
was suppressed, and terrible havoc made of organs 
music-books and Church property of every descrip- 
tion, during the puritanical fanaticism of the Great 
Rebellion. 

For nearly ninety years the library of Hereford 
Cathedral enjoyed the distinction of possessing the 
least imperfect set of the ten parts, viz. : the Medius, 
ist and 2nd Counter-Tenors, and Tenor Decani, 
and the ist and 2nd Counter-Tenors, Tenor and 
Bassus Cantoris, several of the sheets being mutilated. 
By a happy chance, however, the Sacred Harmonic 
Society of Exeter Hall, purchased, in 1862, another 
set of eight parts, fortunately not the same eight as at 
Hereford. So, between the two a complete set was 
made up. It is very remarkable that each of these 
two sets contained the two vocal parts which were 
wanting, in the other. 

Not long after this, a copy of the Bassus Decani 
part was bought for the Hereford library, and a tran- 
script of the Sacred Harmonic Society's copy of the 
Medius Cantoris part (unfortunately imperfect) was 
permitted to be made for it ; thereby placing it in its 
former position of pre-eminence as to the number of 
parts possessed by it. 

The library of Lichfield Cathedral contains seven 
out of the ten parts. Beyond these, and two or three 
single parts or fragments thereof in various private 
hands, no other copies of Barnard are known to exist. 



44 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

" the Statement," says Mr. W. H. Husk (late librarian 
of the Sacred Harmonic Society) "in Mr. Botfield's 
Notes on the Cathedral Libraries of the existence 
of copies at Westminster and Berlin, proving on 
enquiry to be wholly unfounded." Dr. Rimbault, 
however, mentions that, in 1670, the Dean and 
Chapter of Westminster bought a copy of Barnard 
from John Playford " the musick-seller at the Inner 
Temple Gate," for which they paid £,t.t, 8s. 9d. 

Soon after the joint completion of the work as 
above, an organ part (which had not previously been 
published) was added, after much toil and patient re- 
search on the partof Mr. John Bishop of Cheltenham, 
one of the most accomplished of musical antiquarians. 

The writer of this account had, a short time ago- 
the good fortune to become possessed of a consider- 
able portion, though slightly mutilated, of a First 
Counter Tenor Cantoris part of Barnard. This musical 
curiosity is now lying before him. It is handsomely 
and uniformly printed in small folio size. The notes, 
on blackstaves, are diamond-shaped, somewhat resemb- 
ling those of the Gregorian notation,the accompanying 
words being printed in a bold, florid, ornamental type, 
not unlike Black Letter. The words of the service or 
anthem for the side of the choir not singing are printed 
by themselves in a small ordinary type. The spelling 
and phraseology are extremely quaint throughout.* 
Some of the initial-letters and tail-pieces are, for 
the period, most beautifully designed and executed. 
The former chiefly represent Saints, &c., holding 
various instruments of music, while the latter fre- 
quently take the form of flourishes, one of which is 
very elaborate, making the initials J. B., together 
with the date 1639, as if to denote the progress then 
made by the compiler in his work. 

* The following is a specimen :— " Heare endeth Dr. Gyles his first ser- 
vice of I, 2, 3, 4, 5, and tj partes to ye organs." 



OP S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 45 

No composers living in Barnard's time were repre- 
sented, it being his intention to include some of their 
services and anthems in a second volume, which, 
however, owing to the Parliamentary troubles, then 
just beginning to break out, never saw the light. The 
materials collected by Barnard for the purpose, have 
been previously alluded to. 

The following were the contents of TTie First 
Booke of Selected Church Musicke. Those pieces indi- 
cated by an asterisk were afterwards reprinted by 
Boyce in his Cathedral Music. 

COMPLETE SERVICES.* 



Mundy in D minor. 
Parsons in F. 
Strogers in D minor. 
* Talks in D minor (Dorian). 



*Byrde in D minor. 
*Bevin in D minor. 
* Gibbons in F.% 

Gyles in C. 

Morley in D minor. 

All the above consist of Te Deum, Benedictus, Kyrie, Credo 
Magnificat, and Nunc Dimittis, some of them have the Vcnite, 
in addition. They are all entitled " First Service." 

MISCELLANEOUS SERVICES, PRECES, ETC. 

Byrde (" Second Service ") Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in 

G minor. 
Byrde ("Third Service") Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in C. 
Gibbons ("Second Service") Te Deum, Jubilate, Magnificat 

and Nunc Dimittis in D minor.% 
Morley (" Second Service ") Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis 

in C. 
Warde, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in G minor. 
Woodson, le Deum in D minor. 



Byrde. — Preces I. 

— ist Psalm to ditto, " 
clap your hands." 

— 2nd Psalm to ditto, " Sav'e 
me, God." 



Byrde. — Preces II. 
— 1st Psalm to ditto, " When 

Israel came." 
— 2nd Psalm to ditto, "Hear 

my prayer." 
— yd Psalm to ditto, " Teach 

me, O Lord" 



"* The pieces by Gibbons marked J, were included in Sir Frederick 
Oufeley's collected edition of the sacred compositions of that eminent 
master (Novello, 1873). 



46 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Gibbons. — Preces I. + 

— Psalm to ditto, " Thou 
openest Thine hand.'* 
Tallis. — Pre-es I. 

^isi Psalm to ditto^ " Where- 
withxl" 



Tallis. — Preces /. — 2nd Psalm 
to ditto ^ " doe well." 
—■^rd Psalm to ditto ^ "My 
soul cleaveih" 

*Tallis. — Responses, Lord's 
Prayer, etc. 

*Tallis.— 7%^ Litany, 



ANTHEMS. 
I.— Full anthems (^ 4 v.) ■ 



^Almighty and everlasting God 

Gihhons.X 

*Call to remembrance Farrant. 

Deliver us, O Lord (2 pts.) Gibbons. X 

God be merciful (3 pts. ) Tpe. 

Haste Thee, O Ood (2 pis.) B'^tten. 
Haste Thee, O God (z pis.) 

Sh^harde. 

Hide not Thou Thy face Batten. 

- *Hide not Thou Thy face Farrant. 
*I will exalt Tiiee Ti/e. 

II.— Full ani 

, Behold, it is Christ Hooper. 

' Blessed be Thy name 2'allis. 

*Bow Thine ear (and part of 

"O Lord turn.") Byrdo. 

*I call and cry Tallis. 

I lift my heart Tt/e. 

O give thanks Gyles. 

O God, whom our offences . . Tallis. 

O Lord, I bow the knees ..Mundy. 



Lord, we beseech Thee .. *. Batten. 

O Lord give Thy Holy Spirit Tallis. 

*0 Lord, the Maker of all thinEs(at- 

tributed by Boyceto Henry VIIL) 



O Lord, the world's Saviour 



*0 pmise the Lord Batten. 

Teach me, O Lord Hooper, 

When the Lord turned again 

Batten. 

thems (k 5 v.) 

O Lord, make Thy servant 

Charles Byrde. 

O Lord, turn Thy wrath Byrde. 

() Thou God almighty Hooper. 

Prevent us O Lord Bi/rde. 

The Lord bless us White. 

Wipe away my sins Tallis. 

With all our hearts Tallis. 



Ill,— Full anthems (^ 6, 7, 8 v.) 



Deliver me, O Lord Parsons. 

"Tlosanna to the Son of David 

Gibbons. X 



*Lift up your heads Gibbons. X 

O Lard grant the king Weelhes 

*Sing joyfully Byrde 



IV. — Verse anthems. 



Ah ! helpless wretch Mundy. 

Behold, Thou hast made , Gibbons.X 

Christ being raised Byrde. 

Christ rising Byrde. 

Deliver me, O Lord Bull. 

Hear my prayer Byrde. 



I will praise Thee Warde. 

Let God arise Warde. 

O Lord rebuke me not Byrde. 

Out of the deep Batten. 

Out of the deep Morley. 

Thou God that guidest Byrde. 



* A Verse Anthem is one which begins with a solo, or a verse for two or 
more voices, and is one in which the chorus is, a subordinate feature — a 
mere finale in fact. A " Full Anthem with Verse " is one which contains a 
solo, or vbrse, prefaced and concluded by a chorus. The number of voices 
mentioned, in connection with this class of anthem is that required for the 
verses, the choruses being usually for four voices, though some composers 
have written to the extent of ten parts. By " Full Anthem" is meant one 
which contains no verbe-parts whatever. Such compositions are, as a lule, 
short. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 47 



Barnard intended to publish some of his own com- 
positions in his second collection. These included two 
sets of Preces, one of them for six voices, together with 
a set of Responses for the Accession of King Charles I. 
(March 27th, 1625), and the Fifth of November. 

It may not be uninteresting to mention that, slightly 
anterior to Barnard, and upon the same plan, appeared 
in Germany a fine collection of early Italian and 
German Church music, compiled by Erhard Boden- 
schatz, Lutheran Pastor at Gross Osterhausen, near 
Querfurt, Prussian Saxony, from 1608 to 1638. Like 
our Barnard there was no score, the vocal parts being 
printed separately. This compilation appeared in two 
volumes, the first in 1618, and the second in 162 1. 
It is usually found perfect. 

Another book by another Minor Canon of S. Paul's 
— the Rev. James Clifford — must now claim our 
attention for a short time. This is a little manual 
(now excessively rare^ entitled A Collection oj Divine 
Services and Anthems, usually sung in his Majesty's 
Chappell and in all Collegiate Choirs of England and 
Ireland, collected by J(ames) C{lifford). 

Of this book, one edition appeared in 1663* and 
another, considerably enlarged, in the following year. 
It was dedicated to the Rev. Walter Jones, D.D., 
Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal. In a high style of 
laudation (says Dr. Rimbault) Chfford asks the Sub- 
dean to be " pleased, therefore, to intermit awhile those 
Seraphical raptures, and vouchsafe an eare to the 
mean addresse of these rudiments (as it were) of 
Church Musick, which, like other perfections, hath 
suffer'd merely through the people's ignorance." 
Then, after declaring that if the book is favourably 

* Dr. Jebb mentions an earlier edition published in 1660. A dopy of the 
edition of 1663, formerly beloneing to the Sacred Harmonic Society, had, 
on the title page "the second edinnn, with large additions," and on the fly- 
leaf, ** Imprimatur Joh. Hall, R.P.D., Episc^ Lon. a fac Domest. Jan. i6th, 
1663. 



48 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



received by him to whom it is dedicated, the com- 
piler expresses his opinion that if the worthy Sub-dean 
will descend and deign a favourable approbation 
thereunto, it cannot but command reception from 
others, " since (he adds) my knowledge at Oxford 
(improved further at London) of your eminency 
this way cannot so far disoblige the world as not to 
believe you have the supreme mastery in religious 
musick." Making due allowance for the above amount 
of flattery, which we are accustomed to in matters of 
this kind, it proves that Dr. Jones was a lover of the 
Divine Art, and a fitting man for the post he occupied 
in the royal establishment. 

Clifford's manual is deeply interesting, as shewing 
what remained of Cathedral music produced before 
the Parliamentary troubles, when the choral service 
were suppressed, and likewise what were the earliest 
additions to that same service after the Restoration. 

It contains, besides the Preface, Dedication, &c. 

1. The Chants or Tunes for the Psalms and Canticles. 

2. Brief Directions for the performance of Divine 
Service. 3. A List of Divine Anthems usually sung 
(393 in number). 4. An address to the reader in 
commendation of singing, and 5. A Psalm of Thanks- 
giving for the Children of Christ Hospital. 

A few extracts from the first two sections may not 
be without interest. 

I. And that I may not only invite and satisfie all people that 
resort to Cathedral service without prejudice ; but also to 
inform and direct all other choires (that are remote) with the 
exact and uniform performance both at His Majestie's Chappell 
Royall, and at (the Mother of all Cathedralls) .S. PauTs in 
London, I have interted all the tunes now in use in all parts of 
the service, viz., ifas Venite, Te Deum, Benedicite, ^enedicttis, 
fubilate. Magnificat, Cantate Domino, Nunc Dimittis, and Deus 
Misereatur (where more solemn composures * ar^Mt ^ed), and 
also in the Psalms for the dayes of the Mone^^and for the 
Quicunque Vult, upon its proper dayes. 

* i.e.. Services. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 49 

The tunes for the Psalms and Canticles alluded to, 
were the Gregorian Tones, then universally used in 
our Cathedrals ; for even single Anglican chants were 
almost unknown. Two or three other chants of a 
kindred character were inserted by way of variety, 
such as "The Imperial Tune" (a form of the VIII. 
tone first ending, arranged by Dr. Childe about 1630) ; 
" Mr. Adrian Batten's Tune " (probably a re-arrange- 
ment by that composer of Tallis' setting of the I. 
Tone, fourth ending) ; " Christ Church Tune " (a 
chant in C usually assigned to Tallis, and called in 
Dean Aldrich's MSS. at Christ Church College, 
Oxford, "Chant D ") ; and "Canterbury Tune" 
(set by Tallis in his famous service to the Creed of S. 
Athanasius). All these are characteristic of the Gre- 
gorian Tones, and are interesting, as affording such 
variations as might be supposed to arise from the 
decay of the ancient formulas of ecclesiastical music, 
which was just at this time beginning to show itself 

2. Biief Directions for the Understanding of that part of the 
Divine Service performed with the organ at S. Taul's Cathedrall 
on Sundays, etc. 

The First Service in the Morning. 
After the Psalms a Voluntary upon the organ alone. After 
the 1st Lesson is sung Te Deum Laudamus, ' We praise Thee O 
God,' etc., (this as well as the other canticles, is given at full 
length). After the 2nd Lesson, Benedictus, S. Luke, i., 68. 
' Blessed be the Lord God,' etc., or Jubilate Deo, Ps. C, ' O be 
joyful,' etc. After the 3rd Collect, ' O Lord, our heavenly 
Father,' etc, is sung the 1st Anthem. After that the Litany, 
'O God the Father of Heaven, have mercy,' etc. After the 
Blessing, The Grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, etc., a Voluntary 
alone upon the organ. 

The Second, or Communion Service. 

After every Commandment, the Prayer 'Lord have mercy 

upon us,' etc. After the Epistle, this heavenly ejaculation, 

Glory be to Thee, O Lord.' After the Holy Gospel, the 

Nicene Creed, ' I believe in one God,' etc. After the sermon, 

the last Anthem. 

E 



50 THE OROANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



At Evening Service, 

After the Psalms, a Voluntary alone by the organ. After 
the 1st Lesson is sung the Magnificat, S. Luke, i., 46, 'My soul 
doth magnifie,' etc. After the 2nd Lesson, the Nunc Dimittis, 
S. Luke, ii., 29, 'Lord now,' etc., or Deus Misereainr, Ps. 67, 
' God be merciful! unto us,' etc, ' Glory be ... - world with- 
out end.' Amen. 

William Bytdr. Wm. Mitndy. Mr. Strogers. 

Orlando Gibbons. Thomas Tallis. Rlway Bevin, 

Thos. Tomkins. Adrian Batten. Dr. Gyles. 

Dr. Childe. Mr. Portman. Christopher Gibbons.* 

After the 3rd Collect, ' Lighten our darkne>s, we beseech,' 
etc., is sung Itie first Anthem. Alter the sermon is sung the last 
Anthem.'^ 

It will be remarked in the above sketch that there 
is no mention made of an Introit to be sung at S. 
Paul's between the Litany and Communion Service, 
and likewise that there is no provision made for the 
completion of the latter office by the singing of the 
Sanctus and Gloria in Excehis. A voluntary appears 
to have been played on the organ while the officiating 
clergy proceeded to the Holy Table. 

Not long after the publication of Clifford's book 
the practice began to arise in certain choirs (among 
the first to do so being Westminster and Can- 
terbury) of singing the Sancius as an Introit, and in 
this respect, S. Paul's was not slow in following their 
example. The majority of the composers living before 
Clifford's manual was published rarely, if ever, set any 
music for the Sanctus (in Barnard there is not a 
single instance of it) much less the Gloria in Excehis, 
their custom being only to include the Kyrie and 
Credo. Almost the only complete Communion Services 
written before the martyrdom of Charles I. were those 
of Tallis and Batten. Soon after the Restoration in 



* The composers of the various services. — J. S. B. 

t A list of the composers of the 393 anthems given, in Clifford's rare and 
curious little black-letter duodecimo of 1664 (a copy of which is in my pos- 
session) will be found in Appendix B of this work. — J. S. B. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 51 

1660, some of the services of Childe,Rogers, and others 
were written,* and these composers usually set the 
SanduSy prefixing it, however, to the Kyrie and Credo \ 
Hence, the opportunity was seized of singing it as 
an Introit, and nearly every Communion Service 
had been composed upon the same model, until about 
thirty-five years ago, when Sir Frederick Ouseley was 
one of the first to publish a setting of the whole of the 
Communion hymns in his original and effective 
services in A, B minor, E, and E flat. 

There can be no objection to using the Sandus as 
an Introit between the Litany and Communion 
Service ; it has, in this place, a peculiarly solemn 
effect, and, as that learned defender of the choral 
service, Dr. Jebb, has remarked, its employment is 
neither contrary to the rubric, to the rationale of the 
service, nor to primitive and Catholic custom. But 



* Rogers' Services in D and E minor ^ Childe's in A minor, E flat, and 
F ; Creygh'on'.N i<> E flat ; Goldwia's in i?% and Aldrich's in G are among 
the earliest in^itances of this. 

t A Gloria in Excelsis was composed by Mr. John Foster, nrgani-t of 
S. Andrew's, Wells Street, in 1852, to match and complete the S^vice in F 
by Orlando Gibbons, whs had provided music for the Sanctiis. A similar 
completion was made by the Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley for Rogers' Ser- 
vice ir. D. The same editor also published in his Collection of Services by En- 
glish Musters (_folio, 1853), a Gloria in Sxcelsis in G by Dean Aldrich, written 
no doubt to cumplem his Communion Service in the same key, and which 
was not given by Dr. Boyce when he included it, together with the Morning 
and Evening Service in his Cathedral Mmtic. Detached settings of the 
Sanctus and Gloria were composed by Dr. Blow in D, Jeremiah Clark in A 
minor, Michael Wise in E flat, Dr. Croft in B minor, and John Weldon in E 
flat (1:708). Jackson of Exeter composed a Gloria in Sxcelsis for his Service 
in F, but the writer has only seen it in the original edition. 

At Durham Cathedral the whole of the Communion hymns have been 
.«:ung from time immemorial, at least once a month. For these celebrations 
Thomas £bdon {organist of Durham Cathedral from 176} to 1811), com- 
posed, in 1765, a set ing of the Kyrie, Credo, Sanctits, and GloHa in C — a 
thing very rarely met with during the Georgian period. These movements 
were published, together with a Morning and Evening Service in the same 
key, in a folio volume in 1790. It may not be generally known that the 
Eucharistic vestments were worn by the celebrant at Durham so late as 
1759, in which year they were cast off by Prebendary Warburion, who (so 
the story goes) was indignant at having his neck scratched by the gold 
thread on one of them. I hey are still to be seen preserved in a glass 
case in the library. The Roman sequence of colours was followed, but the 
vestments were copes, not chasubles, and as such, were improperly used at 
Holy Communion. 

E 2 



52 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



its use here never ought to supersede its choral per- 
formance in the proper place. 

The Sanctus is still so used at the cathedrals of 
Christ Church and S. Patrick, Dublin (at the former 
of which there is a choral celebration every Sunday), 
and the effect is exceedingly solemn and beautiful. 
There is as much propriety in the repetition of the 
Sanctus as in that of the Gloria Patri. 

It is now time to say a few words on the biography 
of the Rev. James Clifford. Born at Oxford in 1622, 
he became in 1632 a chorister in th^t sound training 
school for Church musicians, Magdalen College.* 
Here he remained ten years. In 1661 he was ap- 
pointed to the tenth Minor Canonry in S. Paul's, and 
in 1675 he was advanct-d to the sixth stall. In 1682 
he became Senior Cardinal and Sacrist t He held for 
some time the curacy of S. Gregory, the little church 
nestling under the south-west corner of the old nave. 
He also officiated as Chaplain to the Society of 
Serjeant's Inn, Fleet Street. It has usually been stated 
that Clifford died either late in 1699 or t-arly in 1700. 
Recent research, however, has proved that he died in 
1698, and, upon the authority of Dr. Rimbault, he 
was buried in the Church of S. Andrew Undershaft. 

Besides the Divine Serziices and Anthems, Clifford 
was the author of several theological works. During 
his life-time he had amassed a considerable library of 
Church music, which, at his death, he bequeathed to 
the Minor Canons of S. Paul's to be divided equally 
among them. 

The first organist appointed to Old S. Paul's after 
the Restoration was Albertus Bryan, a pupil of John 

* Several other Minor Canons of S. Paul's were, ia later times, choristers 
of Magdalen. 

t The Rev. John Pridden, one of the Minor Canons of S. Paul's from 
1782 to 1825, mentions in his m:inuscript collections that '* James Clifford, 
senior Cardinal, went first to dwell in one of the four houses then newly built, 
and called S. Paul's College (after the dreadful fire) on the Sth of August, 
J682." 



OF &. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 53 

Tomkins. He succeeded Adrian Batten, in all 
probability in 1640, but shortly afterwards was de- 
prived of his post by the Parliamentarian government. 
He was, however, reinstated at the Restoration, as 
stated above. 

The words of several of Bryan's anthems were 
given in Clifford, but he is now chiefly remembered 
as the composer of a Morning, Communion, and 
Evening Service in the key of G, in which much 
contrapuntal ingenuity is displayed. Dr. Boyce 
thought highly of this composition, and regretted his 
inability to give it a place in his Cathedral Music. 
It was, however, subsequently printed by Arnold 
in his collection, and later on by Vincent Novello 
in The Cathedral Choir Book, 1847. 

When the Great Fire of 1666 destroyed S. Paul's, 
Bryan was appointed organist of Westminster Abbey, 
in succession to Dr. Christopher Gibbons, second 
son of the great Orlando. Three years later he died, 
and his remains were interred in the cloisters of the 
aforesaid church. 

During the rebuilding of S. Paul's the services 
were carried on in a temporary erection hastily 
fitted up by Wren ; so the various choral appoint- 
ments continued to be made. 

Michael Wise was appointed to the Almonry on 
Jan. 27th, 1686. In the next year, however, he d'ed, 
and Dr. John Blow was nominated his successor. As 
both these composers seem more properly to belong 
to the Chapel Royal and Westminster Abbey respec- 
tively, it is not thought expedient here to take up 
space with an account of their lives and labours. We 
will, therefore, pass on to composers more closely 
connected with S. Paul's. 

About this time one of the Canons Residentiary 
distinguished himself considerably as a practical 
musician. Allusion is made to the Rev. Williatri 



54 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Holder, D.D., who was likewise Sub-dean of the 
Chapel Royal, a Prebendary of Ely, Sub-Almoner 
to the King, and Rector of Blechingdon, Oxon. 

Dr. Holder pubhshed in 1694, a Treatise on the 
Natural Grounds and Principles of Harmony — a work 
drawn up, judging from the preface, for the use of 
the choir of the King's Chapel. This curious treatise 
renders the philosophical theory of sound and the 
doctrine of intervals perfectly clear to the general 
reader, whom he enables easily to make himself 
master of these subjects, without possessing much 
mathematical knowledge. A second edition appeared 
in 1 70 1, and a third in 1731, to which was added 
Rules for Flaying a Thorough Bass, by Godfrey 
Keller. 

Canon Holder was a strict disciplinarian and most 
punctilious in the attendance and behaviour of his 
choir-men. That sweet composer, but somewhat 
turbulent spirit, Michael Wise, who had, no doubt 
often fallen under his displeasure, was wont to nick- 
name him, Mr. Snub-des.r\. He is said to have gained 
some celebrity for his skill in the instruction of the 
deaf and dumb. Upon this subject he wrote a 
treatise called The Elements of Speech, a proceeding 
which appears to have entangled him in a controversy 
with Dr. Wallis, who likewise claimed the invention. 

One cannot help regretting that it did not fall to 
Holder's lot to fill the Precentorship of S. Paul's. 
Had this been so, a precedent might have been estab- 
lished, and never afterwards departed from. It is 
generally known, that in cathedrals of the Old Foun- 
dation, the office of Precentor has been, and still is, 
as a rule, held by a man totally incompetent to dis- 
tinguish one note from another. This was the case 
at S. Paul's until quite recently. There have been, 
to be sure, a few exceptions, notably Creyghton of 
Wells, Mason of York, and in our day, Sir Frederick 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 55 

Ouseley of Hereford, of whom as a churchman and 
a musician Englishmen ought 10 be justly proud. 

Dr. Holder died at the red-brick house which he 
occupied in Amen Court, as Canon Residentiary of 
S. Paul's, on January 24th, 1697 (Eve of the Conver- 
sion of S. Paul) and was interred m the crypt beneath 
the newly-finished choir of the Cathedral. A large 
mural tablet fixed on the wall near one of the south 
windows in the crypt, described in an old work on 
London as " enriched with festoons and mantling, 
elevated between two cherubims," commemorates Dr. 
Holder and his wife Susanna, sister of Sir Christopher 
Wren. An interesting portrait of Dr. Holder is in 
the possession of the writer. 

The following compositions by Holder are preserved 
in the valuable music library at Ely Cathedral. 

SERVICE. 
Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in C. 

ANTHEMS. 



Arise, O Lord. 
Great is the Lord. 
Ilookjor the Lord. 
I wailed for the Lord. 
My heart is fixed. 



praise our God, ye people. 

Out of the deep. 

The Lord is King. 

The Lord is my Shepherd. 

Thou, O God art praised. 



In concluding this chapter it may be as well to 
mention that there were two other clerical musicians 
who applied themselves sedulously to improving the 
music in their cathedrals after the Restoration, and 
doing their utmost to repair the ravages committed 
upon it during the Interregnum, viz.. Dr. Henry 
Aldrich, Dean of Christ Church, Oxford, and Dr. 
Robert Creighton, Canon Residentiary and Precentor 
of Wells Cathedral. 



$6 THE OR0AJVISTS AND COMPOSERS 



CHAPTER III. 
Organists and Composers of the new Cathedral 

DURING THE EIGHTEENTH CeNTURY. 

The death of Dr. Holder left us, it will doubtless 
be remembered in 1697, in which year the choir of 
the new cathedral was opened for divine service — an 
event which is most fitly narrated in the words of 
England's great historian, Lord Macaulay. 

" At a council which was held a few hours after the 
King's public entry, the 2nd Dec. was appointed to be 
the Thanksgiving for the Peace. The Chapter of S. 
Paul's resolved that, on that day, their new cathedral, 
which had been long slowly rising on the ruins of a 
succession of pagan and Christian temples, should be 
opened for public worship. William announced his 
intention of being one of the congregation. But it 
was represented to him, that, if he persisted in that 
intention 300,000 people would assemble to see him 
pass, and all the parish churches in London would be 
empty. He therefore attended the service in his own 

chapel at Whitehall At S. Paul's, the 

magistrates of the city appeared in all their state. 
Compton was, for the first time, seated on a throne 
rich with the sculpture of Gibbons. When the prayers 
were over the Bishop exhorted the numerous and 
splendid assembly. His discourse has not been pre- 
served ; but its purport may be easily guessed, for he 
took for his text that noble song, ' I was glad when 
they said unto me, we will go unto the Lord.' " 

These same words formed the subject of the 
anthem, composed expressly for the occasion by Dr. 
Blow. A copy of this anthem which (like many of 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. S7 

Blow's compositions) was never printed, is in the Ely 
Cathedral collection. Inscribed thereon is the following 
note: — "Dr. Blow, Hampton Toivn, Oct. ye 15, 1697. 
Anthem for ye opening of S. PauTs Cathedral, 1697." 
The magnificent organ was completed in time for 
the opening ceremony. Bernhardt Schmidt, a German 
commonly called Father Smith, and who had been 
very generally employed in building cathedral organs 
to replace those destroyed during the Civil War, was 
the builder. The cost — ^£2,000 — was a large sum of 
money in those days, but the result proved that it was 
well expended. 

Sir Christopher Wren, with his usual great foresight, 
much wished to place the organ over the northern 
choir-stalls as in the old cathedral, in order that there 
might be an uninterrupted view from West to East, and 
also that the dome might be utilized for congregational 
purposes. In this design, however, he was over-ruled 
by the Building Commissioners, who wished to follow 
the traditions of all the other cathedrals, and to have 
an enclosed choir with return-stalls and a western 
organ screen. Upon this screen Wren was compelled 
to place the instrument. 

The contract for the organ was dated and signed 
Dec. 19th, 1694, and it was to consist of " Great and 
Chayre (choir) organs and echoes " ; it was to be 
completed by Lady Day, 1696, and to receive the 
approval of several eminent musicians, "particularly 
Dr. John Blowe." 

Schmidt's contract was for the inside of the organ 
only ; the case being provided for and designed by 
Wren. It appears that after the contract was signed 
Schmidt extended his design considerably, and at his 
own expense. He had previously furnished Sir 
Christopher with the dimensions of the case he would 
require for his twelve-foot organ, and he now wished 
to have them increased. Wren, however, gave him a 



58 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

most decided negative, declaring that his building was 
already spoilt " by the confounded box of whistles." 

Schmidt had his revenge on the great architect by 
letting the larger open diapason pipes in the two side 
towers protrude nearly a foot through the top of the 
case, in a most ungainly fashion. For this circum- 
stance, however, we are indebted to Wren, for his 
altars, surrounded by stately angels, who seem to 
appear as if standing in awe, at " the glorious majesty 
of the Lord."* 

A more harmonious and beautiful organ-case has 
probably never been designed than that of S. Paul's, 
so admirably does it match that wonderful range of 
stalls with their carvings of musical instruments, 
cherubim, fruit, flowers, and foliage, in oak and lime- 
tree wood, by the hand of that consummate master, 
Grinling Gibbons, t 

The organ retained its position upon the screen, until 
the year i860, when it was taken down during a rear- 
rangement of the choir, in order to accomodate greatly 
increased congregations, and placed over the stalls on 
the North side — the position undoubtedly intended for 
it by Wren in the first instance. At the same time 
the screen was wholly removed ; thus opening out the 
church from end to end. These works were, at the 
time, much criticised. 

■* A full ar-count of the or^an will be found in Appendix A, 
t A most interestine and minute account of the payments which Gibbons 
received for the cartings about the organ-case and choir, and those of other 
artists for the enrichment of other parts of the Cathedral, will be found in 
Malcolm's " Londinium Redivivum," Vol. III., pp. 104-5. 

It may be interesting to mention that below the SvbstllcB or '* long seats " 
were some forms running the whole length of the stalls, on a portion of 
which the choir boys sat behind their brass desks. These were pulled out 
in a very ingenious manner, and appear to have exrited the admiration of 
John Evelyn, the diarist, when he paid a visit to the choir Oct. sth, 1695, 
and on which date he wrote : — '* I went to S. Paul's to see the choir now 
finished as to the stone work, and the scaffold stuck both within and 
without in that part. Some exception might, perhaps, be taken as to the 
placing columns on pilasters at the East tribunal. As to the r-ht it is a 
piece ot architecture without reproach. The pulling out the forms like 
drawers from under the stalls is ingenious.* 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 59 

In 1871 much dissatisfaction being felt at this 
condition of things, the organ was again removed, 
almost entirely rebuilt and greatly enlarged by Henry 
Willis from the designs of Dr. (now Sir) John Stainer. 
It was at the same time, divided into two portions and 
erected at either side of the entrance of the choir, the 
case being somewhat remodelled to suit its new posi- 
tion. The stalls of the Greater Dignitaries which were 
formerly returned under the screen, and which, since 
i860, had been shamefully stowed away, were again 
brought to light, and arranged as we now see them. 

It must be understood that, prior to the alterations 
(they cannot be termed improvements) spoken of in 
i860, the organ screen of S. Paul's did not stand 
flush with the huge eastern piers of the dome, but, 
where the present low marble septum and grilles stand, 
there was an iron railing with gates, supporting gas- 
standards.* The said gates gave admittance to a 
species of ante-choir (as at Ely after 1769, and before 
the removal of the screen in 1850) on either side of 
which, as the visitor entered, were the monuments of 
Nelson and Cornwallis. Facing the spectator was the 
solid wooden organ-screen, placed midway between 
the first bay of the choir westward, the space thus 
somewhat awkwardly cut off, and open to the side 
aisles, being filled up with grilles and gates. The 
monuments and iron railing, above alluded to, were not 
removed until 187 1, when the flooring of the choir 
was considerably raised. 

Great improvements were contemplated in the 
choir at this period (187 1) such as stained glass, mural 
decoration, and a permanent altar-piece. Before 
this portion of the building, however, had been closed 



♦ Gas was first introduced into the cathedral in 1822. Tom Moore, writing 
in his diary, under dale May 6th of that ye»r, observes :—" Went with Lord 
and Lady Lansdowne at 10 o'cloclt to S. Paul's, to see it lighted with gas, 
for, I believe, the first time." 



60 THE OMGAXISTS xliVD COMPOSERS 

for six months, preparations began .to be made for the 
National Thank-^giving Day for the restoration to 
health of the Prince of Wales, on Feb. 27th, 1872; 
and the choir had to be hastily made ready for the 
ceremony, ere many things of importance could be 
undertaken. 

Thus, ever since 1872, various ameliorations have 
been slowly made in the choir; among the most 
important being new seats of carved oak, to match 
Grinling Gibbons' work, for the vicars-choral ; a new 
pavement of white marble ; a septum of the same 
material, to support a low iron western screen and 
gates ; new steps and balustrade of marble for the 
pulpit, and lastly the stately and elaborate reredos. 
The ingenious way in which the wood-work has been 
adjusted, and the rearrangement of old return-stalls 
generally carried out, is worthy of the highest praise. 
A portion of the original organ-screen with the well- 
known inscription to Sir Christopher Wren, formerly 
facing the dome, has been set up at the end of the 
North transept, where it forms a species of inner 
porch. The other portion which formerly faced the 
Altar, is now in a corresponding position in the South 
transept. The beautifully-veined columns of blue and 
white marble of Wren's organ-gallery, together with 
Gibbons' delicate and life-hke carvings in wood, 
deserve the most careful examination. 



The first organist appointed to the new cathedral 
■was Jeremiah Clark, familiarly called by his asso- 
ciates " Jerry Clark." He received his first musical 
education as a chorister of the Chapel Royal under 
Blow, who, on the death of Wise in 1687, as pre- 
viously stated, became Almoner and Master of the 
Boys at S. Paul's. In 1693 Clark who had previously 
been organist of Winchester College, came to London 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 6 1 



on being appointed Blow's successor in the Almonry. 
It has been asserted that Blow resigned this post in 
order that his pupil Clark might be appointed ; much 
in the same way as he yielded his post of organist at 
Westminster Abbey in 1682, to another pupil, the gifted 
Henry Purcell. This, however, is not very likely to 
have been the case. Blow, no doubt resigned at S. 
Paul's from conscientious motives, finding so many 
ofiSces incompatible, for it should be known that he 
was already organist and Master of the Children of 
the Chapel Royal and Composer in Ordinary to the 
King. Moreover, Deans and Chapters in the times 
of which we are now speaking, were very jealous of 
their vested interests, as they are to this day, 
and it is by no means probable that they would 
have permitted any such an arrangement to take 
place. 

On June 6th, 1699 Clark was admitted to his pro- 
bation as vicar-choral of S. Paul's, but does not appear 
to have been fully admitted until Oct. 1705, "post 
annum probationis completum," no explanation being 
forthcoming among the Chapter Records for the long 
interval which had elapsed. 

In 1700, Clark was "sworne in" together with his 
friend William Croft, as Gentleman Extraordinary of 
the Chapel Royal, with the reversion of an organist's 
place whenever it should " fall voyd " as the Cheque 
Book of the Chapel Royal informs us. 

Four years later, on May 15th, "Mr. Peggott, 
organist of His Majesty's Chappell, departed this 
life," and on account of this Clark and Croft were 
made joint organists. When the former died in 1707, 
the latter was left sole organist. 

The Church compoMtions of Jeremiah Clark are 
usually of an elegiac and pathetic character, and the 
story of his strange and mournful end was still more in- 
dicative than his music, of a sensitive and melancholy 



62 THE ORGAXISTS AND COMPOSERS 



mind. It was as follows : — " Taking seriously to heart 
his rejection by a lady in a condition far above his own, 
he determined to commit suicide. Being at the-house 
of a friend in the country, he took an abrupt resolu- 
tion to return to London ; his friend having observed 
in his manner marks of great dejection furnished him 
with a horse and a servant. Riding along the road a 
fit of melancholy seized him ; upon which he dismoun- 
ted, and giving the servant his horse to hold, went 
into a fieh), in the corner whereof was a pond and 
also trees, and began a debate within hireiself whether 
he should there end his days by hanging or drowning. 
Not being able to resolve on either, he thought of 
making what he looked upon as chance, the umpire, 
and drew out of his pocket a piece of money, and 
tossing it into the air, it came down on its edge and 
stuck in the clay. Though the declaration answered 
not his wish, it was far from ambiguous, as it seemed 
to forbid both methods of destruction ; and would 
have given unspeakable comfort to a mind less dis- 
organised than his own. Being thus interrupted in 
his purpose, he returned and mounting his horse 
rode on to London, and in a short time shot him- 
self." 

Unfortunately the story of this romantic attachment 
and suicide, which every English musical historian has 
alluded to, has lately been contradicted by a contem- 
porary broadsheet, discovered by Mr. Barclay Squire. 
It is a large and single sheet, entitled A Sad and 
Dismal Account of the Sudden and Untimely Death of 
Mr. Jeremiah Clark, one of the Queen! s Organists, who 
shot himself with a screw pistol at the Golden Cup in S. 
PauVs Churchyard on Monday morning last, for the 
supposed love of a Young Woman, near Pater-Noster 
Row. 

" The account " (says Mr. Barclay Squire, in a Me- 
moir of Clark, contributed to the tenth volume of the 



OF I,. Paul's cathedral. 63 

Dictionary of National Biography) " states how Clark, 
a bachelor, with a salary of over ^300 a year, about 
9 o'clock Monday morning last, was visited by his 
father and some friends at which he seemed to be 
very chearful and merry, by playing on his musick for 
a considerable time which was a pair of organs in his 
own house, which he took great delight in, and after 
his father had gone, returned to his room, when, 
between 10 and 11 o'clock, his maid-servant heard a 
pistol go off in his room, and, running in, found he 
had shot himself behind the ear. He died the same 
day about 3 o'clock. The occasion .... is 
variously discoursed ; some will have it that his sister 
marrying his scholar (Charles King) which he feared 
might in time prove a rival in his business, threw him 
into a kind of melancholy discontent." " Very curious 
discrepancies " (continues Mr. Squire) " exist as to the 
exact date when Clark shot himself. Burney (fol- 
lowed by F^tis) says the event took place in July 1707; 
the first edition of Hawkins fixes it as Nov. 5th, 1707 
in which he has been followed by Mendel, Baptie and 
Brown. But Hawkins left a copy of his Hibtory in 
which he had made numerous corrections, and in this 
the date appears Dec. ist, 1707, which date is given 
in the 1853 edition of the work. In the Chapel Royal 
Cheque Book is an entry signed by the Sub-dean to 
the effect that, on Nov. 5th, 1707, Croft was admitted 
into the organist's place, ' now become voyd by the 
death of Mr. Jeremiah Clark,' and in Barrett's En' 
glish Church Composers (p. 106), is a statement that 
the books of the vicars choral of S. Paul's contain an 
entry to the effect that on ' Nov. y° first Mr. Jerry 
Clark deceased this life.' These various accounts 
seem quite irreconcilable, but the following facts throw 
some light on the subject. I. In 1707, Nov. 5th was 
a Wednesday, and Nov. ist a Saturday, while Dec. 
I St was a Monday. The latter date, therefore, tallies 



64 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

with the broadsheet account (published by John 
Johnson "near Stationers' Hall" and therefore close 
to Clark's house) within a week of the event, though 
no entry of the exact date of publication can be found 
at Stationer's Hall. H. The burial of Jeremiah Clark 
on Dec. 3rd, 1707. III. Administration to his goods 
was granted by the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's to 
his sister, Ann King, on Dec. 15th. The entry in the 
Chapel Royal Cheque Book, was probably not made 
at the time, and so November might easily have been 
written for December. The order of the entries, 
preceeding and following it, is this : 28th Jan. 1703; 
24th March, 1710 — 11; 25th May, 1704; 5th Nov., 
1707; 1 2th June, 1708. The entry also is not 
witnessed. With regard to the quotation from the 
records at S. Paul's everything points to its being 
either a mistake or a misprint." 

Clark's death was alluded to by the coarse poet, 
Edward Ward, who, in his work The London Spy, 
concluded what was intended to be a pathetic ode, 
with these lines : — 

Let us not therefore wonder at his fall, 

Since 'twas not so unnatural 

For him who lived by Canon to expire by Ball. 

The Chapter House in S. Paul's Churchyard has 
usually been pointed out as the scene of Clarke's 
melancholy suicide ; it is more probable, however, that 
it was the Almonry House or choristers' residence 
which stood close by. According to another story, 
his former fellow chorister, old John Readmg, hap- 
pened to be passing through the churchyard at the 
time, and hearing shots fired, rushed in and found 
his friend in the agonies of death. 

Thus died Jeremiah Clark, nearly at the same early 
age which was fatal to Pelham Humphreys, Henry 
Purcell, Mozart, Schubert, Weber, Mendelssohn, and 
Goetz. 



OP s. Paul's catsedaal. 6$ 

Two Morning Services * (consisting of Te Deum and 
fubilate) by Clark in the keys of G and C minor, were 
published by Dr. Rimbault in his admirable collec- 
tion of Cathedral Services which appeared in 1847, 
while a portion of a Communion Service in A minor, 
comprising a Sandus and Gloria in Excelsis, was 
given by Dr. Arnold in the first volume of his Cathe- 
dral Mmic, published in 1790. 

Of Clark's anthems the following (as far as the 
writer has been able to discover), are the only ones 
which have been printed. He was, by no means, a 
prolific writer, for his untimely death occurred well 
nigh before his genius had time to expand itself. 



£ow down tAine ear (verse h, 3 V.) I Harmonia Sacra, 

Lord God of my salvation (full i 6 v.) }■ a collection of An- 
The Lord is my strength (verse S. 3 v.) thems. 3 vols, 

J 1800. 
How long wilt Thou forget me (treble, ] 

solo, and chorus) f Printed in Boyce's 

1 will love Thee, Lord (verse k 2 v.) X Cathedral Music. 
Praise the Lord, Oyerusakm (full k 4 v.) ) 

1 VnxAe&KnTheCathe- 
Praise the Lord, O my soul (verse k 3 v.) ( dral Magazine, a 
The Lord is full of compassion (ditto) ( collection of An- 

) thems. c. 1767. 

Perhaps the highest flight of Clark's genius is his 
anthem *' I will love Thee, O Lord." This fine piece 
of music is more frequently performed than anything 
else of Clark's. It is one of the most vigorous and 

* These two services were printed by Dr. Rimbault from a folio score- 
book used by Clark himself in the organ-loft of S. Paul's. It was entirely in 
the hand-writing of Charles, Badham, one of the Vicars-choral, and con- 
tained, besides the services in (question, the following anthems by Clark ; — 
" 1 will love Thee " (Thanksgiving Anthem, Aug. 23rd, 1705) ; "Praise the 
Lord, O my soul " ; " O Lord, rebuke me not (written for John Elford's 
voice); *'The Lord is full of compassion " ; "How long wilt Thou for^t 
me " ; " Bow down thine ear ' ; " The Lord is my strength " (Thanksgiving 
Anthem, June 27th, 1706). Another Interesting MS. volume also iormerly 
in die possession of Dr. Rimbault, contained two 'Communion Services and 
fifteen Anthems by Michael Wise. 



66 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



musician-like anthems produced at the beginning of 
the last century, abounding in deep pathos, and in 
what we should term, dramatic force, were we 
speaking of secular music. The composer evidently 
bestowed more than ordinary care upon it, and 
studied bringing into expressive relief the contrasts of 
divine poetry. At certain of our cathedrals the MS. 
copies of this anthem differ considerably from the 
version furnished by Boyce in the third volume of his 
Cathedral Music. 

Some of Clark's anthems, as before remarked, are 
written in an exceedingly pathetic and elegiac vein, 
especially " Bow down Thine ear " and " O Lord 
God of my salvation." In fact, expression and ten- 
derness are so much his characteristics that he has 
justly been termed "the musical Otway of his time." 

Clark could, however, occasionally shake off his 
boding thoughts, and produce such quaint and 
sprightly strains as those to be found in the anthem, 
" Praise the Lord, O Jerusalem," written for the coro- 
nation of Queen Anne and performed at one of her 
state visits to S. Paul's. 

Some fine solid psalm-tunes were composed by 
Clark ; one of them, " S. Magnus," or " Nottingham ' 
has found a place in many modern hymnals, and is 
still frequently sung in our churches. A double 
chant in F sharp minor was adapted from one of 
Clark's pieces by Sir John Goss, and included in his 
collection of chants pubHshed in 1841. 

It is worthy of remembrance that Clark was the 
original composer of Dryden's celebrated Ode, "Alex- 
ander's Feast," which was performed at Stationers' 
Hall on S. Cecilia's Day, Nov. 22nd, 1697. The 
music, however, was not printed at the time, and is 
now lost. He likewise wrote a Cantata, The Assump- 
tion, and, in conjunction with Daniel Purcell, organist 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, an opera entitled The 



OF S. FAULTS CATBEDRAL. 67 

Indian Princess. Numerous other operas and musical 
pieces, harpsichord lessons, and songs, appeared from 
his pen. Many of the last-named were included in 
the various collections of the day. 

Richard Brind was the next organist of S. Paul's. 
Of his biography but little appears to be known, and 
of his compositions rather less. The words, how- 
ever, of five of his anthems were given in Dr. Croft's 
collection of 235, entitled Divine Harmony, in 171 2. 
We will pass on, therefore, to a more important per- 
sonage, his famous pupil, Maurice Greene, who suc- 
ceeded him on his death in 17 18. 

Maurice Greene, the son of the Rev. Thomas 
Greene, D.D., Rector of S. Olave, Old Jewry, in the 
City of London, was born in 1692. Having a sweet 
voice he was placed, in 1 706, in the choir of S. Paul'« 
under the tutelage of Jeremiah Clark, and after the 
death of that composer a year later, continued a 
pupil of his brother-in-law, Charles King, a gifted, 
but badly-trained musician. Four years later Greene 
was articled to Brind, and, in 17 18, succeeded him in 
his important post, having previously officiated 
at the parish churches of S. Dunstan, Fleet Street, 
and S. Andrew, Holborn. To the former of these 
posts he succeeded mainly through the influence of 
his lawyer uncle, Serjeant Greene, while the latter he 
obtained after a sharp competition with John Isham, 
Edward Purcell, and others. 

On the death of Dr. Croft in 1727, Greene, who 
had already greatly distinguished himself in his pro- 
fession, was appointed his successor as one of the 
organists and composers of the Chapel Royal, and 
in this capacity, more so perhaps than in that of S. 
Paul's, his anthems were written. Three years later 
the professorial chair of music at Cambridge fell 
vacant by the death of Dr. Thomas Tudway, who had 
held it since 1705, and our composer was elected, 
F 2 



68 tsE on^ANisrs and composers 



having at the same time the degree of Doctor, in 
Music conferred upon him. His exercise upon this 
occasion was a setting of Pope's " Ode on S. Cecilia's 
Day." The poet, at Greene's request, made consider- 
able alterations in the poem and introduced a new 
stanza, "Amphion thus bade wild dissensions 
cease." 

In 1736 Greene succeeded John Eccles as Master 
of the King's Band of Musicians, a post afterwards 
held by Dr. Boyce, and during the early part of the 
present century, by that charming composer of artless 
English melody, William Shield. 

Greene's later years were spent in comparative 
affluence, for the lawyer uncle already alluded to, 
bequeathed him a country house called Bois Hall 
near Abridge in Essex, an estate worth ^^700 a year. 
Being thus possessed of ample means, and the con- 
sequent leisure from teaching, etc., rising therefrom, 
he commenced an undertaking upon which he had long 
set his heart He had, for some time, reflected on the 
corruptions that had taken place in English Church 
music, occasioned chiefly by the multiplication of 
copies, and the ignorance and carelessness of tran- 
scribers, and he formed the resolution of securing it 
against such injuries in future. 

With this object in view he commenced collecting 
a great number of the services and anthems of our 
most distinguished composers from Tallis downwards. 
He then collated them (the most arduous part of the 
undertaking) and made considerable progress in 
reducing them into score, with the intention of giving 
the result of his labours to the public ; but this he 
never accomphshed; for, having by the year 1755, a 
conviction that his dissolution was not far distant he 
bequeathed by will, the whole of his materials to Dr. 
Boyce (himself a former chorister of S. Paul's) with 
the request that he would continue the work. Boyce 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 6g 

complied, and the honourable and scholarly way in 
which he finished the difficult task is well known. 

It may not be uninteresting to mention that the 
idea of making a collection of cathedral music 
originated with Dr. John Alcock, organist and vicar- 
choral of Lichfield Cathedral, and another chorister 
of S. Paul's. He, about 1730, issued proposals for 
publishing by subscription the services and anthems 
of the great English masters. Being, however, 
opposed in his scheme by Greene, who announced 
his intention of presenting every cathedral in England 
with a set of the books, Alcock very generously 
gave up to him all the materials then in his posses- 
sion. 

Such was the origin of the famed compilation 
known as Boyce's Cathedral Music, of which the first 
volume appeared in 1760, the second in 1770, and 
the third and last in 1778, only a year before the 
death of the illustrious compiler, who, after Gibbons, 
Purcell, and Croft, probably takes rank as the greatest 
exponent of Anglican Church music. 

During the earlier years of Greene's tenure of the 
organistship of S. Paul's, an unwieldy figure in a great 
white wig (well known to musical London) might 
frequently have been seen at the cathedral, crossing 
the empty space under the dome, presently disap-. 
pearing under the organ-loft, and entering the choir 
It was no less a person than George Frederick Handel, 
who was extremely fond of rambling down from his 
house in distant Brook Street to attend afternoon 
service, and to play upon the organ afterwards. 
Handel had a great liking for Father Schmidt's noble 
instrument, gaining access to the keyboard through 
his friendship with Greene. 

The main attraction for Handel in the S. Paul's 
organ was the circumstance of its possession of a set 
of pedals, at this time quite a rarity in English organs. 



70 THM ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Burney, the musical historian, writing an account of 
the Handel Comraemoration of 1784, informs us that 
" on Handel's first arrival in England, from Greene's 
great admiration of this master's manner of playing, he 
had sometimes literally condescended to become his 
bellows-blower, when he went to S. Paul's to play on 
that organ, for the exercise it afforded him in the use 
of the pedals. Handel, after 3 o'clock prayers,* used 
frequently to get himself and young Greene locked up 
in the church together ; and in summer often stript 
unto his shirt, and played away until 8 or 9 o'clock at 
night." 

It is not to be wondered that the composer of 
the grand Organ Concertos should have delighted to 
play upon an instrument whose compass not only 
extended down to the i6-feet C, but whose tone 
was then by far the most superb in the British 
Isles. 

When some additions and improvements were made 
to the S. Paul's organ in 1724, we are informed in 
a contemporaiy newspaper called Afplebee's Weekly 
Journal of August 29th, that, "their Royal High- 
nesses the Princess Anne and Princess Caroline came 
to S. Paul's Cathedral and heard the famous Mr. 
Handel (their musick-masler) perform upon the organ ; 
.the Rev. Dr. Hare, Dean of Worcester, attending 
their Royal Highnesses during their stay there." 

At the conclusion of afternoon service it was fre- 
quently Handel's practice to adjourn to the Queen's 
Arms Coffee House in S. Paul's Churchyard (where 
for many years, after 1755, the booksellers' trade sales 
were held) in company with some of the Minor 
Canons and Gentlemen of the Choir. In the large 
room of the aforesaid coffee-house there was a harpsi- 

* In 1742 the hour of afternoon service was aItere(J from 3 o'clock to a 
quarter past. — J, S. B. 



OP S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 71 



chord, and here they amused themselves for hours 
playing, singing, and listening. On one of these 
occasions, Mr. Samuel Weeley, a bass-singer in the 
choir, informed Handel that some recently-published 
harpsichord lessons by Johann Mattheson were to be 
had at Mears' the music-seller's in the churchyard.* 
Handel sent out for them, there and then, and on 
their arrival sat down to the harpsichord, and played 
them through from beginning to end, without once 
rising from the instrument. 

Latterly, Handel's friendship with Greene greatly 
cooled, when he found he had been paying equal court 
to his Italian rival, Giovanni Buononcini. 

Greene's reputation as an ecclesiastical composer 
rests upon his Forty Select Anthems, originally pub- 
lished by Walsh, of Catherine Street, Strand, in two 
folio volumes in 1743. Their contents were as 
follows : — 

Vol. I. 



Solo anthems. 
Acquaint thyself {i\X.6). 
Let my complaint (alto). 
Lord, how are they increased 

(alto). 
My God, look upon me (tenor). 
sin^ unfo the Lord (tenc r). 
Praise the Lord, my soul 

(treble). 

Verse anthems, Jl 2 v. 
Blessed are they that dwell. 
O praise our God, ye people. 
Praise the Tjyrd, ye servants. 
Sing unto the Loi'd. 



Verse anthems, Ji 3 v. 
/ will give thanks. 
Let God arise. 
God, Thou art my God, 
Put me not to rebuke. 

Verse anthems, ^ 4 v. 
Arise, shine, O Zion. 

Full anthems with verses. 
/ will sing of Thy power. 
Lord, how long wilt Thou. 
Lord, let vie know mine end. 
sing unto the Lord. 

Full anthem k 5 v. 
clap your hands. 



* Diiring the last century several well-known music-publishers and musi- 
cal instrument makers were located in S Paul's Churchyard, the Cathedral 
services doubtless having the effect of drawing them into the neighbourhood. 
At C. and S. Thompson's (No. 75) was published about 1740, one of the ear- 
liest printed Collections of Chants, entitled, F-JlyDoiMe and Single Chaunts, 
being the moGt favourite as performed at S. Paul's,^Wegtmin£ter, and most of 
t/ie Cathedrals in England, 8vo. Barak Norman and Nathaniel Cross, at 



72 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Vol. II. 



Solo anthems. 
JIave mercy upon me (alto). 
My soul truly waiieth (bass). 

Lord, grant the King (tenor). 
The Lord, even the most mighty 

God (bass). 

Verse anthems h. 2 v. 
Blessed are those thai are unde- 

filed. 
Behold, I bring you. 
Hear, Lord. 

1 will sr-ek unto God. 
O give thanks. 

God of my righteousness. 



O Lord give ear. 
sing unto God. 
The Lord is my shepherd. 
Thou, God, art praised. 
Verse anthert-s Si 3 v. 
The King shall rejoice^ 

Verse anthems t 4 v. 
God is our hope and strength. 
Hear my prayer. 
how amiable. 

Full anthems. 
How long wilt Thou forget me 

(& 8 V.) 
Let my complaint (k S v.) 



There is much exquisite music in the above anthems, 
and it has been truly said that they combine the 
science and vigour of our earlier writers with the 
melody of the best Italian and German masters who 
flourished during the first half of the eighteenth 
century. 

Greene, however, was not without his faults as a 
Church composer. His energies seem to have been 
concentrated upon his solos, duets, and verses, many 
of which he extended to a most undue length. Not- 
withstanding this, certain of them are quite unap- 
proachable for delicacy and propriety of expression. 
Like several of his contemporaries (Kent, for example) 
Greene was too apt to lose sight of that most essen- 
tial part of an anthem, namely the chorus. In many 
instances, he treated it as a mere finale. 

" Acquaint thyself," is perhaps the happiest speci- 
men of Greene's style as a composer of solos, and the 
short final chorus, "The Lord will deliver the 

the sign of the Bass Viol, were esteemed makers of violins. The music- 
shops of Hare and Mears were also celebrated. Thompson's shop was after- 
wards Button and Whittaker's, and here, in 1809, appeared Dr. Clarke- 
Whitfeld's edition of Handel's vocal works, noteworthy as being the first to 
which a separate part was provided for the organ or pianoforte, all previous 
editions such as Walsh's and Arnold's having merely a figured bass, 



OF S. PAUL'S OATBEDRAL. 



73 



righteous, He will save the humble man," is exceed- 
ingly soothing and beautiful. James Bartleman, the 
celebrated bass-singer (1769-1821) when a chorister 
of Westminster Abbey, had a remarkable contralto 
voice, and his singing of the aforesaid solo was always 
considered a great feature. 

"Arise, shine, O Zion," " O Lord give ear," " My 
God, look upon me," and " The Lord, even the most 
mighty God hath spoken," are probably among the 
anthems which also display Greene's abilities as a 
writer of solos and verses to the greatest advantage. 

As a composer of full anthems in four, five, and six 
parts, Greene was perhaps second only to Croft. This 
may be seen by an examination of the scores of " Let 
my complaint," " I will sing of Thy power," and " O 
clap your hands." 

" Thou, O God, art praised in Zion " has a very 
beautiful finale, consisting of a bass solo and chorus 
to the words " Thou visitest the earth." This move- 
ment, together with another anthem, " God is our 
hope and strength " is more frequently performed in 
our cathedrals than anything else of Greene's at the 
present day. The last-named has many passages of 
extreme grandeur and beauty, whether we consider the 
verse or the chorus. 

Vincent Novello issued a reprint of the Forty Select 
Anthems abovA 1846. The same order was followed 
in the placing of the pieces as in the original 
edition, but an organ part was added, there having 
been formerly only a figured-bass for the guidance of 
the performer. Another reprint was issued somewhat 
earlier by Lonsdale, and the following verse anthems, 
several of which had not previously been published, 
formed a third or supplementary volume : — 



ffave mercy upon me, k 3 v. 
Hear my crying, k 2 v. 
Hear my frayer, k 3 v. 



/ imll alway give thanks, k 3 v. 
/ will magmfy Thee, k 2 v. 
lAke as the hart, k 2 v, 



74 



TBE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



give thanks ^ 2 v. 

O Lord our Governor, i 3 v. 



TheJ^ord is my strength, k 3 v. 



Certain of the Forty Select Anthems were published 
separately by Greene under the title of Six Solo An- 
thems as performed before His Majesty at the Chapel 
Royal for a Voice alone, with a Thorough Bass for the 
Harpsichord or Organ, viz.: — 



1. Acquaint thyself. 

2. Let my complaint. 

3. Lord, how are they increased. 



4. M^ God, look upon me. 

5. Praise the Lord, my soul. 

6. Sins unto the Lord. 



In Arnold's collection of Cathedral Music were 
given the following, none of which had previously 
appeared in print ; — 



*Hcar my prayer (verse k 4 v.) 
/ will mojnlfy Thee (verse ^ 

2 V.) 

like as the hart (verse \ 2 v.) 
O God, Thou hast cast tis out 

(verse \ 3 v.) 
Lord God 0/ hosts (so\o). \ 

In Page's Harmonia Sacra (3 vols, folio, 1800), 
were included these seven from unpublished MSS.: — 



Lord I will praise Thee 

(verse \ 3 v.) 
praise the Lord of heaven 

(verse k 4 v.) 
* Praise the Lord, my soul 

(solo). 



Bow down Thine ear (full k 6 v.) 
Hear my crying (verse k 2 v.) 
1 will al way give thanks (verse 

k3 v.) 
Ponder my words (verse k 2 v.) 



Lord, look down from heaven 

(verse \ 3 v.) 
Save me, God (solo). 
The Lord is my stren^h (verse 

Ji,3v.) 



Lastly, in a small collection of anthems published 
by Birchall and Andrews (now Mills) at the sign of 
the Handel's Head, New Bond Street, towards the 
close of the last century, were given the following : — 

/ call with my whole heart (full I Hear my prayer (verse k 3 v.) 
k 5 V.) I L cried unto the Lord (full h,^v.) 

It cannot be said that Greene made any very marked 
success as a writer of services. His Morning and 



* Entirely different from tiie settings to the same Jirst words in t^a 
P(yrty Select Anthems, 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL, Jt, 

Evening Service in the key of C major, given in the 
second volume of Arnold's Cathedral Music, is much 
too elaborate and intricate to be universally popular in 
choirs, and appears to be rarely, if ever, performed. 
The original score in the composer's handwriting had 
upon it a note to the following effect : " Begun at 
Fareham Castle in May 1737, and finished in London 
in June following." 

Among Greene's miscellaneous compositions may 
be mentioned a Festival Te Deum in D, written for 
the Thanksgiving Service held at S. Paul's for the 
Suppression of the Rebellion of '45 ; the oratorios of 
Jephiha, and The Force of Iruth ; several masques, 
pastoral operas, odes, canons, catches, harpsichord 
pieces, songs, and organ-voluntaries. One of the last 
named, an overture, has recently been re-published. 

To the above must be added a single chant in B 
flat, included in many collections ; likewise two or 
three psalm-tunes, still to be met with in some modern 
hymnals. 

Dr. Greene suffered from a personal deformity, but 
this circumstance does not appear to have debarred 
him from entering into society, where, on account of 
his affability and polished manners, he' was a great 
favourite. 

I he Gentleman's Magazine of 1755 states that Dr. 
Greene died on December ist of that year, at Bois 
Hall, Essex. He was buried in the rectorial vault 
beneath the church of S. Olave, Old Jewry. This 
church, so familiar to passers down the Old Jewry 
by its fine Wrennian east end and curious obelisked 
tower, was, a few years ago, marked out for demo- 
lition. At the time of the removal of the church 
all bodies buried in the vaults were to be re-interred in 
a suburban cemetery, unless the friends came forward 
and claimed them. It was then suggested that, pro- 
vided none of Dr, Greene's relatives claimed hig 



yS THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSER 

remains, they might be deposited in S. Paul's. This 
was accordingly done through the instrumentality of 
Sir John Stainer the organist, and Dr. W. A. Barrett, 
one of the vicars choral of the Cathedral. 

The coffin, containing the composer's remains, 
having been satisfactorily identified in the vaults of 
S. Olave's, was, at half-past six o'clock on the morning 
of Friday, May i8th last, brought through the silent 
streets, in a plain hearse, to the Cathedral, and imme- 
diately carried to the crypt, where it was deposited in 
the grave of Y)r. Boyce. The stone was then replaced, 
and by the time of the 8 o'clock Morning Prayer the 
floor of the crypt had resumed its wonted aspect. No 
ceremony took place at the re-interment, but at the 
4 o'clock Evensong the composer's fine anthem, " God 
is our hope and strength," was performed, and at the 
conclusion of the Office, the members of the Cathedral 
staff, and a number of musical men, gathered round 
the grave to hear a short account of the affair from 
Dr. W. A. Barrett, who concluded his remarks by 
observing, " Here we hope his bones may rest for 
ever, unless S. Paul's Cathedral is required for City 
improvements." 

It was with great propriety that the remains of Dr. 
Greene were placed in the same grave as those of Dr. 
Boyce, who was, as we have previously seen, his lite- 
rary executor, and his successor in the editing and 
publishing of that great work. The Cathedral Music. 

The following inscription has since been placed 
underneath that of Boyce : Here also rest the remains of 
Dr. Maurice Greene. Born 1695, died % Dec.*, 1755. 
Organist of this Cathedral, 1718 — 1755. Removed 
from the Church of S. Olave, Jewry, on its demolition, 
and re-interred here on 18 May, 1888. 



• This date is not reconcilable with that given in the " Gentleman's 
Jilagazine."— J. S. B, 



Of s. Paul's gatbedral. 77 

It must not be forgotten that Greene, in conjunc- 
tion with his friend, Michael Festing (an eminent 
performer on, and composer for, the violin) was 
one of the founders of that most valuable institu- 
tion, the Society of Musicians. It originated as 
follows : — 

Festing being seated one day at the window of the 
Orange Coffee House in the Haymarket, in company 
with Weidemann the flautist and Vincent the oboist, 
they observed two very nice-looking and intelligent 
boys driving milch asses. On enquiring, they found 
them to be the orphan sons of Kytch, an eminent but 
imprudent German oboist, who had settled in London, 
and there recently died, literally in the street, from 
sheer want. Shocked by this discovery, Festing con- 
sulted with Greene and other musicians, and the result 
was the establishment of the Society of Musicians 
for the support of decayed musicians and their 
families. 

Festing's only son, the Rev. Michael Festing, rector 
of Wyke Regis, Dorset, married the only child of his 
father's most intimate friend, Dr. Maurice Greene. 
From this union sprang many descendants to per- 
petuate the name of Festing, and it appears that not 
many years since a Hertfordshire innkeeper was 
living, rejoicing in the name of Maurice Greene 
Festing. 



The minor canons of S. Paul's have frequently 
been noted for their musical abilities. We have 
already had instances of this in the cases of Barnard 
and Clifford. Until comparatively recently they sat 
with the vicars-choral in the sub-stalls, and, when 
they attended in a body, formed a most important 
addition to the somewhat meagre adult choral staff. 
Many of them have attained to very great ages, and 



78 THE ORGANISES AND COMPOSERS 



of this there is a striking illustration at the period of 
which we are now treating.* 

The Rev. Sampson Estwick, the case in point, 
began his education as one of the first set of children 
of the Chapel Royal after the Restoration, under Cap- 
tain Henry Cook, having for his fellow-chorisLers 
Pelham Humphrey, Michael Wise, John Blow, and 
William Turner. 

Designed for the Church, Estwick was sent to com- 
plete his studies at Christ Church, Oxford, where he 
formed a strong friendship with the versatile Dean 
Aldrich, who is reported to have composed for Est- 
wick, two other friends, and himself, his curious 
" Smoking Catch," which is so constructed as to allow 
each singer time for his puff. 

While at Oxford, Estwick greatly distinguished him- 
self by his musical abilities, and composed, in con- 
junction with Richard Goodson, organist of Christ 
Church, and Professor of Music in the University, 
a set of Latin and English Odes, performed in 
the Sheldonian Theatre at various Commemorations. 

* In modern times the Rev. J. W. Vivian, appointed on April i3t. 1816, 
died on April 17th, 1876, aged 91, and the Rev. Rd. Collier Packman, 
appointed June Bth, 1822, died on January 27th, 1875, aged 83. The 
Rev. Christopher Packe. appointed April 30111, 1817, died at a very 
advanced age in 1878. It may be interesting to observe that in forei-^n 
cathedrals, length of service on the part of the clerical and lay officials, 
is of as frequent occurrence as in cur own. To take a case in point : — 
During a recent visit of the writer to Amiens he was informed that 
M. Retel, the ...erpent-player of the cathedral, had just died, at the age of 
90, having passed 8t years of his life in the service of the Cathedral ! He 
was one of the first-appointed children of the choir when the services were 
re-established after the Reign of Terror. In 1816 he became serpent-player 
of the cathedral, until the place of that instrument was taken by the small 
choir-organ, lor the accompaniment of the plain-song. In the same mpnch 
that he died the serpent waslre-introduced at a solemn service held at Amiens, 
and in spite of his 90 years he performed with the greatest ability 
on his beloved insirument. M. Retel saw nine bishops occupy the ihrone 
of that glorious cathedral, Amiens. Those unacquainted withthe nature 
of the serpent may like to know that it is a powerful bass wind-instrument, 
consisting of a tube of wood covered with leather, furnished with a mouth, 
piece lilce a trombone, ventages and keys, and twisted into a serpentine 
fbrm ; hence its name. Its compass extends from B fiat below the bass 
stave, to C in the third space of the treble clef, including eveiy tone and 
semi-tone. It is, however, a difficult instrument to play, and, in the hands 



oP s. Paul's cathedral. jg 

Several of these bore reference to the Duke of Marl- 
borough's victories and other political occurrences. 
On S. Cecilia's Day, November 22nd, 1696, he 
preached a sermon in Christ Church Cathedral upon 
the occasioti of the Anniversary Meeting of the Lovers 
of Musick. This was subsequently printed. On Jan. 
30th, 1698, Estwick preached a sermon at S. Paul's 
upon the occasion ot the annual service for the Mar- 
tyrdom of King Charles I. A copy of this discourse 
is preserved in the Library of the Corporation of 
London at Guildhall. 

When this sermon was preached, Estwick had been 
a minor canon of S. Paul's for six years. He held in 
succession the livings of S. Michael, Queenhithe, and 
S. Helen, Bishopsgate. In 1703 he was an unsuc- 
cessful candidate for the Gresham Professorship of 
Music. At the time of his death, which took place in 
February, 1739, he was Senior Cardinal of S. Paul's. 

" This venerable servant of the Church," wrote Sir 
John Hawkins in 1776, "still survives in the remem- 
brance of many persons now living. Bending beneath 
the weight of years, but possessing his faculties and 
even his voice, which was a deep bass, to the last, he 
constantly attended his duty at S. Paul's ; habited in a 
surplice, and with his bald head covered with a black 
satin coif, with gray hair round the edge of it, exhibited 
a figure, the most awful that can be well received." 

Two of the vicars-choral living about this same 
period, viz., John Elford and Dr. William Turner, must 
not be passed over without a few words of mention. 

The first-named of these was a gifted counter-tenor 

of an indifferent performer, is apt to become decidedly unpleasant. The 
serpent is now rarely met wiih in the French cathedrals, but in out-of-the- 
way village and town churches it may occasionally be heard. In Wild's 
very fine coloured print^ representing^ the choir of Amiens during the cele- 
bration of High Mass (m the possession of the writer), a pair of serpents form 
a very prominent feature. They were played from the subsella, close to the 
Cantors' desks. 



8o TSE ORGfANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



singer, so much so that John Weldon, one of the 
sweetest of English Church composers (at the time 
organist of the Chapel Royal), wrote a set of Solo An- 
thems, expressly to display his voice. Elford was like- 
wise a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and a lay vicar 
of Westminster Abbey. The same three appoint- 
ments were held by William Turner, who began his 
musical career as one of the first set of children of the 
Chapel Royal after the Restoration, together with Hum- 
phrey, Blow, and Estwick. An anthem is still in exis- 
tence, composed by the above three boys when choris- 
ters, to the words, " I will alway give thanks," usually 
denominated " The Club Anthem." Dr. Boyce was 
of opinion that it was intended as a memorial of the 
strict friendship existing between the three young 
composers. Each agreed to set different verses and 
to connect and form them into a regular anthem. 
Turner preceeded Doctor in Music at Cambridge in 
1696, and had the singular honour of being a gentle- 
man of the Chapels Royal to seven kings and queens 
successively. His voice was a fine high counter tenor. 
He died on January 13th, 1740, at a great age, and 
was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, in 
the same grave and at the same time as his wife 
Elizabeth, whose death took place four days before his 
own, after their having been married by a few years 
short of seventy, and having lived together in the 
utmost amity and affection. Their only daughter, 
Elizabeth, was married to John Robinson, Croft's 
successor in 1727, as organist of Westminster Abbey, 
and composer of the familiar double chant in E flat, 
said to have been the favourite of George III.* 

Turner's Church compositions were not particularly 

* Robinson was one of the children of the Chapel Royal under Dr. EIow 
and according to the '* Succinct Account " given in Boyce's Cat/iedral Jjdusic 
vol 111., was " a most excellent performer on the organ." It, was during his 
tenure of the Abbey organistship that the new inttument was erected by 
Schreider and Jordan, and used for the first time on Aug. i, 1730 die an- 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. §1 



numerous. Two services in E minor and A minof 
were included in the extensive collection of lylS, 
Church music, niade by Tudway for the Earl of Harley, 
now in the British Museum, together with the follow? 
ing anthems : — 

Behold novi, praise the Lard, 

Lord, Thou hast been our refuge (also printed iii 
the 3rd volume of Boyce). 

O praise the Lord. i 

The King shall rejoice. 

The Lord is righteous. 

A singularly melodious and beautiful anthem, '' Lift 
up your heads," an excellent specimen of the short full 
style then in vogue, was printed in The Parish Choir,_ 
in 1848. 

The Almoner and Master of the Boys at S. Paul's 
during Greene's tenure of the organistship was Charles. 
King, who gained considerable reputation on account 
of the large number of services he wrote, a circum- 
stance which gave rise to the sarcastic pun of Greene 
(who appears to have thought it remarkably funny, for. 
he was fond of repeating it), that " Mr. King was a 
very serviceable man." 

This serviceable composer, then, was born at the 
good old town of Bury S. Edmunds in 1687. In 1693 
he was sent up to London, and placed in the choir of 
S. Paul's, with Blow for his master. On the resigna-. 
tion of that composer very shortly afterwards, he con- 
tinued his studies under Jeremiah Clark, to whose 
office, as Almoner, he eventually succeeded. 

During his early manhood, King remained in the 
choir as a supernumerary singer, with the modest sum 
of ;^i4 as his annual stipend. In 1707 he became 
Almoner and Master of the Choristers, and in the same 

them sung on the occasion bein^ that wonderful one of Purcell's, " O give 
thanks." A very curious print is in the possession of the writer. It repre- 
sents John Robinson, seated at an organ, with a double row of keys, in the 
earlier Georgian flowing wig and dress. This print, which is believed to by 
remarkably rare, was engraved by G. Vertuefrom a painting by T. Johnson. 
G 



82 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



year took his degree of Bachelor in Music at Oxford, 
his exercise on the occasion consisting of a setting of 
•' The Dialogue between Oliver Cromwell and Charon." 
This was afterwards set by Henry Hall, organist of 
Hereford. 

In conjunction with his offices at S. Paul's, King 
was permitted to hold the post of organist to the 
church of S. Benet Fink, near the Royal Exchange, 
now demolished, the parish being united with that of S. 
Peter le Poer, Old Broad Street. It was not until 1 730 
that he was appointed to a full vicarage at S. Paul's. 

King was twice married, his first wife being the 
sister of Jeremiah Clark. By his second wife he 
appears to have had a fortune of some ^£"7,000 left her 
by the widow of Humphrey Primatt, a druggist of Smith- 
field, together with a beautiful villa at Hampton-on- 
Thames, afterwards the property of David Garrick. 
Notwithstanding this accession of fortune, he is said 
to have left his family in but indifferent circumstances. 

The books of the vicars-choral of S. Paul's state that 
Charles King died on March 17, 1748. His death 
took place at Hampton, at the villa aforesaid, and 
his burial is recorded in the register of the parish 
church.* Unfortunately, however, no stone exists to 
mark the resting place of his remains, for, when the 
ancient parish church of Hampton was demolished, 
and the present edifice erected in the Pointed style of 
i83o,t considerable havoc was made among the 
old grave-stones, many of them being used to pave the 
church-yard, and that of King may have thus perished. 

* For this fact 1 am indebted to the kindness of Mr. Henry Ripley, the 
present organist of Hampton Church, and the author of a most interesting 
History of the parish, 

t On the occasion of the consecration of the present church of Hampton 
by Bisliop Blomfield, in the presence of Queen Adelaide, Sept. zst, 1831, the 
following music was sung by the choir of the Chapel Royal, Attwood offi- 
ciating at the organ : — Before service. Old Hundredth Psalm ; Te Deum 
and Jubilate, King in P; Sanctus and Kyrie, Attwood in Q. After the 
Nicene Creed, anthem, " I have surely built Thee an house" (Boyce). Aft^r 
be sermon " Hallelujah" (HanM). 



OF S. PAUL'S CATIiEDRAL. 83 



While at Hampton, King officiated as music-in- 
structor to some of the royal and quasi-royal per- 
sonages resident at the Palace. 

The following is a list of his printed Church com- 
positions : — 

SERVICES. 
In F. Te Deum, jfuiilate, Kyrie, Credo, Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis (printed originally in Arnold's Cathedral 
Music, Vol. II., and subsequently in editions too 
numerous to particularize. The best modern one is in 
Novello's octavo series). 
In D. Te Deum, yubilaie, Sanctus, Kyrie, Credo, Magnificat 
and Nunc Dimittis. (The Morning and Evening Ser- 
vices printed by John Bishop, of Cheltenham, and 
also by Marshall of Oxford. The Communion Ser- 
vice has not been published, but there are MS. copies 
of it at S. Paul's and several other cathedrals). 
In B flat Te Deum, Jubilate, Sanctus, Kyrie, Credo, Cantatc 

Domino and Deus Misereatur (Arnold, Vol. I.) 
In A. (FuU) Te Deum, JuHlate, Kyrie, Credo ( Arnold,Vol. Ill), 

Sanctus added by R. Hudson. 
In A. (Verse) Te Deum, Jubilate, Magnificat and Nunc 

Dimtttis. (Arnold, Vol. II.) 
In C. Te Deum, Jubilate, Sanctus, Kyrie, Credo, Magnificat 

and Nunc Dimittis (Arnold, Vol. III.) 
In A. Gloria in Excelsis. (Printed by Bishop of Cheltenham, 
c. 1850. There is a MS. copy of it at S. Paul's. It 
was probably written to complete the Communion 
Service in A).* 

ANTHEMS. 
Hear, Lord (full \s.t,\.) \ Printed in 

pray for the pecue (fxHW^v.) f Arnold's 
Rejoice in the Lord (full with verse ^ 5 v.) 1 Cathedral 
Wherewithal shall a young man (verse ^ 3 v.) ; Music. 

1 will alwav give thanks (verse ^ 2 v.) ■) p ■ i- ^ • 

be joyful in God (full with verse Si 3 v.) | Patre's 

1 he Lord is full of compassion (full with verse \ Harmonia 

Unto Thee, O Lord (full k 4 v.) J ^'^'"^- 



* In the manuscript choir books of S. Paul's, there are the parts of a 
Momias and Evening <Crtn((i*€) Service by King, in the key of B minor. 
Also a Cantate Service in A. These have never been printed* 
G 2 



34 ^SE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



As pants the hart (full h, 4 v.) Printed in Joseph Warren's 
Choristet's Handbook. 1850. 

Besides the above anthems King was the composer of 
nearly thirty others, none of which have been published. 
The words, however, of many of them are to be found 
in the collections of Words of Anthems, edited by Mr. 
Joule of Manchester, and the late Dr. Marshall of 
Christ Church, Oxford. 

King's remaining sacred compositions include two 
single chants in F and C minor, and a setting, as a 
round, of David's lamentation, "O Absalom, my 
son," printed in Warren's First Collection (1763, p. 7) 
and since to be met with in several other collections of 
secular part music. 

The popularity of King's services in our choirs may 
be accounted for by the fact that they contain, as a 
rule, few intricacies of writing and " ingenious con- 
trivances."* They are, likewisej comparatively unfet- 
tered by contrapuntal devices. There is, more- 
over, an exceedingly rich vein of melody observ- 
able in them, which at once captivates the singer 
or the listener. Another good point is that the 
antiphonal element is generally kept steadily in view 
— a maxim which Purcell, Blow, Aldrich, and Wise t 
with all their beauties were too prone to neglect, 
breaking up their compositions into a number of 
short choruses interspersed with verses, in a very 
restless and purposeless manner. 

King may have scored success as a melodist, but 
he certainly did not do so as a harmonist. In some 
of his services, there is much absence of judicious form, 
and a considerable presence of unnecessary tautology. 

* The harmless and hackneyed chords of King are in constant request at 
the cathedrals all over England." — Extract of a letter from S. Wesley to V. 
Novello, June loth, 1830. 

t See the services of Purcell in B flat, and G minor ; Blow in G, A, and 
E minor ; Wise in E flat, and Aldrich in A. One misses in these the calm, 
soothing flow of Tallis, Gibbons, Childe, and Rogers. 



oP s. Paul's gatsedral. 3$ 

This is especially observable in both the services in 
A, and in that in B flat. His harmony is frequently 
very crude and incorrect, and when he attempts an 
elaborate piece of counterpoint he invariably makes a 
sad mess of it. 

The service in F is perhaps King's most felicitous 
effort. Few pieces of Church music have ever been 
so widely sung. Written when its composer was only 
nineteen years of age, it is very pleasant to reflect that 
" King in F " still enjoys frequent hearing at S. Paul's, 
in spite of all the sweeping musical changes there of 
late years. Dr. Boyce esteemed the service very 
highly, and regretted his inability to give it a place in 
his Cathedral Music. Many readers may be interested 
to know that as the service in F was the first com- 
posed by King, so that in C was the last, having been 
written on his death-bed in 1748. Some of the verses 
in the B flat service are very melodious and touching, 
while the service in D has also many passages of a 
most pleasing and expressive character. 

King's anthems are not so useful as his services, 
but they contain much sweet melody in his own cha- 
racteristic style, and are still often used. " Hear, O 
Lord," a short full anthem in five parts, and " I will 
alway give thanks," containing a pretty solo, and duet 
for trebles, are perhaps the two best specimens of 
his abilities in anthem composition. 

It is very probable that Charles King's industry 
was greater than his ability, and it has been said of 
him that if his works are not embarassed with much 
enthusiasm, they cannot be reproached with many 
faults. Dr. Greene appears to have thought lightly 
of King ; but Handel thought lightly of Dr. Greene, 
and, of the two, Charles King the vicar-choral, has, 
we are bound to confess, written better and more 
useful service music than Maurice Greene the organist 
and composer. King's services have been generally 



86 TBE OROASISTS AND COMPOSERS 



censured; but they are in constant requisition in 
every cathedral in England and Ireland. This is an 
incontestible proof of merit and silences all criticism. 
Hawkins somewhat disparagingly remarks of King and 
his compositions that " no one cares to censure or 
commend them, and they leave the mind of the hearer 
just as they found it. Some, who were intimate with 
him, say he was not devoid of genius, but averse to 
study, which character seems to agree with that 
general indolence and apathy which were visible in 
his look and behaviour at Church, where he seemed 
as little affected by the service as the organ-blower." 
King was much liked by the boys placed under his 
charge, on account of his amiable and lenient dis- 
position. The following doggerel concerning him has 
been handed down by successive choristers of S. 
Paul's :— 

Indulgence ne'er was sought in vain, 

He never smote with stinging cane, 

He never stop't the penny fees,* 

His boys were let do what they please. 

Curiously enough there flourished at S. Paul's, con- 
temporaneously with Charles King the vicar-choral, 
another person of the same Christian and surname. 
He was appointed to the fifth minor canonryini7 1 7, and 
resigned at Christmas, 1730. Whether these two were 
related we are not at present in a position to affirm. 

Among King's pupils as choristers of S. Paul's 
were Greene, Boyce, Alcock, Samuel Porter, and 
Joseph Baildon. 

Greene's successor as organist was John Jones, who 
has gained a sort of reputation as the composer of a 
once popular double chant, no collection being con- 
sidered complete without it. 

Jones, although but a poor composer, could not 

^ Allusion is here made to the allowance made to the choristers cf S. 
Paul's of a penny a day out of the Almonry Fund, and which the master 
occasionally stopped for bad behaviour. 



OP s. Paul's cathedral. Zj 



have been an indifferent performer, (or we find that 
in 1 749 he was appointed one of the two organists of 
the Temple Church,* in 1753 organist of the Charter- 
house in succession to Dr. Christopher Pepusch, and 
on Christmas Day, 1755, organist of S. Paul's. He 
was allowed to retain these three posts — a system of plu- 
ralism which would not in the present day be tolerated. 

John Jones died on February 17, 1796, and not in 
1795 as usually stated in error. 

He published at Longman and Broderip's, 26, 
Cheapside, in 1785, Sixty Chants, Single and Double, 
respectfully dedicated to the Dean and Chapter of S. 
Paul's — oblong 4to. This is a collection of original 
compositions now but rarely met with, and when found 
is much prized by those interested in the bibliography 
of chants. A copy is,, however, with the writer. The 
chants are printed in vocal score with a separate ac- 
companiment for the organ. Prefixed are the follow- 
ing curious directions concerning the use of the 
book : — " The Psalms of David being either Rejoycing, 
Penitential, or Historical, those chants which best suit 
such sentiments are marked with an R, P, or H. ; 
bnt where the Psalms change from Rejoycing to Peni- 
tential in the same Morning or Evening Service, 
numbers XXX of both Single and Double Chants are 
particularlv adapted." + 

The majority of these chants are very florid and 
undevotional, " streams of crotchets " as Dr. Crotch 
would have said, also dotted quavers, being freely 
used — the prevailing taste of the later Georgian period. 
The first double chant is an odd arrangement of the 
Grand Chant for six voices, viz., three trebles, alto, 

* At this time there were two organists appointed to the Temple Church. 
John Stanley, the blind musician, _ who had held office since 1734, was 
Jones' colleague, and on his death in 1786, R. J. S. Stevens the glee com- 
poser, was appointed. Stevens succeeded Jones ten years later as organis 
of the Charterhouse. 

t A Single in F and F minor, and a Double in E and E minor. 



88 fEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSMS 

tenor, and bass. No. 24 is the once popUlat unison 
double in D, the singing of which affected Haydn so 
much at one of the anniversary meetings of the London 
Charity Children in S. Paul's.* It was also performed 
on April 23rd, 1789, being George Ill's Thanksgiving 
Day for his restoration to health and reason. 

Many of the chants in Jones' book, as before re- 
marked, are totally unsuited to the needs of the present 
day. A few of the more sober and devotional ones, 
however, have found places in several modern col- 
lections, notably the Cathedral Psalter Chant-book. 
The only chant of Jones' now used at S. Paul's, is a 
Single in D (No. i), sung to the Venite on the 20th 
morning of the month. 

Two services by Jones, neither of which has been 
printed, are contained in the manuscript part books of 
of S. Paul's. One is in the key of G, and consists of 
Te Deum, Jubilate, Sanctus, Kyrie, and Credo, the 
other is in F, and comprises the Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis. 

In 1 761 Jones published at Peter Welcker's in Ger- 
rard Street, S. Anne's, Soho, two volumes of Lessons 
for the Harpsichord — oblong folio. Many of these 
are very tuneful and pleasing, and afford good examples 
of the style of such compositions prevalent at the period. 
In the subscription-list prefixed appear the names of 
Battishill, Boyce, Barrow, Cooke, Camidge, Nares, 
and other well known cathedral men. Jones also pub- 
lished in 1754 a similar book of lessons in eight sets. 

William Savage, a bass-singer, succeeded King as 
Almoner, Master of the Boys, and vicar choral in 
1748. He does not appear to have possessed th6 
amiable qualities of his predecessor. As was his name, 
so was his nature, for we find that in 1773 it was 

* '* A week before Whitsuntide I heard 4,000 children sing in S.' Paul's 

Cathedral No music ever affected me so powerfully before 

in my life."— Haydn's Diary. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 89 

deeoved expedient to remove him, on account, it is 
said, of the great harshness with which he treated the 
boys committed to his charge. He was, however, 
permitted to retain his vicarage. 

Savage was a pupil of Dr. Pepusch, and, previous to 
his appointment to S. Paul's, was organist of Finchley 
Parish Church. At the time of his death on July 27, 
1789, he was one of the gentlemen of the Chapel 
Royal. Savage wrote a service, and a few other 
pieces of Church music, but his reputation as an 
ecclesiastical composer may, at the present day, be 
said to be literally sustained upon a single chant 
inC. 

Jonathan Battishill, one of our most esteemed 
Church musicians, was a pupil of Savage. Another was 
Richard John Samuel Stevens, the successful com- 
poser of Shakesperian glees, and Gresham Professor. 
Stevens, who died in 1837, left by his will a; gratuity 
of j£2o to choristers of S. Paul's, when, by the failure 
of their soprano voices, they were no longer able to 
take part in the Cathedral services. One of his fellow 
choristers was Alderman Birch of Cornhill, a great 
amateur of music, at whose house frequent glee parties 
were wont to assemble. Richard Suett, the low 
comedian, and Joseph Vernon, a popular tenor-singer 
and actor, were others of Savage's pupils. 

Robert Hudson, Mus.B., was the next Almoner 
appointed. He had a pleasing tenor voice, and when 
a young man, sang at the concerts at Ranelagh 
Gardens. Having officiated for some time as assistant 
organist of S. Mildred's, Bread Street, Hudson became, 
in 1753, one of the vicars choral of S. Paul's, and in 
1773 Almoner and Master of the Children. He held 
the latter offices for twenty years when he resigned 
them, retaining, however, his vicar choralship. He 
was for many years senior gentleman or " Father " of 
the Chapel Royal and music master at Christ's Hos- 



go THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

pital. He died at Eton, Dec. 19th, 1815, in his 
seventy-seventh year, and his remains were interred in 
the centre aisle of the crypt of S. Paul's, where there 
is a flat stone to his memory. 

Hudson's compositions for the Church include some 
chants, a Service in E flat, contained in the MS. books 
of S. Paul's, where it was once a great favourite, a Psalm- 
tune called " S. Olave's," and " A Sanctus in F, as 
performed at S. Paul's," printed in the second volume 
of the Cathedral Magazine. He also wrote a Sanctus 
to match King's full Service in A. 

Hudson set to music the epitaph on Dr. Childe's 
monument at S. George's Chapel, Windsor, beginning 
" Go, happy soul and in the seats above," and in 1767 
published The Myrtle, a Collection of new English Songs, 
some of which were printed with accompaniments for 
a band. [He trained some excellent pupils, among 
the number being Dr. Chard, and the three amiable 
brothers Pring. 

Richard Bellamy (Mus.B., Cantab.) succeeded 
Hudson in the Almonry on his resignation in 1793. 
He was reputed one of the best cathedral singers of 
his day, and Dr. Boyce, admiring his fine high bass 
voice, was induced, it is said, to write some anthems 
expressly to display it. 

Besides his appointment at S. Paul's, which he 
resigned in 1799, Bellamy was a lay vicar of West- 
minster Abbey, and one of the gentlemen of the 
Chapel Royal. He died on Sept. nth, 181 3, and 
was succeeded by an equally fine bass-singer, and a 
member of a talented family of musicians, John 
Sale. 

Bellamy printed at Thompson's, 75, S. Paul's 
Churchyard, in 1788, a thin volume containing a 
Te Deumfor a full orchestra (composed for and per- 
formed at the ceremony of the Installation of the 
Knights of the Bath in Henry VII. 's Chapel, May 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 



9' 



1788) and a Sei of Anthems for i, 2, 3, and 4 voices, 
comprising the following : — 



Blessed is the man (alto solo). 
Come, Holy Ghost (verse i 3 v.) 
/ waited patiently (verse k 3 v.) 
God, whose nature (full, with 
verse h. 4 v.) 



Sing ye merrily (verse & 3 v.) 
The ways of Zion (full with 

verse Jl S v.) 
When Saul was king over us 

(full Ji S v., with verse k 3 v.) 



A copy of the above collection, formerly belonging to 
the composer, and purporting to have been used by 
him in the choir at S. Paul's, is in the writer's posses- 
sion. 

Bellamy was also the composer of some chants, and 
the compiler of some very questionable adaptations, 
as solo anthems, from the works of Mozart. 

George Ebenezer Williams (organist of Westminster 
Abbey, 181 4-1 8 19) was one of his pupils. 

John Sale, who, as stated above, became Almoner 
on Bellamy's resignation in 1799, was born in London 
in 1758. He was admitted a chorister of S. George's 
Chapel, Windsor, and of Eton College, under Webb, 
the organist, in 1767, and ten years later was appointed 
a lay vicar in both those choirs. These offices he 
retained till Christmas, 1796. He succeeded Nicholas 
Ladd as gentleman of the Chapel Royal in 1788; 
Soaper as vicar choral of S. Paul's in 1794; and 
Hindle as lay vicar of Westminster in 1796. Con- 
sequently, at one period of his Ufe he was a 
member of five choirs. He began his duties as 
Almoner of S. Paul's in 1800, and continued in office 
till 1812, when he resigned. At the time of his 
death, which occurred on Nov. nth, 1827, at Marsham 
Street, Westminster, he was senior gentleman or 
" Father " of the Chapel Royal. He was buried in 
the crypt of S. Paul's. 

Sale's voice was a magnificent mellow bass, and it 
is asserted that in his anthem and glee-singing, it was 
perfectly charming at times to mark the effect he pro- 



gi THE ORGANISTS AND GOMPOSJSRS 



duced with apparently the greatest ease. His manners 
were somewhat eccentric, and gave rise to occasional 
witticisms — a fact recorded in the following impromptu 
by Barham (Thomas Ingoldsby) a contemporary of 
his as minor canon of S. Paul's and priest of the 
Chapel Royal. 

" Our attempts to be witty no longer need fail, 
We can all be facetious when jokes are on Sale." 

He edited three collections of glees, the first con- 
taining three glees by Lord Mornington and three 
by himself ; the second, six glees by Lord Morning- 
ton ; and the third, glees by Dr. Arnold, Samuel 
Webbe, Dr. Callcott, William Linley, and himself. 

George Charles, his youngest son, was admitted a 
chorister of S. Paul's in 1803. He was, for many 
years, organist of S. George, Hanover Square, and 
died in 1869. Another son, John Bernard, was a 
chorister of Windsor and Eton in 1785. He succeeded 
Bellamy as lay vicar of Westminster in 1800, and 
Champness the bass-singer as gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal in 1803. He succeeded Michael Rock 
as organist of S. Margaret's, Westminster in 1809, 
and died in 1856. He was, for some time, music- 
master to our present Queen, and one of the organists 
of the Chapel Royal. 

A few brief notices of various other musicians con- 
njected with S. Paul's at the close of the last century 
will serve to conclude this chapter. 

John Soaper, one of the vicars choral, and a pupil 
of Savage, is still remembered by his double chants, 
two of which are still in use at S. Paul's. He was 
also the composer of a setting of the Litany (now 
disused) composed for S. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
Like many of the musicians we have lately been 
noticing, Soaper was a lay vicar of Westminster, and 
a gentleman of the Chapel Royal. His death took place 



OF S. PAULS GATEEDRAL. 93 

on June sth, 1794, in his fifty-first year, and he was 
buried in S. Faith's Aisle in the crypt of S. Paul's. 

Edmund Ayrton, another vicar-choral, was one of 
the most respectable musicians of his day. Born at 
Ripon in 1 734, he was, ten years later, placed in the 
choir of York Minster under Dr. Nares, the then 
organist and choir-master. At the age of twenty he 
was appointed successor to William Lee as organist, 
auditor, and rector chori of the Collegiate Church of 
Southwell, Notts. He left Southwell in 1767, and 
came to London, on receiving an appointment to the 
Chapel Royal, and as vicar-choral of S. Paul's. He 
was installed as a lay vicar of Westminster Abbey in 
1780. Three years later he succeeded Nares, his old 
master, as teacher of the Chapel Royal choristers, 
which office he resigned in 1805, when John Stafford 
Smith was appointed. 

Ayrton graduated as Doctor in Music at Cambridge 
in 1784, and four years later was admitted ad eundem 
at Oxford. He died May 22nd, 1808, at 24, James 
Street, Buckingham Gate, Westminster, a large house 
with a garden of three acres, but which had the repu- 
tation of being haunted, so that he occupied it at a 
low rental. The twelve choristers of the Chapel Royal 
were wholly maintained with him at this house. He 
was buried in the cloisters of Westminster Abbey, 
near Dr. Dupuis. 

Dr. Ayrton's principal composition besides two com- 
plete services in C and E flat, was a Festival Anthem 
in the key of D, set to words commencing " Begin 
unto my God with timbrels," and written as the exer- 
cise for his Doctor's degree at Cambridge. It was 
sung at S. Paul's on July 29th, 1784, being the day of 
General Thanksgiving for the Peace of Paris. He 
subsequently printed it in full vocal and orchestral 
score, with a long list of subscribers. 

Ayrton's predecessor as vicar-choral of S. Paul's was 



94 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

William Clarke, who, in 1769, having taken orders, 
became one of the minor canons. This is a very 
unusual instance of a vicar choral becoming a minor 
canon.* Clarke, who was Senior Cardinal, had a 
magnificent alto voice. He died Dec. sth 1820, in 
his eightieth year, and was buried in the crypt. On 
his grave-stone was carved this epitaph : — 

" Beloved friend, go join the heavenly throng 
And in their harmony unite thy tuneful song. 
Go, and vpith choirs of angels in that blest abode 
Sing endless hallelujahs at the throne of God." + 

John Page, likewise a vicar-choral at this epoch must 
by no means be overlooked, inasmuch as he was the 
compiler of a most useful collection of anthems by 
various English masters, supplementary to the Cathe- 
dral Music of Boyce and Arnold. But for his industry 
and care, these valuable manuscripts might still, pro- 
bably, be unpublished. 

The compilation alluded to was entitled Harmonia 
Sacra, and it appeared in three volumes (vocal score 
and figured basses) in 1800, with a dedication to the 
Princess Amelia. It is greatly to be regretted that 

* S. Paul's and Chichester were the only two cathedrals of the Old Foun- 
dation in which the minor canons were properly so-called. At the others, 
viz., York, Exeter, Salisburyj Wells, Lincoln, Lichfield, S. Asaph, Bangor, 
LlandafT, and S. David's, priest vicar was, and still is, their proper desig- 
nation. The " Sub-Canonici " of Hereford were an invention of Archbishop 
Laud, when the statutes of that cathedral were revised in the reign of 
Charles I. 

At Westminster Abbey, S. George's Chapel, Windsor, and at all cathe- 
drals of the New Foundation, the minor canons were so designated in the 
first instance, with the exception, however, of Christ Church, Oxford, which 
is partly a cathedral and partly a college chapel. 

At the college chapels of Oxford, Cambridge, and Winchester, those 
upon whom the dutydevolves of chanting the service are denominated "Chap- 
lains." At Eton they are called " Conducts," a term probably unique. 
'■ Priest-in-Ordinary " is the corresponding term at the Chapel Royal, S. 
James's. At S. Patrick's Cathedral, Dublin, they are_ termed * ' Clerical 
/icars," and so they were called at Christ Church, until the recent recon- 
struction of the foundation, when their title was altered to " Residentiary 
^nons." 

t From a memorandum in the hand-writing of Richard Clark (the veteran 
>^en>ber of the three Metropolitan Choirs) in my possession. — J. S. B. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, 



95 



no edition of the Harmonia Sacra has appeared in 
modern times with a proper organ accompaniment, 
IDr. Rimbault once announced his intention of editing 
the work, but he never appears to have accomplished 
his design. 

Allusion has been frequently made in former pages 
of these sketches to various anthems published in the 
compilation at present under discussion ; but a com- 
plete list of its contents may be useful and interesting 
to those unacquainted with a work which is now 
obtainable only with considerable difficulty, and, espe- 
cially also, as several of the composers represented 
in it were connected with S. Paul's. 



Vol. I. 
Verse Anthems, 



Blessed is the people Croft. 

Deliver us, O Lord Croft. 

I will lift up mine eyes .... ITeZdon. 

Lee my complaint B<yyc& 

Out of the deep Purcell. 

O Lord, our Governor Kent. 



Praise the Lord, O my soul - Crqft, 

Ponder my words Oreene. 

The Lord is my strength Clark, 

The Lord even the most.. ..JDupuia' 
The Lord is my shepherd .. ..Kent. 
Whoisthis? Arnold, 



Full Anthems with verses. 



Call to Remembrance.. ..Boffis^ifi. 

God is our hope Aldrich. 

Hear ray prayer Stroud. 

I cried unto the Lord Dupuis. 

I will sing unto the Lord . . Qoldwin. 



Lord of all power and might Moion. 
My God, look upon me . .Reynolds, 

O be joyful King. 

Teach me, O Lord Attwood, 



Full Anthems. 



Burial Service Boyce. 

Lord, for Thy tender mercies' 
sake Farrant. 



O give thanks Tttcher. . 

O how amiable Richardson. ' 

Unto Thee, O Lord King. 



Vol. II. 

Verse Anthems. 



As pants the hart Handel. 

Blessed is he Puroell. 

Bow down Thine ear Clark, 

Hear my crying Greene, 

How long wiU Thou CUirk. 

I said I will take heed . . S. Wesley. 

1 was glad Purcell. 

I will al\vay give thanks King. 



My soul hath patiently ..C. Wesley. 
O Lord, Thou hast searched .. Oo^, 
O Lord our governor .... Marcello. 

O praise God Qoldwin. 

Rejoice in the Lord Hine. 

Save me, O God Greene. 

ITie Lord is king .Croft. 

The Lord is my strength. 



96 



THE ORGAmSTS AJP^D COMPOSERS 



Full Anthems with verses. 



I be the Lord ....... .Nares. 

BehriM, how good Baildon. 

I. have set God Blake. 

KJe^P) we beseech Thee Travers. 

Lord, of all power and might Wood. 



O Lord God of my salvation ClarJc, 

Sing praises Crqft', 

Sing we merrily Blow. 

The Lord is full of compassion King, 



Vol. Ill, 
Verse Anthems. 



Arise and shine Holmes. 

Behold, I tell you Handel. 

Bow down thine ear Linley. 

Hear my prayer Henley, 

I will alway give thanks .... Greene. 
I will magnify Thee HiTie. 



I will magnify Thee Boyce 

O Lord look down Greene, 

There were shepherds Handel. 

Thou art gone up Handel. 

The Lord is my light d-oft. 



Behold, how good Sattishill. 

Behold the Lamb of God ..Handel. 
I will magnify Thee Battiskill. 



Bow down thine ear , 

Deliver us, Lord Battishill. 

From the depth Tye. 

Lord, who shall dwell Rogers. 



Full Anthems with verses. 

Moses and the children Handel. 

O God, Thou art my God . . Busby. 
O Lord, grant the King Banks, 

Full Anthems. 

0]Lord God of our salvation Aldrich. 
O Lord, Who hastjtaught us Marsh. 
Save Lord, and hear us . . Marenzio. 



In 1804, Page issued a collection of Hymns by 
various composers, together with twelve Psalm-tunes, 
and an Ode, composed by Jonathan Battishill. He 
likewise edited a collection of organ-pieces by the 
last-named composer, and three years after his death 
in 1801,* published a selection from his anthems, 
together with ten single and double chants. 
To this collection was prefixed a finely-engraved por- 
trait of Battishill, and an excellent account of his life 
from the pen of Dr. Busby, organist of the churches 
of S. Mary Woolnoth, Lombard Street, and S. Mary, 
Newington. 

^ Battishill's dying request was to be buried in the crypt of S. Paul's next 
to Dr. Boyce. The Burial Registers of the cathedral state that he was in 
terred in the crypt on Dec. 15th, 1801, but the stone (if one were placed) 
could never have had any inscription upon it. John Malcolm, writing in 
Londinium Redivivum in 1803 give a complete list of the grave-stones then 
in the crypt, but in which that of Battishill finds no place. It is impos- 
sible that the inscription could have been obliterated in only two years, 

I am much indebted to Mr. R. R. Green, for many years the respected 
Dean's Verger of S. Paul's, for his §reat courtesy in verifying for me the 
date of Battishill's burial, in the Registers of the cathedral.— J. S. B, 



\ 

OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 97 



Page published the whole of the music sung at the 
state funeral of Lord Nelson at S. Paul's on January 
9th, r8o6, and joined William Sexton, organist of S. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, in editing a mutilated 
edition of Handel's Chandos Anthems. He resided 
for some years in Warwick Square, Paternoster Row, 
and died in August, 181 2. 

The Rev. William Hayes, third son of Dr. William 
Hayes, the Oxford Professor of Music, was one of the 
minor canons of S. Paul's at this period. He was 
the possessor of a fine powerful bass voice, and, when 
George III. attended the cathedral to give public 
thanks for his restoration to reason (S. George's Day, 
April 23rd, 1789)* sang the bass solo, "Thou art 
about my path " in Croft's noble anthem, " O Lord, 
Thou hast searched me out," expressly commanded 
and selected by the King. Hayes, who was born in 
1 741, received his musical instruction as a chorister of 

* The Morning and Communion Services were sung on this interesting 
occasion to the music of Pvrce.ll in B fiat throughout. The service was in- 
toned by the Rev. Minor Canon Moore, and the Litany chanted by Minor 
Canons Hayes and Gibbons. The Communion Service was read by the 
Dean, the Epistle by the Bishop of Bristol, and the Gospel by Dr. Jeffries, 
Oanon Residentiary. Bishop Porteous preached a sermon (which is said 
to have been the most interesting and affecting in the whole set of his 
lordship's discourses), from the text " O tarry thou the Lord's leisure : be 
strong and He shall comfort thine heart ; and put thou thy trust in the 
Lord." The service concluded with the Offertory, read by Dr. Farmer, 
Canon Residentiary. At the singing of Te Deum the guns were fired at the 
Tower and in S. James's Park. A very fine engraving, depicting the interior of 
the choir on this occasion, is in the possession of the writer. Ths King and 
Queen are represented as occupying a canopied throne beneath the organ 
gallery. The Princes are occupying the Decani choristers' seats, and the 
Princesses the Cantoris ones. The choir occupy seats on either side of the 
organ ; the Minor Canons, and those immediately engaged in the service, 
being placed within the lectern rails. The Dean and other capitular mem- 
bers are in the return stalls, the lateral stalls being occupied by the peeresses, 
and other ladies. The Speaker is seated in the Lord Mayor's stall ; opposite 
him is the Lord Chancellor. The Bishops and Peers are in the centre of the 
choir, and the Members of the House of Commons are in the galleries. 
Bishop Porteous is in the pulpit preaching the sermon. 

A companion picture to this represents the Royal procession advancing up 
the nave into the choir. Round the dome, on tiers of seats, are the charity 
children, who are said to have numbered on this occasion about six thousand, 
and who addressed their Creator, on the Ring's approach, with the Hund- 
redth Psalm. 

H 



qS THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Magdalen College, Oxford, under his father, the then 
organist. He obtained a minor canonry at Worcester 
in 1765, and on January 14th in the ensuing year was 
elected a minor canon of S. Paul's. In 1783 he 
became Junior Caidinal, and, with his minor canonry 
he held the rich chapter living of Tillingham in Essex. 
At his death which took place on October 22nd, 1790, 
he was buried in S. Gregory's vault in the south west 
portion of the crypt of S. Paul's. He contributed to 
The Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1765, a paper 
entitled " Rules necessary to be observed by all 
Cathedral Singers in this Kingdom." 

The Rev. Anselm Bayley, LL.D., another minor 
canon, was a man of considerable literary abilities. 
He graduated at Oxford in 1740, and in the following 
year succeeded John Church * as a gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal. In 1743, having taken orders, he was 
admitted a Priest in Ordinary of the same establish- 
ment. He subsequently became a minor canon both 
of S. Paul's and Westminster Abbey, and Sub-dean 
of the Chapel Royal. He resigned his stall at S. 
Paul's in 1764, and died thirty years later. Among 
Anselm Bayly's didactic works on music may be men- 
tioned A Practical Treatise on Singing and Playing, 
8vo ; The, Alliance of Musik, Poetry, and Oratory, Svo ; 
and A Collection of Words of Anthems used in His 
Majesty's Chapels Royal and most Cathedrals, 1769 — a 
work remarkable, not only for the very elegant style in 



* John Church was also a lay vicar of Westminster and Master of the 
Cho-isters from 1704 until his death in 1741, when he was succeeded by 
Bernard Gates. One of his services, in th-^ key of F, is pr-iserved in the 
Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley's valuable collection of Cattiedrol Services by 
Encilish Masters (folio, 1853), It shows some fertility of invention, and 
proves its composer to have been a great master in the resources of counter- 
point. Kichard Church, his cousin, was organist of New College, Oxford, 
from 1731 to 1776. and it is a singular fact that he was born within a year of 
Dr. W. Hayes, that they were hrought up in the same choir (GJouc ester), 
apprenticed to the same master (Hine), came to reside at Oxford almost ^t 
the same time, and d ed within a year ' f each other, 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 99 

which it was printed, but also for its learned and in- 
teresting preface on Church music. Several theo- 
logical works proceeded from his pen. 

The Rev. William Fitzherbert, the last subject of 
the present biographical notices, has long been known 
as the composer of a double chant in F.* He was 
elected to the fourth minor canonry which carried 
with it the title of Epistolar, in 1744, and in 1776 he 
became Sub-dean of the Cathedral. Fitzherbert was 
also a minor canon of S. Peter's, Westminster from 
1751 to 1778; one of the priests of the Chapel Royal 
in 1746 ; Rector of Hadlow in Kent 1753, of Horne- 
don-on-the-Hill in Essex from 1756 to 1771, and of 
S. Gregory by S. Paul at the time of his death, which 
took place at S. Paul's College at the advanced age of 
84, on October 2nd, 1797. He was interred in the 
eastern portion of the crypt where there is a flat 
gravestone to his memory. 



^ 



* I am anxious to call attention to this chant by Fitzherbert, upon which, 
by the way, Dr. Crotch, once wrote a ve-y clever fugue. In a collection of 
chants in daily use at S. Peter's, Westminster, published in TheParish Climr 
(1846) it occurs as a single chant, but it has been in many collections cor- 
rupted into a double one, by the addition of a third and fourth strain. Now 
it has often struck me as curious that two (perhaps more) versions of the 
foresaid chant in its double form, exactly similar in the two first strains, 
but different in the concluding ones, should exist. This appears (at least to 
me) to be accounted for by the fact that Fitzherbert never wrote the latter, 
and that they have been supplied by some other pers^n— Dr. Phillip Hayes 
for example, who was, we know, somewhat fond of adding his own effu- 
sions to those of other people (see the double-chant on page 21 of the first 
volume of Dr. Clarke-Whitfeld's Colkctian, oblong 4to, whereof the firr-t part 
is headed "Dr. Alcock," and the second " Dr. Phil. Hayes in addition," 
and in which same book Fitzherbert's chant is similarly treated). There is 
good reason for believing that this practice has been far from rare, and that 
many double chants have been cnncc-ted from single ones. Whence came 
the double chant in F, to which we invariably find the name of Dean 
Al.'rich attached 1 Whence that in E flat so frequently assigned to Orlando 
Gibbons? But instances might be multiplied.— J. S. B. 
H 2 



ICX3 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



CHAPTER IV. 

Miss Hackett and her Labours for the 

Choristers' School. — The Organists and 

Composers of the Cathedral during the 
present Century. 

In many of our cathedrals during the earlier years 
of this century, now fast drawing to its close, the boys 
belonging to the various choirs, were, as a general 
rule, very much uncared for by the capitular bodies, 
who were enjoined by the several statutes to see that 
they received a suitable education with the rest of the 
King's scholars, or by whatever title the pupils of the 
Grammar School, which we usually find attached to 
a cathedral church were known. 

So long as the children appeared in their places in 
choir at the appointed hours of divine service, the 
authorities knew little, and probably cared less, about 
the way in which their time had been spent in the 
intervals. Of this abuse S. Paul's was, at the time at 
which our chapter opens, a glaring instance, the 
miserably neglected condition of the eight * choristers 
on the foundation being, for some time, the subject of 
considerable animadversion. 

Until the close of the last century the boys were 
fairly well educated, and comfortably boarded in the 

* Ten was the statutable number of choristers for S. Paul's by the regula- 
tion of Bishop de Newport. Ten choristers are specified in Dowman's 
bequest in the seventeenth year of the reign of Henry yill. Ten choristers 
appeared to assert their claim to obit money in the reign of Mary, and these 
payments were confirmed to ten choristers by the Letters Patent of Eliza- 
beth (see ante, Chapter I.) The ten choristers occur in the Almoner's ac- 
counts for 1675, and the same number is mentioned by the historians Tanner 
and Willis. About the middle of the last century they were reduced tg 
eight. Now the school will accommodate forty. 



OF 5. Paul's catmedral. loi 



Almoner's house, which was situated in Carter Lane, 
not far from the present commodious school. It was 
used in lieu of the old Almonry House or residence 
for the choristers, which stood in what was called 
Pardon Churchyard, between the Chapter House and 
Ludgate Hill. This latter was demolished early in 
Queen Anne's reign, in consequence of an Act of 
Parliament passed for the preservation of the Cathe- 
dral from fire, by the removal of the adjacent build- 
ings. 

The sum of money, anciently assigned to the 
Almoner for the board and education of the choristers, 
became, at the time of which we are now treating, 
quite inadequate, on account of depreciation. The 
Almoner was, therefore, compelled to dismiss the 
boys from his protection, paying them an occasional 
trifle for their attendance at services and rehearsals. 

In consequence of this arrangement many of the 
children resided at considerable distances from the 
Church, and a great proportion of the day was con- 
sumed in loitering about the streets, there being no 
one to call them to account for the employment of 
their time. 

John Sale, .who was then Almoner, applied to the 
Dean and Chapter for an augmentation, but they 
turned a deaf ear to his entreaties, and refused to 
make any pecuniary advances. Matters stood thus 
until 1 812, when Sale resigned. On the appointmen 
of his successor, William Hawes, some better arrange- 
ments were effected with regard to the attendance 
of the choristers, and instead of running about the 
streets all day, within earshot of the service-bell, they 
were boarded at Mr. Hawes' house (first in Craven 
Street, Charing Cross, and afterwards on the Adelphi 
Terrace), receiving at the same time a fair educa- 
tion. When, in 1827, Bishop Copleston, of Llan- 
dafr, became Dean of S. Paul's, a substantial sum 



102 THE ORGAmSTS AND COMPOSERS 



of money was once more set apart for the support 
of the choristers' school, and but little was required, 
beyond the stimulus of occasional public examinations, 
to raise it from the neglect and obscurity into which it 
had fallen during the latter part of the last century. 
It was in the year 1811, that a very worthy, clever 
lady, Miss Maria Hackett by name, then and for 
many years a much respected resident of Crosby 
Square, Bishopsgate, and afterwards of Clapham 
Common and Hackney, first interested herself in the 
welfare of the S. Paul's choir-boys. At an early age 
she evinced a great predilection for cathedrals and 
cathedral music, and during the greater portion of 
her long life, she devoted her energies, and the bulk 
of her fortune, to the educational condition of every 
chorister in England and Wales. 

We learn from her writings that in the above year 
(1811) she took charge of a fatherless boy, named 
Wintle, and, convinced that the boys belonging to S. 
Paul's choir had a right to a classical education from 
the funds of the cathedral, she placed him in that 
choir. This circumstance is alluded to in a very 
touching letter to Mr. Hawes, the choirmaster, writ- 
ten on January i6th, 1813. Finding, however, that 
her young protege did not obtain the benefit she had 
anticipated, she made enquiries into the cause, and 
discovered that property which had been left in trust 
for the benefit of the choristers had been diverted 
from its original pious purpose. Some of this pro- 
perty had been left so long ago as 1315, by Richard 
de Newport, Bishop of London,* who founded an 
exhibition, and, by his will, registered in the Court of 
Hustings, left his mansion in Sermon Lane to the 



* See the woodcut representbg his tomb in old S. Paul's, given in Miss 
Hackett's Popular Accovmt o] the Cathedral (edition of 1834, P- 83). The 
same woodcut also heads the will of Bishop Hichard de Newport, given in 
Miss Hackett's printed collections. 



OF & PAULS, CATHEDRAL. I03 



Almoner of S. Paul's in trust, for the maintenance of 
two or three choristers for two years after the breaking 
of their voices. This bequest was the subject of a 
Petition in Chancery in 18 14, when the Master of 
the Rolls was pleased to say, " The trust by the will 
is plain and express," and he made an order for 
enquiry in the Master's office ; but the legal expenses 
consequent on such a process would have been over- 
whelming, and no action was taken at the time upon 
the order of Sir William Grant. Other portions of 
property, left at later periods for the maintenance of 
the choristers, had, it was found, been alienated from 
their original purposes. 

Miss Hackett applied first to the Bishop of London, 
and afterwards to the Dean, Canons in Residence, 
Chancellor, Precentor, Junior Cardinal, and Almoner,* 
for a rectification of this abuse in a series of letters, 
couched in the most elegant and eloquent English, 
extending over a period of nearly twenty years, but 
which, as a rule, met with neglect, procrastination, 
and, in one instance, with rebuke. 

These functionaries, however, had mistaken the 
character and energy of this talented and remarkable 
lady. After trying conciliation, it was now her turn 
to administer rebuke, coupled with the announcement 
that she had placed the case in the hands of her legal 
advisers. Even this produced no other effect than 
that of an endeavour at further delay on the part of 
the Dean and Chapter. At last, on August 5th, 1814, 
upon the application of Maria Hackett, her uncle, 
George Capper, and her two half brothers, John and 



* The Bishop of London at this time was Dr. John Randolph ; the Dean, 
Dr. George Pretyman Tomline (Bishop of Lincoln) ; the Canons Residentiary, 
Dr. Wellesley, Dr. Hughes, and Dr. Weston ; the Chancellor, Dr. Richard- 
son; the Precentor, Dr. Hamilton (afterwards Rev. H Randolph); the 
Junior Cardinal, the Rev. W. Holmes ; the Almoner, Wm. Hawes. Miss 
Hackett's first published letter was addressed on Jan. 12th, z8ii to 
Bishop Randolph, and her last ^n May 3rd, 1830, to Bishop Blomfield. 



104 THE OROANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Samuel Capper, to the Master of the Rolls, an order 
was made of which the result was the restoration of a 
great portion of the school property left in trust for 
the benefit of the choristers. 

A more manly and open conduct on the part of the 
dignified members of the cathedral body, would have 
exempted them from the censures which they, at the 
time, brought upon themselves. 

In concluding her correspondence on the above 
subject, a passage in one of Miss Hackett's letters to 
the Rev. Canon Hughes ran as follows : — " You need 
not be afraid that I am at all ambitious to enter into 
any private correspondence on the subject. That it 
has not been more public has been merely from a 
respect to the feelings and the honour of the Chapter. 
I neither court their approbation, nor dread their dis- 
pleasure, and I wish it to be understood that it is, by 
no means, my intention to limit my solicitude to the 
present set of choristers. If life and leisure are 
afforded me, I trust these powerless members of the choir, 
so long as they require a friend, will find in me an ardent 
and disinterested advocate to the utmost of my abilities." 

A case, not dissimilar to that of S. Paul's, occurred at 
Bangor in 1813, when the organist. Dr. Joseph Pring, 
and three of the Vicars-choral, presented a petition to 
the Court of Chancery, for the proper application of 
certain tithes which had by Act of Parliament, passed 
in 1685, been appropriated for the maintenance of the 
Cathedral choir, but which had been diverted by the 
capitular body to their own uses. The suit dragged 
on until 1819, when Lord Chancellor Eldon, setting 
at naught the express conditions of the Act, sanc- 
tioned a scheme which, indeed, gave to the organist 
and choir increased stipends, but at the same time 
kept them considerably below the amounts they ought 
to have received had the Act been carried out in all 
its force. Dr. Pring subsequently printed the various 



Of s. Paul's cathedral. loj 

transactions in connection with the case, with notes, 
etc., and it has now become a remarkably scarce book. 

It happened, in the above instance that Dr. Pring, 
like Miss Hackett, was a person not only of substance 
but also of determination ; but only those who have 
lived in a cathedral city can understand the position 
of an organist, minor canon, or lay-clerk, who dares 
to array himself against his capitular superiors. He 
is, from that moment, as far as they can effect it (and 
they generally can effect it) doomed to poverty and 
misery. Aware of the illegality of their acts, these 
bodies have been known in some instances to have 
habitually guarded themselves against any legal scru- 
tiny, or question of them, by requiring of every 
member of a choir, on his induction, an undertaking 
that he will not prosecute any claim, beyond that of 
his stipulated salary.* 

While we are upon this topic, let us take another 
case. At Dublin, during the early part of the present 
century the Dean and Chapter of S. Patrick's tried to 
lay ungodly hands on various livings and lands, the 
exclusive property of that honorable body, the Vicars- 
choral. Happily, however, they did not always suc- 
ceed, owing to the strenuous exertions of one stalwart 
Vicar, Dr. John Spray, an Englishman, in his time the 
most gifted tenor singer in the kingdom. He sturdily 
opposed the roguery (and indeed it was little better) 
of the cathedral clergy. He could not recover all they 
had gotten unto themselves, but he recovered a por- 

* See Professor Taylor's eloquent and admirable essay on the Cathedral 
Service, 1845, Whiston's "Cathedral Trustsand Their Fulfilment" (1S49), 
and " An Apology for Cathedral Service " (by John Peace, Librarian of the 
Bristol City Library) 1839, will read well with it. Dr. Wesley's papers on 
Cathedral Establishments (1849 and 1854), and _Dr. Hiles' article on cathe- 
dral choristers in the "Musical Quarterly Review " for Nov. 1886, are im- 
portant contribution to the literature of the subject. A very able and 
thoughtful pamphlet by the Kev. Edward Seymour, M.A., Precentor of 
Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, entitled "The Cathedral System" 
(Hodges & Co., Dublin, 1870), should, if possible, be procured and read 
with the above. 



I06 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



tion ; and so pleased were his fellow choirmen that 
they presented his son to the beneficence of Kinneagh, 
which was in their gift, as a reward and memorial of 
his father's rescuing it from the vultures.* 

Miss Hackett endeavoured, as was stated at an 
early stage of these papers, to procure admission to 
S. Paul's school for the choristers, but her exertions 
proved fruitless ; neither was she able to find any 
place suitable for the purpose in the immediate 
vicinity of the cathedral. A house, and above all, an 
adequate salary for a grammar master, would have 
removed every cause for complaint, and would have 
restored the school to something of its former respect- 
abiUty. 

In the year 1812, as aforesaid, William Hawes was 
appointed Almoner and Master of the Choristers, and 
wished very much — falling in with Miss Hackett's 
views — to obtain the Chapter House (which had 
previously been occupied in the most incongruous 
manner as a girls' school) as a place of residence for 
himself and the choristers. This proposal was not, 
however, to be entertained by the Dean and Chapter 
for a single instant, and Hawes was compelled to find 
a suitable residence elsewhere. This, it must be 
owned, was at a considerable distance from the 
cathedral, viz., in Craven Street,t Charing Cross, there- 

* Dr. John Spray, originally a chorister in Southwell Minster, became 
afterwards a Vicar-choral of Lichfield, and in 1795 Vicar-choral of Christ 
Church and S. Patrick's Cathedrals, Dublin. He died Jan. 21st, 1827. 
There is a monument to his memory in the Lady Chapel of S. Patrick's. 
" Many now alive" wrote the Rev. R. Sinclair Brooke in his '* Recollections 
of the Irish Church (1877) "can recall the lovely tenor voice of Dr. Spray, 
and how he would send it forth with its rich swells, and every note full and 
distinct, till it seemed to_ ripple along the walls like the summer waves of a 
river. Who can forget his clear clanon notes in ' Comfort ye my people,' or 
the warble of his solo in ' O worship the Lord in the beauty of holiness ' ? " 
By "O worship the Lord" we presume is meant the tenor solo to those words 
in Travers' " Ascribe unto the Lord." The anthem has always been a great 
favourite nt the Dublin Cathedrals. 

t The house was No. 27, nearly at the foot of the street. A subsequent 
occupant of the house was Horace Smith, joint author with his brother 
James of the " Rejected Addresses." He died Dec. 24th, 1839, and was 
buried in the vaults of S. Martin's Church. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. \oy 

then by drawing forth a remonstrance from MissHackett, 
relative to the long walk having to be taken by the boys, 
to and fro, twice daily in all weathers, frequently to the 
detriment of their voices. Latterly, Hawes removed 
to a larger house — No. 7, Adelphi Terrace — on his 
appointment as Master of the Children of the Chapel 
Boyal in addition to that of Almoner of S. Paul's. 
This continued to be the home of the cathedral 
choristers until 1846, when Hawes died. After 
this time, one of the Minor Canons received the title 
of Almoner, and officiated as classical master ; one of 
the Vicars-choral being appointed as instructor in 
music. Arrangements were not, however, again 
regularly made for the complete maintenance of the 
S. Paul's boys, until the opening of the present choir 
house in January, 1874, though a small number had 
been boarded at a house in Amen Court for some 
time previously. 

Her success at S. Paul's led Miss Hackett 
to make similar investigations into the condition 
of the choristers in other cathedrals and colle- 
giate foundations. By consistent entreaty and re- 
monstrance with the authorities throughout England, 
she succeeded in getting a restoration of many educa- 
tional privileges for choristers, which they might even 
now be without but for her kindness. Both Sir 
George Elvey,* and the Rev. Sir Frederick Ouseley 
wrote of her that she was the best friend chorister- 
boys ever had, and many a musician of eminence in 
his profession has reason to be grateful to her for the 



* Sir George Elvey, born at Canterbury in 1816, became a chorister of 
the cathedral there under Highmore Skeats, senior. In 1833, be was ap- 
pointed a lay-clerk of Oxford Cathedral, and in 1835 succeeded Highmore 
Skeats, junior, as organist of S. George's Chapel, Windsor. He resigned 
this appointment in xSi^s. Sir George Elvey's compositions, and also those 
of the late lamented Rev. Sir Frederick A. Gore Ouseley, the munificeDt 
founder of S. Michael's College, Tenbury, are known throughout the 
length and breadth of the land. The peus of both are facile and masterly. 



io8 THE ouganists and composers, 



first lessons in the more advanced branches of his art, 
for she was as quick to observe talent as she was to 
foster and encourage it by good advice and pecuniary 
assistance. For more than sixty years she made an 
annual tour of friendly inspection among the various 
cathedral cities to look after " her dear children " not 
without the jealous opposition of the capitular autho- 
rities at first, but afterwards with every possible en- 
couragement from them. Only a short time before her 
death she journeyed to S. David's, one of the most 
distant and inaccessible of our cathedrals. She 
usually made to the senior class the gift of a bright 
silver coin, and frequently of some well chosen book 
for their own library. Several autograph letters con- 
taining many details, concerning these annual cathe- 
dral tours, have been most kindly placed at the 
writer's disposal by Sir John Stainer, who, when 
a chorister at S. Paul's, was one of Miss Hackett's 
most favourite proteges. They are, not, however, of 
sufficient public interest to be quoted here. 

In 1827 Miss Hackett printed the result of her 
researches in a volume entitled A Brief Account of 
Cathedral and Collegiate Schools, with an abstract of 
their statutes and endowments, respectfully addressed to 
the Dignitaries of the Established Church. Her labours 
at S. Paul's called forth another work from her pen, 
entitled Correspondence and Evidences respecting the 
Ancient Collegiate School attached to S. Paul's Cathe- 
dral, to which was added Registrum Eleemosynarice D. 
Pauli Londinensis, first printed from a MS. in the 
Harleian Collection, by permission of the Trustees of 
the British Museum, with Corroborative and Expla- 
natory Notes.* These works were the result of the 

* In those days (1827) it was not consiritred etiquette for ladies to study 
in the library of the British Museum. The authorities, however, consented 
to Avaive this objection in the case of Miss Hackett upon the condition of 
her finding a lady to study with her. This fellow-student was no less a 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. I09 

most laborious and patient research, and displayed 
great erudition. The Gorrespondence comprised the 
letters addressed to the members of the Chapter, 
previously touched upon. A copy (a private im- 
pression on large paper) of the above three books, 
formerly belonging to the Rev. James Lupton, Minor 
Canon of S. Paul's (1829— 1873) is in the possession 
of the writer. Its interest and value is considerably 
enhanced by an autograph letter of Miss Hackett to 
Mr. Lupton, dated from Crosby Square, Feb. 26, 1838, 
in which she announces her intention of making re- 
searches into the history and rights of the minor 
canons and vicars choral, as well as those of the 
choristers of S. Paul's. 

In 1873 Miss Hackett supplemented her Account 
of Cathedral Schools by a few pages, shewing the im- 
provements effected up to that time, in most of these 
essentially Church establishments, under the exclusive 
patronage and jurisdiction of the capitular clergy. To 
this she added some remarks made in 1870 on the 
choir of Eton College entitled A Voice from the Tomb : 
seriously addressed to all Etonians, who reverence the 
memory of their Founder. 

Miss Hackett's attendance at S. Paul's may be 
described as almost life-long. From the time when 
the present century was in its teens, to that of a 
month before her death she invariably attended 
service twice on Sundays, and very frequently during 
the week, when in London. 

In 1816 she wrote a hand book entitled A Popular 
Account of S. PauTs Cathedral (Rmngtons). It had 
a very extensive sale, and ran through many editions 



person than Mary Somerville, the eminent authoress of the " Physical Geo_ 
graphy," and " The Physical Sciences." 

Miss Hackett derived much assistance in her researches from the Rev. 
Ralph Churton, Archdeacon of S, David's, and the author, inter alia, of the 
" Life of Alexander Jlowell, Dean of S, Paul's." 



1 10 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



of which the twenty-first appeared in 1834 It was 
originally intended as a mere guide book for persons 
visiting the Cathedral, and contained little more than 
a mere description of the building, and its monu- 
meiits ; but, on account of its favourable reception by 
the public, it was considerably augmented, and made 
worthy of a place among the historical records of the 
metropolis. It contained information, not to be found 
in works of greater magnitude and pretension, and 
contemporary topographical writers, by adopting 
without acknowledgment, the conjectures first 
broached in its pages, perhaps paid the most un- 
equivocal compliment to its accuracy. 

For many years Miss Hackett resided with her half 
brother, John Capper, at 8, Crosby Square, Bishop- 
gate, a fine old red brick city mansion adjoining 
Crosby Hall. She was a great amateur of music, and 
her fondness for the cathedral service induced her to 
give annually (commencing in 1831) a prize medal, of 
^5 value called "The Gresham Prize" to the com- 
poser of the best Service or Anthem in the true Ghurch 
style, the words to be selected from the canonical 
Scriptures, or the Book of Common Prayer. The com- 
position of the successful competitor was afterwards 
sung at a special service held at S. Helen's, Bishops- 
gate, in commemoration of Sir Thomas Gresham, 
formerly a parishioner. 

This Commemoration (concerning which a few words 
must be said ere we proceed) owed its establishment 
to the name of the above illustrious merchant being 
inseparably connected with the history of science and 
the liberal arts in England ; also by the munificent 
dedication of a part of his fortune to the foundation of 
a perpetual series of public and gratuitous lectures by 
Professors on these subjects in London. Change of 
time and manners, however, reduced these lectures, at 
the period of which we are writing, to something very 



OF 6. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. Ill 



like sinecures. But a praiseworthy effort was now made 
to give new attractions and infuse new life into that, 
at least, which had music for its object. 

Accordingly, in the early part of 1831, MissHackett, 
as already stated, decided upon founding an annual 
prize, hoping thereby to encourage our rising genera- 
tion of future Church musicians. The result was the 
production of some very scholarly, but not always in- 
teresting works. R. J. S. Stevens, the then Gresham 
Professor of Music, having taken a prominent part in 
the preliminary proceedings, it was named after him 
" The Gresham Prize Medal."* 

The first prize having been awarded in December, 
1831, to Charles Hart, the question arose as to where 
the medal should be presented and the composition 
performed. It was decided that the presentation 
should take place in the first instance, in the Gresham 
Lecture Room : but it was considered that the com 
position, a Jubilate for four voices, could not be per- 
formed anywhere with so much propriety as in the 
church where the founder of Gresham College was 
buried. The first Commemoration Service was ac- 
cordingly held at S. Helen's, Bishopsgate, on Thurs- 
day, July 12, 1832. The prayers were chanted by the 
Rev. James Lupton, minor canon of S. Paul's, and 
the musical portion of the service sung by Vaughan, 
Hawes, Goulden, Hawkins, and Atkins of the three 
metropolitan choirs ; the treble part being supplied by 
the boys of S. Paul's. W. Horsley, Attwood, and Vin- 
cent Novello presided at the organ by turns. Before 
the service Attwood's Coronation Anthem, " I was 
glad " was sung. The appropriate Psalms were sung 
to chants by Beethoven (adapted by Goss) in C minor, 



* Miss Hackett likewise gav« a prize of ten guineas for the best Essay on 
the life of Sir Thomas Gresham. J. W. Burgon, the late Dean C Chichester, 
Viras one of the winners of this, 



112 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



and Hawes in C. The Te Deum and Jubilate were the 
compositions of Charles Hart. Before the sermon, 
Joyce's fine anthem, " If we believe that Jesus died " 
was given, the duet contained therein being sung by 
Enoch Hawkins * (a lay vicar of Westminster and an 
alto singer of surpassing sweetness) and J. O. Atkins. 
At the conclusion of the sermon, which was preached 
by the Rev. W. M. Blencowe of Oriel College, Oxford, 
Horsley's scientific quartet, " I heard a voice from 
Heaven," followed by Handel's " His body is buried 
in peace," &c. was sung. After the service the con- 
gregation, about 250 in number, adjourned to Crosby 
Hall, where some more music was gone through, in- 
cluding, Spohr's " Blest are the departed " sung by 
Clara Novello, Hawkins, J. A. Novello, and Vaughan, 
and, in compliment to Stevens, his admirable Shake- 
sperian glee, " Ye spotted Snakes." 

The subjoined list of published Gresham Prize 
Compositions may be interesting. The cathedral 
authorities regarded them as innovations, and re- 
sisted their introduction as long as they could. 
Thus, Goss' anthem, " Have mercy upon me," was 
not sung in S. Paul's, the cathedral of which he was 
so long organist, until after i860, when a better 
feeling had arisen in such matters, and the dis- 
position to effect reasonable improvements was taking 
an active form : — 

I. Te Deum and Jubilate in C Charles Hart. 1831. 

II. Turn Thee again O Lord Kellmii J. Pye. 1832. 

III. Have mercy upon me ... John Goss. 1833. 

IV. Bow down Thine ear ... George Job Elvey. 1834. 
V. Magnificat in F Charles Lucas. 1835. 

VI. Magnificat in A Rev.W. H. Havergal. 1836. 

VII. Turn Thee again Edward Dearie. 1837. 

VIII. Out of the deep E. J. Hopkins. 1838. 

* Enoch Hawkins died Jan. gth, 1847. A mural tablet was erected to 
his memory in the cloister of Westminster Abbey, by the members of th« 
Adelphi Glee Club, of which he was the President, 



OF S. PAUL'S GATSEDRAL. II3 

IX. Proclaim ye this Jos. Kendrick Pyne. 1839. 

X. God is gone up E.J.Hopkins. 1840. 

XI. Give thanks to the Lord... Rev. W. H. Havergal. 1841, 

XII. Blow ye the trumpet ... Alfred Angel. 1842. 

These pieces were usually published in yellow 
paper wrappers whereon were printed the number 
of the composition, Sir Thomas Gresham's coat of 
arms, and his motto Humani Generis Decus. Among 
the judges at these competitions were Dr. Crotch, 
R. J. S. Stevens, W. Horsley, and Sir J. L. Rogers. 

Miss Hackett was herself a composer, one of her 
songs, " I'm thinking on the happy past," being pub- 
lished at Cramer's. Her name frequently appears in 
the subscription lists of important publications of 
Cathedral music, and she was instrumental in estab- 
lishing a series of high class chamber concerts at 
Crosby Hall, for one of which Mendelssohn wrote his 
famous " Hear my prayer." 

" I can remember Miss Hackett," recently wrote Sir 
George Grove, the eminent principal of the Royal 
College of Music to the author, "from an evening 
which I spent at Crosby Hall, in 1843, when about 
150 had been asked by her to sing over the proof- 
sheets of the Musical Antiquarian Society's edition of 
Wilbye's Madrigals .... Macfarren too was there, 
not then quite blind, but obliged to hold the music 
close up to his eyes." 

It was greatly owing to the liberality and public 
spirit of Miss Hackett that the unique piece of 
domestic Gothic architecture, Crosby Hall, was 
preserved. In 1831 she and her relatives made 
strenuous efforts for its restoration and preservation, 
an account of which will be found in the Rev. Dr. 
Cox's Annals of S. Helen's, and fuller details in 
an illustrated volume treating exclusively of the build- 
ing, and published at the time of its resuscitation. 
On Friday, August 5, 1842, a very interesting lecture 
I 



114 TBE ORGGNISTS AND COMPOSERS 



was delivered on Crosby Hall and Place by the Rev. 
Charles Mackenzie, then Vicar of S. Helen's, Bishops- 
gate, afterwards Prebendary of S. Paul's and 
Rector of Allhallows, Lombard Street. It was sub- 
sequently published by Smith and Elder of Cornhill, 
with a dedication to Miss Hackett. 

Mr. Mackenzie was also the winner of the Gresham 
prize for his Essay on the Life and Institutions of 
Oifa King of Mercia. 

The history and antiquities of London were among 
Miss Hackett's favourite studies. Many volumes of 
the good old historians, Stowe, Pennant, Malcolm, 
Maitland, and Seymour were interleaved with her 
vigorous and scholarly notes, and at the time of her 
death she was taking in the periodical publication Old 
and New London, in which she was greatly interested. 
To the Gentleman's Magazine for April, 1826, she 
contributed a very interesting letter on the Anglo- 
Saxon and Danisli Royal Palace in London. The 
same periodical was enriched by many letters from her 
graceful pen on archaeological and historical subjects, 
the mode of performing service at the various cathe- 
drals, and a variety of other topics of a kindred nature. 
In the Harmonicon — ^a valuable musical periodical — 
for 1832 appeared some remarks by her on the chant- 
ing in our cathedrals. With characteristic modesty 
her contributions were rarely signed in full, but 
they are readily distinguished by the initials M. H. 
A Memoir of Sir Thomas Gresham, with an Abstract 
of his Will, appeared anonymously in 1833. 

This gifted lady, one of the most interesting we 
might say, of England's women, died at the residence 
of her half brother, John Capper, 3, Manor Villas, 
Amhurst Road, Hackney, on Thursday, November 
Sth, 1874, at the advanced age of ninety-one years, 
having been born on November t4th, 1783. 

During her last illness, which was of brief duration, 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 115 

Miss Hackett was daily remembered in the Church's 
prayers at S. Paul's, and visited by the Rev. W. J. 
Hall, one of the good minor canons of her beloved 
cathedral. Cheered by the repetition of her favourite 
collects, the familiar cadences of the psalter, and other 
portions of our precious Church service, she preserved 
her vigorous intellect unclouded and unimpaired 
almost to the last, and the end came during a celebra- 
tion of the Holy Communion at her bedside. Thus 
she died, as her whole life may be said to have been 
spent, in actual worship, and such an end was exceed- 
ingly touching and beautiful. 

Miss Hackett was buried in the Cemetery at High- 
gate on Tuesday, November loth, together with her 
half brother, who died only three days previously, viz., 
on All Souls' Day, and to whom she was deeply 
attached. 

The Dean of S. Paul's and some other members of 
the chapter were present, and it was the wish of the 
minor canons and vicars-choral that the first part of 
the service should be sung in the cathedral in which 
she had so long worshipped ; but this arrangement 
was objected to by Miss Hackett's relatives, on account 
of her half brother being interred on the same day, 
and in the same grave. 

At their own request and expense the choir of S. 
Paul's, twenty-two in number, attended her to the grave 
at Highgate, singing Croft and Purcell's Burial Service, 
and Sir John Goss' lovely anthem : — 

O Saviour of the world, Who, by Thy Cross and Precious 
Blood hast redeemed us; Save us, and help us, we humbly 
beseech Thee, O Lord. 

But perhaps the most touching part of the ceremony 
was the singing, at the conclusion of the Office, of the 
hymn, "Abide with me." It was a beautiful autumn 
afternoon; the birds singing, and the sun shining 
brightly. 

12 



Il6 TSE ORGANISTi, AND COMPOSERS 



The above musical tribute was a fitting mark of 
respect from the choir of the cathedral, whose welfare 
Miss Hackett had always so much at heart, and to 
whose amelioration she had so largely contributed by 
her purse and her pen. Her memory is still vividly 
cherished by many of the clerical and lay members of 
S. Paul's, and numerous little anecdotes related to the 
writer illustrate her thoroughly Christian unselfishness 
and kind thought for others. 

Miss Hackett was devotedly attached to the Church 
of England ; its liturgy and ritual were dear to her, 
and she numbered many of its dignitaries among her 
firmest friends. 

Wherever talent and ability existed she never failed 
to detect them, and wherever need for help claimed 
her, she was ready to give not only her money, but 
herself. 

She had not only lived and rejoiced to see the great 
revival in the cathedral services and work generally, 
under the present energetic Dean and Chapter, but 
also to see the boys of the choir thoroughly well edu- 
cated and cared for. Early in the last year of her life 
she was permitted to enter the crowning object of her 
years and years of toil, namely, the new choir-school 
for forty boys, erected almost upon the site of the 
ancient Choral Grammar School, and opened on the 
day after the Feast of the Conversion of S. Paul, 
Monday, January 26th, 1874. 

In March, 1877, a cenotaph was erected to the 
memory of Miss Hackett in S. Paul's, from subscrip- 
tions raised by the choristers of England through the 
exertions of Sir John Stainer and Dr. W. A. Barrett. 
It is placed on the left hand wall of the South aisle of 
the crypt, and is composed of dark variegated marbles, 
with suitable adornments. The inscription on this 
cenotaph runs as follows : — 
To the memory of Marte Hackett, to whom, through tb? 



Of s. Paul's catbedral. iiy 



course of a long life, the welfare of Cathedral and Collegiate 
chorister-boys was the object of deep and unfailing interest, and 
who, after devoting her time and substance to efforts which 
nothing could discourage, for the improvement of their condition 
and education, was allowed to see, on all sides, the result of her 
labours. 

Died November 5th, 1874, in her 91st year. 

The grave at Highgate is situated in the old portion 
of the Cemetery, and is just beyond the entrance gates 
and Chapel, under an ivy-covered wall on the extreme 
right. It consists of a coped tomb of mediaeval pattern 
with a floriated cross, similar to those in the cloister- 
garth of Salisbury Cathedral. There is no inscription 
upon it beyond the simple dates of the birth and death 
of Miss Hackett, and of her half brother and sister, 
and the words ^'■Eternal Rest give unto them, C Lord., 
and let perpetual light shine upon them." 



The organist of S. Paul's at the period of the com- 
mencement of the present chapter was Thomas 
Attwood, a man who will always be regarded as one 
of the most illustrious exponents of the school of 
English Church music, and one of the first to raise 
it from the somewhat degraded state into which it had 
fallen since the death of Dr. Boycein 1779. 

Influenced, as we shall hereafter see, by continental 
study, Attwood succeeded in infusing into his Church 
compositions what we may term the dramatic element, 
and thus became the founder of a school, the results 
of which may be seen in the works of the majority of 
the ecclesiastical composers of the present day. 

Thomas Attwood was the son of a coal merchant, 
who, by way of relaxation in his leisure hours, appears 
to have taken up trumpet and viola-playing. 

Born in London on Nov. 23rd, 1765, Attwood was 
admitted at the age of nine among the choristers of 
the Chapel Royal, where he had for his masters first 



tl8 THM dRQANISTS AND COMPOSMk 



Dr. Nares and afterwards Dr. Ayrton. Perhaps a 
more perfect master of melody than Nares could not 
have been found, and to this circumstance, combined 
with that of further study under eminent continental 
theorists, may be attributed Attwood's excellence as 
a sweet melodist, sound harmonist, and learned 
contrapuntist. 

At the age of seventeen, while performing in some 
concert at Buckingham House, Attwood attracted 
the notice of the Prince of Wales (afterwards George 
IV.) who, like his father, was not slow in discovering 
true musical talent. So, Uke Pelham Humphreys, 
another English Church composer and former choris- 
ter of the Chapel Royal, Attwood was provided with 
a handsome sum of money from the royal private 
purse and sent to complete his musical studies on 
the continent. 

Accordingly, in 1783, he bent his steps to Naples, 
and passed some time in study there with Filippo 
Cinque and Gaetano Latilla. Attwood derived from 
nature the feeling and the capacity to form an 
accomplished musician, and the inclinations of his 
early genius were, perhaps, excelled only by the first 
set of children of the Chapel Royal (Humphreys, 
Blow, Purcell, and Wise), Lord Mornington, William 
Crotch, the two Wesleys, and Mozart. 

To the last-named composer Attwood repaired, 
after leaving Naples, remaining with him at Vienna 
until 1787. " Many exercises in harmony and 
counterpoint which Mozart corrected are preserved, 
having been presented by Attwood to his pupil, Sir 
John Goss. Mozart's notes, written on the margin 
of the music-paper, are interesting and amusing, and 
many of Attwood's notes show that Mozart enjoyed a 
game at billiards and a cup of coffee quite as much 
as he did the noble art of teaching counterpoint." * 

* Dr. W. A. Barrett. 



OF s. Paulas cathedral. tig 



These very interesting mementos of Mozart are now 
in the possession of Dr. J. F. Bridge, the genial and 
gifted organist of Westminster Abbey. It is possible 
that the Doctor may some day give a short account 
of these treasures to the public. 

If Altwood's veneration for his instructorwas ardent 
and unchanging, the attachment of Mozart to his pupil 
was no less warm and genuine. "Attwood," said 
Mozart, " is a young man for whom I have a sincere 
esteem ; he conducts himself with great propriety, 
and I feel much pleasure in saying that he partakes 
more of my style than any other scholar I ever had, 
and I predict that he will prove a sound musician." 

In 1787 Attwood returned to his native country, 
with his head, no doubt, well stored with Mozart's 
tender phrases. In the same year he obtained his first 
organ appointment; this wasto the church of S.George 
the Martyr, Queen Square, in the parish of S. Andrew, 
Holborn.t The death of his beloved master in De- 
cember, 1791, affected him deeply, and he never 
afterwards alluded to him without great emotion. In 
the following year our composer was appointed 
musical instructor to the Duchess of York, and three 
years later to the Princess Charlotte of Wales, at 
Carlton House. 

In February 1796, the important post of organist at 
S. Paul's fell vacant by the death of John Jones.* 
Attwood applied for it, and obtained it, and perhaps 
there was no one who could have occupied the seat 
more worthily. 

On the death of Dr. Thomas Sanders Dupuis in 
June of the same year, Attwood was sworn in as Com- 
poser to the Chapel Royal, his initial undertaking in 
that capacity being a superb setting of the Morning 



* Jones was biuied in the Piazza of tlie cloister at the Charterhouse, of 
whichhe was also organist. , ^ , ^ . , . .v ... 

t Recent research has proved that Attwood never held this appointment. 



t20 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



and Evening Service, together with a Sandus and 
Kyrie Eleison^ in the key of R 

In the following year he wrote his fine anthem in 
the key of E flat, the words from the 119th Psalm, 
"Teach me O Lord." This shortly afterwards ap- 
peared in Page's Harmonia Sacra, It is to be regretted 
that the remaining portions of this beautiful composi- 
tion are not heard with the same frequency which the 
opening movement seems to enjoy. 

For the State Funeral of Lord Nelson in S. Paul's 
on January 9th, 1806,* Attwood composed a solemn 



* It may be interesting to mention here, that not one member of the choral 
staff of S. Paul's absented him'^elf on this memorable occasion. The follow^ 
ing were the names of those forming the choir. The college of twelve minor^ 
canons:— Rev. Weldon Champneys (sub-dean). Rev. Wm. Clarke (senior car- 
dinal), Rev, Dr. Henry Fly (junior cardinal). Rev. John Moore (warden). 
Rev. John Pridden, Rev. W. Thos. Bennett, Rev. James Salt, Rev. Wm; 
Holmes (sub-dean of the Chapel Royal), Rev. Wm. Clarke, Rev. Edwar^ 
James Beckwith (succentor), Rev. Richard Webb, and Rev. William Hayesi 
At this time it must be remembered that the minor canons formed an important 
item in the choir ot S. Paul's. The six vicors choral: — Robert Hudson, Mus.B.i 
Edmund Ayrton Mus.D., Israel Gore, John Sale (almoner and master or 
the choristers), Thoma.s Attwood (organist), and John Page. The eighi 
choristers : — Masters Cutler, Rogers, Hart, Blackburne, Michelmore, Chippj 
Holmyard, and G. C. Sale. To the above must be added the choristers an4 
lay vicars of Westminster.and the children and gentlemen of the Chapel 
Royal. A volume containing ihe whole of the music sung on this occasion 
was edited and publi'-hed by John Page. It contained Purcell and Croft's 
Burial ServicCf Attwood's Mog^iiijlcat and Nunc Bimittisin V ; Greene^ 
anthem, " Lord, let me know mine end " ; Handel's '* His body is buried in 
peace," and the Dirge composed expressly by Attwood. 

An account of the ceremony, written soon afterwards, states "It woulfl 
be injustice not to notice more particularly the active exertions of the Rev. 
John Pridden, one of the minor canons, on whom the very arduous task 
devolved of conducting the whole ceremony within the cathedral. The 
number of persons pres.nt cannot be estimated at fewer than 10,000; the 
business was novel and various and in itself intricate ; at once to direct the 
military and the choristers, and to prepare for ihe reception of the noble and 
illustrious mourners, with their numerous attendants and supporters, required. 
it may be supposed, no small degree of vigilance^ attention, and presence of 
mind ; and when we add that with one trivial exception not an erroi 
was manifest from the beginning to the end of this solemnity, this public 
testimony will be acknowledged to have been justly merited by the rev. gen- 
tleman alluded to. On Mr. Attwood's skilful management of the fine orgai] 
(perhaps the best of its kind in Europe), it is unnecessary to dilate ; his 
talents are well known and were never more strenuously or successfully 
exerted." 

With reference to the " trivial exception " alluded to we are informed that 
" one of Mr. Pridden's signals to the attendant on Mr. Attwood (who was 
seated between the great and choir organ-cases, and consequently out of 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 12 1 

Dirge in D minor, and for the coronation of George 
IV., on July 19th, 182 1, he produced his noble anthem, 
" I was glad," written and published, in vocal score 
with full orchestral accompaniment, in the key of C. 
The intrinsic merit of this composition is said to have 
induced George IV. to appoint Attwood director of the 
music at his newly-erected private chapel in the Pavi- 
lion at Brighton, consecrated on New Year's Day, 
1822. 

For the Coronation of William IV. on September 
8th, 1831, Attwood produced a similarly fine anthem, 
" O Lord, grant the King a long life," written in the 
festive key of D, and likewise published in full score 
for voices and orchestra. 

On the death of John Stafford Smith in September, 
1836, Attwood was appointed his successor as one of 
the organists of the Chapel Royal, his companion in 
office being Sir George Smart, uncle of the famous 
Henry. 

Attwood was taken ill soon after Christmas, 1837, 
and, preferring some peculiar method of treating his 
complaint, neglected the proper remedies, and, on 
March 28th, 1838, expired at his house in Cheyne 
Walk, Chelsea, in his seventy-third year. 

Only a short time before his death he had projected 
another elaborate anthem for the coronation of our 
present Sovereign, but did not live to complete it. 

Pursuant to his dying wishes he was buried " under 
his own organ " as he expressed it, in the crypt of S. 
Paul's. At his funeral the choirs of the Chapel Royal 
and Westminster Abbey joined that of the metropolitan 
cathedral in rendering their last musical tribute to one 



sight {both of the ceremony in the choir and under the dome) was the holding 
up of a book ; at one time, however, another gentleman near Mr. Pridden 
passing his band with a similar book in it over his face, it was mi taken for 
the signal and the organ struck up about three minutes too soon. It had not 
however, played half-a-dozen bars before the mistake was rectified," 



t22 THk oMANisfrs AND comPoseM 



who may be justly termed an illustrious ornament of 
English Church music. . . 

An incised flagstone of the plainest description 
marks Attwood's resting-place, in the solemn under- 
church of S. Paul's. 

Of Attwood's cathedral music there are two features 
to be remarked : first, the originality in form ; and 
secondly, the thoroughly devotional and chastened 
spirit that pervades the whole. Attwood was, undoubt- 
edly, a man of sincere piety, and, when engaged m the 
composition of music for the Church, always felt that 
he was employing the genius bestowed upon him by 
God for the noblest and highest purpose to which it 
could be devoted— His service ; and his great aims 
and hope were that he might be able to praise Him 
worthily. When Church music is written under the 
influence of such feelings as these, we may never fear 
that it will prove an unworthy or unimportant addition 
to the treasures we already possess : nor will anyone 
be rash enough to assert that, because a certain Church 
composition is not exactly framed upon the models of 
Tallis and Gibbons, it is not therefore to be styled 
" Ecclesiastical." The " Beautiful " is for all time, 
though the forms through which it is manifested may 
be as diverse as the minds which produce them.* 
Truly Attwood took as his motto that first verse of the 
io8th Psalm, " O God, my heart is ready, my heart is 
ready, I will sing and give praise with the best member 
that I have." 

The above reflections naturally lead us to a brief con- 
sideration of Attwood's principal Church compositions. 

It appears to be a general impression that the MS. 
books of S- Paul's are plentifully supplied with Att- 
wood's services and anthems. This is, however, quite 
erroneous. During his inspection of the above books, 

* See Preface to Attwood's Cathedral Mmk, edited by Profeiisor T. A 
Walmisley. 



OF S. PAULAS OATHEDRAL 12^ 



the writer was only able to discover the vocal parts of 
the Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis in F, performed at 
Lord Nelson's funeral — the Burial Office on that occa- 
sion being interwoven with Evening Prayer ; those of 
the Evening Service in D, and of a. Te JDeum in B 
flat* It must be borne in mind that at the time of 
Attwood's appointment to S. Paul's the cheap publica- 
tion of Church music was a thing entirely unheard of. 
Music-publishing, and especially that of sacred 
music, was exceedingly expensive. Even the tran- 
scription of the separate vocal parts, from the full 
score, into the MS. books of our cathedrals was a 
costly affair, and had to be done at the composer's 
expense, a fact which speaks volumes for the miserable 
parsimony and indifference evinced by those in eccle- 
siastical authority towards the humbler members of 
their foundations. Happily, all this is now changed. 

At the Chapel Royal there are several of Attwood's 
compositions in manuscript, the outcome of his offi- 
cial appointment. In 1853 these were collected, 
together with some additional MSS. left by Attwood 
at the time of his death, and published by Ewer and 
Co., of Regent Street, under the editorship of Thomas 
Attwood Walmisley, his godson and favourite pupil. 

The subjoined is an attempt at a list of Attwood's 
services and anthems. Those indicated by an asterisk 
were given in the published collection above alluded to. 

SERVICES. 

*In F. Te Deum, yuUlate, Sanctus, Kyrie, Magnificat and 

Nunc Dimittis (composed for the Chapel Royal, 

Oct., 1796). 
*In A. Te Deum, jubilate, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis 

(lomposoi Dec, 1825). 
*In C. Te Deum, Jubilate, Sanctus, Kyrie, Magnificat and 

Nunc Dimittis (composed July, 1832). 



* In the MS. Books at Canterbury Cathedral'this Te Deum is followed by 
a JvMlale, which at S. Paul's is wanting. 



t24 TBE ORGANISTS AND OOMPOSMR^ 



*Iii D. Te Deum, Jubilate, Sancius, Kyrie, Cantate Domin o 

and Deus Misereatur (composed July, 1832). 
In various keys. Several settings of the Sanctus and Kyrie. 

ANTHEMS. 
Be Thou my judge, Lord (full with verse \ 4 v.), unpublished. 
Blessed is he that considereth (verse k 4 v.), unpublished. 
Bow down Thine ear (ireble solo and chorus), published by J. 

Alfred Novello at 67, Frith Street, Soho, c, 1830. 
Come, Holy Ghost (treble solo and chorus), published by 

Novello, t. 1830. 
Enter not into judgment (full b, 4 v.), published by Novello. 
*Grant, we beseech Thee (full k 4 v.), composed 1814. 
I was glad (full 44 V. with orchestra), composed 1821 for the 

Coronation of King George IV., published by Novello. 
*Let the words of my mouth (full k 6 v.), composed 1835. 
Let Thy hand be strengthened (second Coronation anthem for 

George IV.), unpublished. 
My soul truly waiteth (treble solo and chorus), published by 

Welsh and Hawes, at the Royal Harmonic Institution, 

Regent Street, c. 1816. 
*0 God, Who by the leading of a star (full h, 4 v.), composed for 

the Feast of the Epiphany, 1814. 
Lord, grant the king a long life (full k 4 v. with orchestra), 

composed for the Coronation of King William IV., 1830, 

and published by Novello. 
*0 Lord we beseech Thee (full k 4 v.), composed July, 1814. 
*Teach me Lord (full with verse k 3 v.), composed 1797, and 

first printed in Page's Harmonia Sacra, 1800, 

* They that go down to the sea in ships (full with verse b, 4 v.), 

composed Jan., 1837. 
Turn Thee again Lord (full k 4 v.), composed in 1817, and 

published at the Royal Harmonic Institution. 
*Teach me Thy way, O Lord (verse k 3 v.), composed Sept., 1817. 
Turn Thy face from my sins (treble solo and chorus), written 

for a musical magazine * (afterwards published by Novello). 

* Withdraw not Thou Thy m.ercv (full, with treble solo), com- 

posed Jan., 1827. 
*Nine Double Chants in various keys. 
Various Double Chants (many of these not included among the 

foregoing, appeared for the first time in the collections of 

John Marsh of Chichester, Bennett and Marshall (1829), 

Hawes (1836), and Goss (1841). 

Attwood, compared with his predecessors at the Chapel 

* Sacred Minstrelsy, Vol. I. (Parker, 1837). 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 12$ 

Royal,— Purcell, Blow, Croft, Greene, Boyce, Nares, 
and Dupuis — was, by no means a prolific composer 
of Church music, but what was wanting in quantity he 
made up for in quality. Almost everything he has 
left us bears the impress of his beloved master, Mozart, 
with whose sweet phrases his mind must have been 
well stored. Yet for all this Attwood was no plagiarist ; 
he had a fine vigorous, expressive style of his own, 
originally formed by constant study of the works 
of the English cathedral masters, during his chorister- 
days in the Chapel Royal. Upon this he was enabled 
to engraft a lighter style, acquired during his sojourn 
on the continent. 

Attwood' s services and anthems are all original in 
conception, suitable in dignity, and expressive in exe- 
cution ; abounding in emphasis and tender phrasing, 
and always in the purest taste. He was indeed a bold 
pioneer, who fearlessly opened a new path in art. 

As a player Attwood greatly excelled, and, in his 
accompaniment of the Psalms, the glorious majesty 
of the Lord, and man's sinful state, were, by turns 
admirably portrayed by him in music. Fifty years 
have elapsed since he played at S. Paul's, yet people 
still speak of his powers with admiration. 

The Hon. C. F. Greville writing in his Journal of 
the Reign of William IV. under date Dec. i, 1834, 
thus alludes to the cathedral service in Attwood's 
time : — " Went to S. Paul's yesterday * to hear Sydney 
Smith preach. He is very good ; manner impressive, 
voice sonorous and agreeable, rather familiar, but not 
offensively so, language simple, and unadorned, sermon 
clever and illustrative. The service is exceedingly 
grand, performed with all the pomp of a cathedral, and 
chanted with beautiful voices; the lamps, scattered 



* Advent Sunday (S. Andrew's Day) the last day of Sydney Smith's 
November residence. — J. S. B. 



126 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



few and far between throughout the vast space under 
the Dome, making darkness visible, and dimly reveal- 
ing the immensity of the building, were exceedingly 
striking. The cathedral service thus chanted and per- 
formed is my beau ideal of religious worship,— simple, 
intelligible and grand, appealing, at the same time, to 
the reason and the imagination." 

While upon this subject we cannot forbear quoting 
the words of that delightful American writer Nathaniel 
Hawthorne who, in his work Our Old Home and 
English Note Books thus refers to the service at S. 
Paul's, somewhat subsequent to Greville's account : — 
"Oct. 6th, 1855, It rained heavily and being still 
showery when we got to Cheapside again, we stood 
under an archway (a usual resort for passengers 
through London streets) and then betook ourselves 
to sanctuary, taking refuge in S. Paul's Cathedral. 
The afternoon service was about to begin, so after 
looking at a few of the monuments, we sat down in 
the choir, the richest and most ornamented part of 
the cathedral, with screens or partitions of oak cun- 
ningly carved. Small white-robed choristers were 
flitting noiselessly about, making preparations for 
the service which by and by began. It is a beau- 
tiful idea that, several times in the course of the day, 
a man can slip out of the thickest throng and 
bustle of London, into this religious atmosphere, 
and hear the organ, and the music of young pure 
voices." 

Somewhat earlier, Mrs. Harriet Beecher Stowe, 
albeit a Nonconformist, records her impressions of 
S. Paul's in her charming book. Sunny Memories of 
Foreign Lands. It was a Sunday afternoon, and after 
visiting Dean and Mrs. Milman at the Deanery, she 
proceeded with them to the Cathedral where she was 
much affected by the chanting and service, " some 
pf the performers" she remarked "being boys of 



OF s. Paul's catbedral. 127 



most beautiful countenances." The "pious and evan- 
gelical" sermon, preached by the Rev. Montague 
Villiers (canon in residence) was, of course, to her 
mind. 

These and many other passages scattered up and 
down among the works of great writers tend to show 
how deeply rooted is the affection for the daily choral 
service of the Church in the hearts of many. It is 
well known that Charles Dickens had a great anti- 
pathy to anything savouring of ecclesiasticism, but 
what reader of his last book, Edwin Drood, can 
forget the fine description he gives, in the ninth chap- 
ter, of a cathedral service at Rochester (under the 
pseudonym of Cloisterham), on which occasion it will 
be doubtless remembered, Mr. Grewgious looking in 
at the great Norman West door, standing open " for 
the airing of the place," declared that it was " like 
looking down the throat of Old Time." 

Many English composers since the time of Tallis 
have set the Veni Creator to music, but few settings 
can vie with Attwood's soothing and refined strain. 
It has become as inseparably connected with our 
Whitsun services, as Handel's " For unto us," and 
" I know that my Redeemer liveth " are with those of 
Christmas and Easter. At no time, perhaps, does 
this exquisite and touching little composition sound 
so solemn as on Ordination Sundays at S. Paul's, 
when it breaks the " silence kept for a space '' before 
the laying on of hands. 

Among Attwood's longer anthems " Withdraw not 
Thou Thy mercy," " Teach me Thy way," and " They 
that go down to the sea in ships," deserve special 
mention, as being full of that charming melody and 
admirably-descriptive part-writing of which he was so 
consummate a master, 

An expressive full anthem, "Turn Thee again O 
Lord at the la§t " was written by Attwood for the 



128 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



special service held at S. Paul's on Wednesday, 
November 19th, 181 7, being the day of the interment 
at S. George's Chapel, Windsor, of the lamented 
Princess Charlotte. The words of this anthem as 
originally set and published were, " Turn Thee again 
O Lord at the last, and be gracious unto Thy servant." 
The modern printed copies, however, have it, " Turn 
Thee again O Lord at the last, and be gracious unto 
Thy servants." 

The Princess Charlotte,* a great friend and 
patroness of musical men, was exceedingly fond of 
Attwood's compositions, so much so indeed, that she 
frequently carried them about with her. Being upon a 
visit to Bishop Fisher of Salisbury at his palace, on 
New Year's Day, i8i6, she presented to Mr. A. T. 
Corfe, the then organist of the cathedral, a very beau- 
tiful setting of the Sanctus and Kyrie by Attwood, in 
the key of E. These movements were, in 1861, 
included by Mr. J. E. Richardson, assistant to Mr. 
Corfe, in a small collection compiled by him. 

It is worthy of notice that Attwood in his services 
and anthems almost entirely disregarded the old form 
of verse-writing, i.e., for alto, tenor, and bass ; his pre- 
ference being, nearly always for a treble voice in the 
melody. Certain of his verses, however, in the old 
style are among the most touching things he ever 
penned. Take, for example, those in the Te Deums 
in F, and D, " When Thou tookest upon Thee," and 
" Vouchsafe, O Lord," respectively. 

Among his quartets for S.A.T.B., mention must 
be made of the verse, " For the Lord is gracious " 
from the Jubilate in C (the Gloria Patri of which, 

* The Princess Charlotte and her musical proclivities formed the subject 
of a very able article in the Mu&ical Standard of Sept. 13th, 1884, from the 
pen of Dr. E. H. Turpin, with whose graceful and scholarly essays the 
pages of that serial were, for six years, enriched. It is a description of an 
MS. book in the handwriting of the lamented Princess, full, as br. Turpin 
tells us, of " singularly tender, melancholy and suggestive interest." 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 129 

by the way, has a magnificently wrought-out fugue 
culminating in some glorious outbursts of harmony on 
the word " Amen ") ; " He remembering His mercy " 
from the Magnificat in the same service ; a similar 
verse in the Magnificat in A ; and " O let the nations 
rejoice and be glad" from the Beus Misereatur in 
D, perhaps the most tender and Mozart-like of them 
all. 

Attwood's solos are almost exclusively for a treble. 
Many of them are very sweet and lovely, especially 
worthy of note being, " My soul truly waiteth," " Turn 
Thy face from my sins," " Come, Holy Ghost," "As 
for me I am poor and needy " (from the anthem, 
" Withdraw not Thou ") and one now not very gene- 
rally known, viz., " Bow down Thine ear," expressly 
written in 1830 to display the fine high soprano voice 
of Miss Clara Novello : — 

That tuneful daughter of a tuneful sire. 

Attwood's skill as a profound contrapuntist may be 
seen in the little full anthem in the key of E- — " O 
God, Who by the leading of a Star," composed in 
1814 for the Feast of the Epiphany, at the Chapel 
Royal, when the symbolical offerings of gold, frankin- 
sense, and myrrh, were made by the Sovereign. This 
beautiful custom is still observed. 

Following the example of Matthew Locke (the 
reputed composer of " The Music in Macbeth," many 
years before, Attwood set the Responses to the Com- 
mandments in ten different ways.* 

Attwood's double chants are too well known to need 
any special description. In their calm, quiet beauty 



* Pepys in his Diary, under date Sept. ist, 1667, thus alludes to Locke's 
setting of the Kyrie : — *' Spent all the afternoon. Felling, Howe, and I and 
my boy, singing of Locke's response to the Ten Commandments which he 
hath set very finely, and was a good while since sung before the King, and 
spoiled in the performance, which occasioned his printing them for his vindi- 
cation and are excellent good." 

K 



130 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

they afford a striking contrast to the florid, flighty 
abominations in which the latter part of the Georgian 
era was far too proUfic. 

It may not, perhaps, be generally known that Att- 
wood was the composer of some very tasteful and 
devotional hymn-tunes. These, like his chants, are 
the more to be valued, from the circumstance of their 
havirg been written at a period when this species of 
composition was at its very lowest ebb. Five of them 
— " Framlingham," * "S.Paul's," "Chelsea," "Lam- 
beth," and " Crayford " (the last-named a beautifully 
characteristic melody somewhat in the style oi" Come, 
Holy Ghost ") made their appearance in a collection 
edited by the Rev. W. J. Hall, a former much respected 
minor canon of S. Paul's. Many of the tunes in this 
book were specimens of the very worst taste in 
psalmody. What lover of Gibbons or Boyce, could 
possibly relish such compositions as " Calcutta," 
"Arabia," and "Cambridge New"? Among such 
miserably weak effusions Attwood's tunes rise like 
lilies among weeds. To the same collection he con- 
tributed a very beautiful "Thanksgiving after the 
Gospel," which was specially composed for, and atone 
time constantly sung in, S. Paul's Cathedral. It well 
merits revival. 

In The Sacred Minstrel, a tasteful collection of 
sacred songs by various composers, edited by the late 
Sir John Goss, were included four of Attwood's pieces, 
viz., " Lord, Thou wilt hear me when I pray," " God, 
Who madest earth and heaven," " Lord in the morning 
Thou shalt hear," and " Shine, mightyGod on Britain." 
All of these bear testimony to the pure and refined 
taste of their composer, as also do three sacred pieces 

I" The living of Framlingham, SuflFolk, in the gift of Pembroke Hall, 
Cambridge, was, for many years, held by one of the composer's sons — the 
Rev. George AtLwood, who died only a short time since. There exists at 
Framlingham Church a most interesting and valuable prgan-case dating 
from the reign of Henry VIII, ^ 



OP S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 



131 



published in an interesting collection by Alfred Pettet 
(organist of the Church of S. Peter Mancroft, Nor- 
wich) in 1825, viz., "OLord Supreme" (words by 
Mrs. Joanna Baillie) for a high soprano, and as Att- 
woodian in style as it is possible to conceive ; " O 
Sacred Star of Evening " ; and a duet for trebles, 
" Songs of praise the Angels sang," which at one time 
the choristers of Norwich Cathedral used to give very 
sweetly. 

In Goss' Parochial Psalmody (1832) were given 
two other psalm tunes by Attwood, viz., " Pembroke " 
and " Melchet," both very simple and beautiful. 

During the earlier portion of his career Attwood 
was much engaged in dramatic composition, and 
between 1792 and 1807 he produced the incidental 
music for the following pieces : — 



Tht Prisoner 1 792 

The Mariners 1793 

Caernarvon Castle 1 793 

The Adopted Child 1 795 

The Poor Sailor 1795 

The Smugglers 1796 

The Mouth of the Nile 1 798 

Devil of a Lover 1798 

The Castle of Sorrento 1799 

The Red Cross Knight 1799 

The Old Clothesman ... 1799 

A Day at Rome 1799 



The Magic Oak 1799 

True Friends 1800 

Dominion of Fancy ... 1800 
The Escapes or the 
Water Carrier (adap- 
ted chiefly from Che- 

rubini) 1801 

II Bondocani 1801 

i'. David's Day 1804 

Adrian and Orilla (with 

Michael Kelly) 1806 

The Curfew 1807 



The excellency of the music of Attwood's operettas 
has never been questioned, but he never made any 
very marked success ; for the state of the lyric drama 
at that period was such as to preclude the possibility 
of any attempts towards establishing a grand national 
opera. 

Numerous charming secular songs and ballads were 

written by Attwood, two of which, "The Soldier's 

Dream," and "Reflected in the lake" (the latter 

to Bishop Heber's beautiful words) attained consider- 

K 3 



132 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

able popularity in their day. A duet for equal voices, 
" The waves retreating from the shore " is also worthy 
of mention. 

As a prominent member of the Glee Club, Concen- 
tores Sodales, and other societies, Attwood had oppor- 
tunities of composing some fine glees, conspicuous 
among which stand, "Hark, the curfew's solemn 
sound," and " In peace love tunes the shepherd's 
reed." In many of his glees Attwood departed from 
the conventional mode, and made an independent 
accompaniment. In this way they cannot in strict- 
ness be called glees, but rather trios and quartetts, as 
a glee proper is sung without any accompaniment 
whatever. 

Attwood wrote some organ music, but beyond a 
Cathedral Fugue in E flat, * and Nelson's Dirge,i 
none of it has ever been published. 

Mendelssohn, during his visits to London was fre- 
quently the guest of Attwood ("dear old Mr. Att- 
wood " as he called him) at his snug villa on Biggin 
Hill, Norwood, previous to his removal to Chelsea. 
Several of Mendelssohn's racy and piquant letters 
are dated from there, and in one of them he 
expresses his joy at finding, in Attwood's music cup- 
board, which stood in his apartment, a full score of 
Weber's " Euryanthe " 

When Mendelssohn visited London in 1829, after 
his Scottish tour, he had the misfortune to be thrown 
from a carriage, thereby occasioning a serious injury 
to his knee. He was, however, most assiduously 
looked after by his many English friends, among them 
being Attwood and Hawes. About the latter we 
shall have a good deal to say later on. 

The great composer notes in one of his home letters 



* Published in Vincent Novello's Select Organ Pieces. 
t Published in Vincent Novello's Melodies for the Soft Stops, 



OF s. Paul's oathedral, 133 



during the time he was confined to his room : — " Yes« 
terday a great hamper arrived from Mr. Attwood (at 
Norwood) in Surrey ; on the top there were splendid 
flowers, which are now smelling deliciously by my fire- 
side. Under the flowers lay a large pheasant ; under 
the pheasant a quantity of apples for pies, &c. Mr. 
Hawes appeared this morning with grapes, than which 
I never saw finer or more beautiful." When, on his 
recovery Mendelssohn went down to Norwood for 
change of air, he gave, in another letter, a droll account 
of a milk white donkey fed on corn and thistles, the 
property of one of Attwood's sons. This animal was 
accustomed to draw hini about the village and adjacent 
country in a little chaise, he being unable to walk by 
reason of his accident. 

While at Norwood, on November i8th, 1829, Men- 
delssohn wrote the second of his Three Fantasias for 
Pianoforte, in E {Op. 16), " Der Kleine Fluss" or 
" The Rivulet." There is said to be a composition 
extant, in which Mendelssohn introduces the tone of 
Attwood's gate bell. 

On the 24th of June in this same year Mendelssohn 
directed his overture to A Midsummer Nighfs 
Dream for the first time in England, at a concert 
given by Drouet, the flautist. On returning home 
after this concert, Attwood, who had accompanied 
Mendelssohn, left the MS. score of the above marvel- 
lous overture, by accident, in the hackney coach, " Oh, 
never mind," replied the composer, when informed of 
the mishap, " I will make another copy." And this 
he did entirely from memory, without the variation of 
a single note. 

Mendelssohn often accompanied his host to S, 
Paul's, and gave performances on the organ after 
service, for which instrument, like Handel, he had 
a great partiality. The main attraction for him was 
the C pedal-board (then the only one in London), 



134 THE onefANISTS A^D COMPOSERS 



and therefore the only one on which Bach's music 
could be rendered without destructive changes. 

At S. Paul's on June 23rd, 1833, Mendelssohn 
played three pieces of Bach's, an extempore Prelude 
and Fugue, and the Coronation Anthem, as a duet 
with Attwood. On a previous occasion (September i oth, 
1829) he played so long after the service — it was 
Sunday afternoon — and the congregation were so loth 
to leave the church, that the vergers in despair 
withdrew the blower, and let the wind out of the 
organ during the performance of Bach's Fugue in A 
minor, at the point where the subject comes on in the 
pedals. 

Mendelssohn's " Three Preludes and Fugues " (Op. 
37) composed at Spires in the year 1837, were dedi- 
cated to Attwood, while the autograph of a setting of 
the Kyrk Eleison in A minor was inscribed " For Mr. 
Attwood, Berlin, 24th March, 1833." 

It is extremely interesting to note that Attwood, the 
favourite pupil of Mozart, was one of the first to re- 
cognize the genius of the young Mendelssohn, and a 
warm friendship was established between the two 
composers, which was only broken by the death of 
the elder. Thus, the gifted Englishman appears as 
a connecting link between the two illustrious Germans. 

Attwood possessed the well-cultivated understand- 
ing of a scholar, and bore the highest and most 
amiable character as a man. The latter trait endeared 
him to all who came in contact with him. 

He was an especial favourite with Mr. Hawes' 
boys at S. Paul's and the Chapel Royal, some of 
whom, still living, remember many of his little acts 
of kindness and encouragement. Dr. E. J. Hopkins, 
in an interesting paper read not long ago before the 
College of Organists, thus alludes to one of them : — 

" Aa composer to the Chapel Eoyal, Attwood wrote an anthetn 
for the coronation of William IV. in Westminster Abbey en 



ov s. Paul's catbedral. 135 



September 8th, 1831, and when, by the way, I was present as 
a ohoiister. The anthem was written to words commencing, 
" Lord grant the King a long life." It is preceded by an 
instrumental introduction, which, after being played through 
forte is repeated piano, and on the second occasion the nautical 
air " Rule Britannia " appears, aud is played by extra horns and 
trumpets in D in octaves, forte. Shortly after its performance 
on the occasion for which it was written, it was repeated at a 
meeting of a private musical society called Concentores. 

" After dinner, copies of the new anthem were handed round to 
the members as they sat at the table ; Attwood and Sir George 
Smart' took their seats at the pianoforte to play the accompani- 
ment as a duet for four hands ; behind them stood three or four 
alto singers who were to hum " Rule Britannia " on the repetition 
of the symphony, and my companion and I stood immediately 
to Attwood's right. When the symphony was being played 
through a second time, I was so delighted with the ingenious way 
in which the nautical tune was interwoven, that 1 could not 
help saying to my companion in a somewhat more audible tone 
than I intended, " Oh, is it not' nice ! " The performance pro- 
ceeded ; terminated ; and was followed by a tumultuous round of 
applause. Attwood briefly bowed his acknowledgments, aud 
before the sound had fairly died away he turned to me quickly 
and enqviired, " What was that you said to the other boy just 
now ? " Scared on finding that my observation had been over- 
heard, I simply did not reply. Attwood, perceiving my embarass- 
ment, with a kind look said, " Do not be afraid ! I am not 
going to scold. D id you not say, ' Oh is it not nice ? ' " With a 
still somewhat disturbed feeling I acknowledged " Yes." " Well," 
he went on to say, "I am very glad to find that some • f you 
choir-boys take so much interest m the music you have to sing." 
Then, taking the copy from the pianoforte music-desk and 
placing it in my hands, he said, " Accept this copy of my new 
anthem, which Sir George Smart and I have been playing from," 
add then turning to the other boy, he added, " And I will bring 
you a copy with me to the cathedral on Sunday next," which he 
faithfully did." 

Dr. Hopkins gives another interesting instance : — 

" During the last three years of my school days, as I chanced to 
be the leading singing-boy in the Chapel Eoyal choir, my master 
(Mr. Hawes) made me do double work on a Sunday by sending 
me to sing at S. Paul's as well as fulfil my own AvU&as at S» 
James'. And this arrangement could be the more easily carried 
out, as morning service at S. Paul's commenced at a quarter 
before ten, whue that at the Chapel Boyal did not begin until 



136 TBE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



twelve o'clock ; and the afternoon service at the former took 
place at a quarter past three, whereas that at the latter did not 
commence until half-past five o'clock. 

" Mr. Thomas Attwood, who as you all know was composer to 
the Chapel Royal as well as organist of S. Paul's, used to utilize 
this migratory course of mine. In those days (I am speaking 
of fifty-five years ago) there were no faciUties for the publication 
of Church music, and Attwood would frequently write out sepa- 
rate voice-parts of his services and anthems with his own hand. 
He would thus get, say, a particular service appointed to be sung 
at the Cathedral and at the Chapel Royal on the same day. He 
would then bring his copies to S. Paul's, place them in my 
hands to carry to and fro, and if, after the fourth service, I 
returned them to him, complete, and neatly tied up in paper as 
he had handf d them to me, he would reward me with the wel- 
come present of a sixpence, which showed his kindly sympathy 
with a school-boy, to one of which class a small gift of this kind 
is always acceptable." 

How well do the words of the wise and witty Canon, 
whose sayings have been already alluded to in the course 
of these papers,bear out these pleasant little anecdotes 
of Attwood : — " You have no idea of the value of 
kindness. Pleasure is very reflective, and if you give 
it you will feel it, and pleasure which you give by a 
little kindness of manner returns to you with com- 
pound interest" 

A portrait of Attwood, apparently taken late in Ufe, 
was engraved for.and prefixed to, Dr. Walmisley's col- 
lected edition of his Cathedral Music. Another en- 
graving, taken from a somewhat earlier portrait, and 
believed to be not often met with, is in the possession 
of the writer. 

Attwood married, in 1793, Miss Denton, only child 
of Matthew Denton, Esq., of Stotfield, Bedfordshire, 
by whom he had issue, six children. Two of them 
died during his lifetime. One son, as previously 
stated, held, for many years, the living of Framling- 
ham, SufTolk. Another was rector of Gosbeck. 

Contemporaneously with Attwood at S. Paul's 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 137 

flourished, as Almoner, vicar choral, and Master of 
the Choristers, William Hawes, who, in his day, was 
one of the most prominent and laborious members of 
the musical world of London. 

Hawes was born June 21, 1785, and at the age of 
eight years was placed in the choir of the Chapel 
Royal under Dr. Ayrton. With this establishment 
he was closely associated for the remainder of his 
days. 

In 1802 he began to teach singing, and officiated 
as deputy lay vicar of Westminster Abbey. He 
resided at this time in Millbank Street, Westminster, 
and, for some time after the death of Richard Guise 
had charge of the Abbey choristers. In course of 
time he was advanced to a full vicarage, but resigned 
his stall in 1820, finding it incompatible with his other 
duties. 

Hawes was, in 1805, appointed one of the gentle- 
men of the Chapel Royal, and in 181 2 succeeded 
John Sale, in the important office of Almoner and 
Master of the Boys at S. Paul's, to which the place of 
vicar choral was annexed. 

Five years later he succeeded John Stafford Smith, 
on his resignation, as Master of the ten children of the 
Chapel Royal, and on this account, removed from his 
residence in Craven Street, Strand, where he had been 
located since 18 13, to a much larger house on the 
Adelphi Terrace by the river side — a locaUty described 
by Charles Dickens in Little Dorrit in a manner in 
which he alone could describe it. This continued to 
be the home of the two sets of choristers until Hawes 
died.* 

* The house, next door but one to the right of that occupied by Mr. 
Hawes, was talcen by Garriclc, soon after the completion of the Adelphi by 
the Brothers Adam in 1760. The great actor died ^here on Jan. 15th, 1780, 
but his widow lived on at the same house, and survived him until Oct. i6th, 
1822. Garrick, it will be remembered, purchased the villa at Hampton 
formerly belonging to Charles King, the Almoner of S. Paul's, as a country 
residence. 



138 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

On Hawes' assuming the mastership of the S. Paul's 
choristers, matters were established upon a much more 
satisfactory basis, with regard to their education and 
maintenance, as may be gathered from the following 
Affidavit, filed in the Court of Chancery, January 
17th, 1814 : — 

William Hawes of Graven Street, in the Strand, in the County 
of Middlesex, Gentlemen, maketh oath and saith : That in the 
month of December, 1812, he was appointed liy the Dean and 
Chapter of S. Paul's to the office of Almoner of the said Cathe- 
dral, and to be Master of the eight choristers of the said Cathe- 
dral ; and that he entered on the duties of the said appointments 
on the 26th day of March, 1813. And this Deponent further 
saith that at the time of his appointment the said Dean and 
Chapter engaged him to teach the choristers the theory of 
musick, eind the four senior boys to play upon the harpsichord, 
and to pay a proper person to instruct the choristers to read, 
write, and to cast accounts, the sum of £20 per annum. And 
they also engaged him to board and lodge at his house the four 
senior boys, and to provide a good and sufficient dinner for the 
four junior boys every day. And that, the siid Dean and 
Chapter imposed a strict charge on the Deponent to be particu- 
larly attentive to the morals and behaviour of the choristers, 
and that he should not permit the choristers to sing at any 
public places except at such public concerts and oratorios as the 
said Dean and Chapter should approve ; and that the choristers 
when they attended any such concerts or oratorios as might be 
approved by the Dean and Chapter should be accompanied both 
to and from the same, either by this Deponent or a proper 
person deputed by him. And this Deponent further saith that 
he is a teacher of musick, and that he conceives the choristers' 
attendance at such concerts and oratorios is an important part 
of a musical education and a source of improvement to them. 

The public engagements of the S. Paul's choristers 
within little more than three months after this de- 
position, appear to have amounted to nearly fifty in 
number, exclusive of private concerts at the Almoner's 
residence on Thursday and Sunday evenings. The 
sum paid to the Almoner on these occasions, depended 
upon the vocal abilities and musical proficiency of the 
boysi At any rate, whether the profits were much or 



OF S. PAULS GATBEDRAL. 139 

little, it was in direct contradiction to the acknow- 
ledged statutes of the Cathedral. 

When Dr. Coplestone, Bishop of Llandaff, became 
Dean of S. Paul's in 1826, in succession to Dr. Van 
Mildert, he made considerable additions to the salary 
of the Almoner, and directed that the eight choristers 
. should be wholly maintained with him, as required by 
the statutes of the Cathedral, and according to the 
usage of his predecessors up to the commencement of 
the present century. At this time the revenues of the 
choral school amounted to about ;^34o per annum, 
exclusive of fines at the renewals of leases, which 
might have averaged ftom ;^4o to ^£^50 more ; 
thus making the allowance for each boy nearly 
^50 per annum. 

Good taste and sound musicianship are perhaps 
more conspicuous in Mr. Hawes' compositions for 
the Church, than novelty of form and brilliancy of 
genius. His style was beautifully melodious and 
expressive, and partook considerably of that of 
Attwood, with whom he was constantly associated, 
both at S. Paul's and the Chapel Royal. 

Hawes' Church compositions are not numerous. 
There is a Service of his in the key of G major, 
in the MS. books at S. Paul's, from which, however, 
only the Sanctus and Kyrie have been printed. These 
two movements are exceedingly beautiful, and it is to 
be regretted that the complete service was never pub- 
lished. The revival of the Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis is here earnestly suggested by the writer to 
the Succentor of S. Paul's, for they well merit it. The 
risk of publication could be avoided by making a 
vocal score and organ part (as the writer has, himself, 
done) from the part books, and, as many copies as 
might be wanted for the use of the choir, could be 
reproduced by the lithographic process in vogue at 
S. Paul's. 



I40 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

The Sanctus and Kyrie alluded to above, made 
their appearance, together with another Sanctus in the 
key of F, and fourteen single and double chants by 
Hawes, in a collection which he edited and pub- 
lished himself about 1830, in twelve periodical 
numbers, entitled Chants, Sanduses and Responses to 
the Commandments, as used at S. Paul's Cathedral 
and Westtninster Abbey. Selected from Ancient and 
Modern Composers. This very excellent publication 
was dedicated to the Rev. W. Holmes, one of the 
minor canons and Junior Cardinal of S. Paul's,* 
and contained settings of the Sanctus and Kyrie 
Eleison (in score with a separate organ accompani- 
ment) from the services of Tallis, Gibbons, Childe, 
Rogers, Goldwin, Croft, King, Travers, Savage, W. 
Hayes, Nares, Arnold, Ebdon, and Davy, while 
several compositions were furnished by living com- 
posers, including the Revs. E. J. and E. G. A. Beck- 
with (minor canons of S. Paul's), Kramer, Horn- 
castle, Attwood, Adcock, &c. 

The selection of chants (144 in number) was par- 
ticularly good, including, in addition to the usual old 
cathedral favourites, many new compositions by mem- 
bers of the choirs of S. Paul's and Westminster 
Abbey. Uniform with the above appeared a collection 
of Anthems and other Sacred music as used at His 
Majesty's Chapels Royal, and the various Cathedrals, 
throughout the Kingdom, selected from Ancient and 
Modern Composers, also edited by Hawes, and dedi- 
cated to the Rev. Dr. Barrett. Samuel Sebastian 
Wesley's lovely httle anthem, "O God, Whose 
nature and property " was printed for the first time 
in the above collection. Wesley was a chorister 



* The Rev. W. Holmes was also Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, and 
Vicar of S. Giles', Cripplegate. ^ He died June 15th, 1833, and was buried in 
the vaults of S. Giles . There is a mural tablet to his memory in the North 
aisle. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. I41 

of the Chapel Royal under Hawes from 181 7 to 
1824. 

Hawes contributed three hymn-tunes — "Fulham," 
" Hampton," and " Adelphi " * to the selection com 
piled in 1836 by the editor of "The Christian 
Remembrancer," and generally superintended the 
musical portion of the work. Two other hymns of 
his were included in a collection of sacred music 
edited by R. Andrews of Manchester, about the 
same period, viz., "The Sabbath Bell," and "The 
thoughtless world shall sink to rest," both of them 
being singularly melodious and pleasing in style. 

In 1840, Hawes published by subscription a fine 
large ])aper edition of Dr. Croft's services in A, and 
E flat, together with several of his anthems. All 
the above-mentioned works were issued from 355, 
Strand (opposite the Savoy), where, after the disso- 
lution of the Royal Harmonic Institution at the 
Argyle Rooms, Hawes carried on the business of 
music publisher. 

From 1824 to 1836, Hawes was director of the 
music at the English Opera House, now the Lyceum 
Theatre, and it was at his instance that Weber's 
" Der Freischiitz " was first presented to an English 
audience in the vernacular, on July 24th, 1824, an 
event which marks an era in the operatic history of 
our country. Hawes did not, however, venture to 
perform the whole work at first, several English 
ballads being interpolated, and the finale omitted ; 
but he soon had the satisfaction of finding that the 
opera would be accepted without curtailment, so 
great was the furore it created. This success induced 
him to adapt other foreign operas to the English 
stage, including Salieri's " Tarrare," Paer's " Free- 

* These three tunes have recently been re-published by the late Rev. T. H. 
Hawes, B.D., Rector of Burgh Oistle, Suffolk, formerly Minor Canon of 
Wells, and Chaplain of New College, Oxford. 



142 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

hooters," Mozart's "Cosi fan tutti," Winter's "The 
Interrupted Sacrifice," and Marschner's " Vampyre." 
Hawes has been much censured for the above adapta- 
tions by some of his biographers; but the state of 
pubhc taste and opinion may be urged in paUiation. 

There is extant a letter, in excellent English, from 
Weber to Hawes, thanking him for the way in which 
he had superintended the first performance of his 
" Der Freischiitz " in this country, and in which he 
mentions all his operas. 

Shortly after this, in 1826, Weber (whose magnifi- 
cent Mass in E flat,* adapted to the words of our 
Communion Service is frequently sung at S. Paul's) 
visited London, for the first and only time, in order 
to direct the production of his opera " Oberon," 
written at the request of Sir George Smart, Charles 
Kemble, Hawes, and others, expressly for the 
EngUsh stage. 

Weber, in common with all foreign musicians of 
eminence who came to London, was a frequent visitor at 
the large, pleasant house on the Adelphi Terrace. He 
would sometimes make his appearance in the fur- 
trimmed cloak, so often depicted in his portraits, during 
the breakfast hour at Mr. Hawes',and bursting into tears 
at the sight of the assembled family, would exclaim, 
" Oh ! how this reminds me of my once happy home." 
The sad story of the parting with his wife and young 
family, his struggles against disease (he arrived in 
England in the last stage of consumption), his arduous 
labours, his death at Sir George Smart's house in 

"* This Mass in E flat {Missa Sancta, No i, Op. 75a) was written in 1817 
for the celebration of the Saint's day of King Friedrich August I., of 
Saxony. It is very majestic, effective, and thoroughly characteristic of t e 
composer. Another Mass (Missa Sancta No. 2, in G, (Jp. 76) was written 
by Weber in 1819 for the golden weeding day of the same king. It is very 
bright and festive throughout, and more idyllic in character than that in K" 
flat. '■ I mean to keep before myself," wrote Weber to Rochlitz the musical 
critic, " the idea of a happy family party kneeling in prayer and rejoicing 
before the Lord as his children." 



or S. PAULS GATBMDRAL. I43 



Great Portland Street on June 5th, 1826, and the 
Requiem service at the Roman Catholic Chapel in 
Moorfields, has often been told. 

Hawes was a prominent member of the Philhar- 
monic Society, the Glee and Catch Club, the Madri- 
gal Society, the Western Madrigal Society, the Con- 
centores Sodales, and the Melodists' Club. He re- 
ceived from more than one of these societies some 
handsome and valuable pieces of plate, in recogni- 
tion of his services to art ; and was also presented by 
Her Majesty the Queen with a richly-chased silver 
inkstand, on the occasion of her marriage in 1840. 

Many delightful glees and madrigals proceeded 
from Hawes' pen. Among the former may be cited 
" Bring me flowers," " Requiescat in Pace " (prize 
1831), " See, from the rose-tinged chambers of the 
East" (written on the recovery of George III., 181 1), 
" O merry the hour " (prize 1833), and " The bee, the 
golden daughter of the Spring" (F'rize Glee on the 
50th anniversary of the Glee Club, 1836), while among 
the latter, " Sweet Philomela " is especially worthy of 
mention. 

The words of twenty glees by Hawes were given in 
Clark's Words of the Most Favourite Pieces, performed 
at the Glee Club, etc. (1824) ; and those of fifteen more 
were included by Thomas Ludford Bellamy (son of 
Richard Bellamy, Almoner of S. Paul's) in his Poetry 
of Glees and Madrigals, 1840. Both these works, 
together with Thomas Oliphant's Musa Madrigalesca 
(1837) and Rimbault's Bibliotheca Madrigaliana 
(1847) are indispensable to the students of a most in- 
teresting branch of musical art, one peculiar to Eng- 
land, viz., that of glees and madrigals. 

Hawes published, in 1 814, an original Collection of 
Five Glees and One Madrigal for 3, 4, and 5 voices, 
and, in 1815, another of Six Glees for 3 and 4 voices. 
He also, in 181 7, harmonized Six Scotch Airs as GkeSf 



144 ^ff-S ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



and edited a collection of the glees of Reginald 
Spofforth,f from the MSS. left by that composer. 

For more than thirty years Hawes was conductor of 
the Madrigal Society, for which time-honoured musical 
body he newly edited, while resident in Craven Street, 
The Triumphs of Oriana described in an earlier 
portion of this history in connection with Thomas 
Morley the original editor. He likewise published 
for the same society A Collection of Madrigals for 3, 4, 
5, and 6 voices, from the works of the most eminent com- 
posers of the I dth and i ']th centuries, carefully extracted 
from the original books as preserved in the Madrigal 
Society. 

Under Hawes' direction, on the occasion of the 
Anniversary Festival of the Madrigal Society, January 
2 1 St, 1836, was revived Tallis' famous "Song of Forty 
Parts," a motett for eight choirs of five voices 
apiece. 

At the time of the above performance a score (2 
feet 1 1 inches high, and i foot 6 inches wide) was 
made of this extraordinary composition by Thomas 
Oliphant, late Secretary to the Madrigal Society. 

This copy contains the following record : " This 
motett was performed at the Anniversary Festival 
of the Madrigal Society, 21st January, 1836, by the 
undersigned members of the Society and their friends." 
Appended is a hst of 106 vocalists, and 24 visitors. 
Upon the reverse of this leaf, page 29, is a plan 
of the arrangement of the eight choirs, with the 



* Reginald Spofforth, one of our mo.->t esteemed glee composers was, on 
his death in 1827, buried in the old parish church of Kensington. When 
the church was rebuilt the monument whs placed in the south porch. The 
following is the inscription upon it. " In memoriam. Under this church are 
deposited the remains of Reginald Spojff'orth, professor of music, bom at South 
well, Nottinghamshire. He died at Brompton on the Sth September, 1827, aged 
5j years. Laus Deo." Underneath is a seraph. 

Samuel Spofforth, Reginald's brother, was organist of Lichfield Cathedral 
from 1807 to 1864. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 145 



names of all the singers, William Hawes being con- 
ductor. Sir John Rogers was president of the Society 
at the time. 

This unique piece of music has recently been pub- 
lished in a cheap form under the editorship of Dr. A. 
H. Mann, the much esteemed organist of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge. 

Hawes was the composer or arranger of the inci- 
dental music to the following pieces produced, for the 
most part, at the English Opera House : — 

Broken Promises (a ballad opera chiefly compiled from 

Hitnmel, Weber, Meyerbeer, and Cherubini, 1825). 
The Sister of Charity (1829). 
The Irish Girl (1830). 
Comfortable Lodgings (1832). 
The Dilosk Gatherer (1832). 
The Climbing Boy (18321. 
The Mummy (1833). 
The Quartette (1833). 
The Yeoman's Daughter (1833). 
Convent Belles (with J. A. Wade, 1833). 
The Muleteer' s Vow (partly compiled, 1835). 

He also wrote some excellent songs and ballads such 
as " The Beacon " and " Father William," which were 
very popular in their day ; likewise many others, to 
words by Scott, Moore, Byron, Southey, Kirke White, 
and Mrs. Opie. Two melodious duets for soprano 
and contralto — " See how beneath the moonbeams' 
smile," and " When you told us our glances " may be 
added to the above compositions. He was an un- 
successful competitor for the prize Requiem written 
by W. Linley in memory of Samuel Webbe. The 
other competitors were Lord Burghersh (afterwards 
Duke of Westmoreland). Linley, W. Knyvett, Elliott, 
Beale, and Evans. Each setting was subsequently 
published ; Evans being the winner of the prize. 

Although Mr. Hawes' voice was naturally a counter 
tenor he could, curiously enough, take any part in 



146 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



concerted vocal music, and in the absence of any par- 
ticular singer at S. Paul's or the Chapel Royal, could 
thus supply his place. He was also a good performer 
on the violin and several other instruments. 

Hawes was in his capacity as a master, a most stern 
and strict disciplinarian. Many of the boys entrusted 
to his charge for the choirs of S. Paul's and the Chapel 
Royal, have risen to great eminence in their pro- 
ession, either as vocalists, general musicians, or 
cathedral organists. It will be quite sufficient to men- 
tion the names of S. S. Wesley, John Hopkins, E. 
J. Hopkins, G. W. Martin, E. T. Chipp, George 
Genge, Donald King, and Frederick Walker. 

Mr. Hawes was a most laborious and successful 
teacher, and, in his scanty intervals of leisure, a man 
of some literary pursuits and refined tastes. As a man 
of integrity he was universally respected, and sincerely 
regretted by a numerous circle. 

He died on Ash Wednesday, February i8th, 1846, 
and was buried at Kensal Green. The grave is on 
the extreme north of the cemetery, close underneath 
the wall, and facing one of the avenues leading from 
the Chapel. 

A portrait of Hawes was engraved (from arainiature 
painted at Paris in 1815) lor a collection of secular 
part music, published about 1830. Copies of this 
portrait are not common, but one is in the library of 
S. Paul's, and another is with the writer of this notice. 
In the possession of Mr. John Hawes of Kensington, 
there is a very touching painting representing the com- 
poser upon his deathbed. 

Hawes married in 1810, Elizabeth, sister of Henry 
Mullinex, a gentleman of the Chapel Royal, who 
survived him until May 3, 187 1. By her he had a 
family of three sons, and three daughters. One of 
the latter, Maria Billington (afterwards Mrs. Merest) 
inherited her father's abilities, and became orje of the 



OF & PAULS CATHEDRAL. I47 



first contraltos of her day. She sang at the pro- 
duction of Mendelssohn's Lobgesang at Birmingham 
in 1840, and at that oi EWah in 1846, when the com- 
poser wrote the air, " O rest in the Lord " ex- 
pressly for her. Miss Maria B. Hawes' powers of 
declamation were almost unrivalled, and her rich, 
deep, powerful voice, heard frequently in the sublime 
works of those mighty masters, Pergolesi, Handel, 
Haydn, Spohr, and Mendelssohn, moved whole 
audiences to tears. Upon one occasion (it was at the 
conclusion of a concert at the Hanover Square Rooms) 
when she had been singing " He was despised," 
Hawes was met by good Bishop Blomfield, who, with 
the tears running down his cheeks, exclaimed " Oh ! 
Mr. Hawes, pray tell your daughter from me, that her 
singing of ' He was despised,' will, I am sure, do 
more good than any sermon I could preach. "* 

Hawes' successor in 1846, as music-master to the 
. S. Paul's boys was William Bayley, one of the vicars 
choral. He did not, however, assume the title of 
Almoner, as that was transferred not long afterwards 
to the Rev. J. H. Coward, one of the minor canons, 
at that time rector of S. Benett, Paul's Wharf — Arch- 
deacon Hale having previously held it for a short 
period. Mr. Coward was classical master to the choris- 
ters until the establishment of the present choir school, 
and the appointment of the late master, the Rev. A. 
Barflf. 

Bayley was born in 18 10, and died in November, 
1858 Besides being a vicar choral of S. Paul's, he 
held the organistship of S. John's, Horsleydown, a 
church conspicuous in Southwark by the extraordi- 
nary appendage of a tower supporting an Ionic pillar 
by way of a spire, 

* For several interesting particulars in the course of tliis memoir I am in- 
debted to my very Icind friend, the late Mr. John Hawes, of Kensington,—. 
J. S. g. 

I, ? 



148 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Among Bayley's sacred compositions may be noticed 
a very pleasing Cantate Domino and Deus Misereatur 
in F (composed, as stated on a MS. copy of it belong- 
ing to S. Paul's, in 1840) ; a Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis in E ; and three short anthems — " Enter not 
into judgment," " To the Lord our God," and " The 
mountains shall depart." The Cantate service, which 
has been published, was, for many years a great 
favourite at S. Paul's. 

Bayley also published a collection of original hymn - 
tunes, dedicated to the Rev. Dr. Knapp, one of the 
minor canons of S. Paul's, a priest in ordinary of the 
of the Chapel Royal and vicar of Willesden. Ap- 
pended to these tunes were six single' and double 
chants, of a pleasing character, one of which is still 
sung at S. Paul's on the 29th evening of the month. 
A setting of the Sanctus and Ryrie in the key of G 
and another in E, were published in the Lyra Eccle- 
siastica, a very excellent collection of chants, services, 
anthems, and psalmody ( 1 844)<' ' 

Two of Bayley's cavatinas, " Come, sister come," 
and " Softly ring, ye gay blue bells ," evince con- 
siderable grace and refined taste. Many of his 
pupils have risen to great eminence in their pro- 
fession. Mention may be made of Sir John Stainer, 
Mr. Henry Gadsby, Dr. W. A. Barrett, and Dr. 
Warwick Jordan, all of whom were choristers of S. 
Paul's. 

The veteran vicar choral, Richard Clark, may be 
noticed in this place. Born at Datchet, near Windsor 
in 1780, he became, at an early age, a chorister of S. 
George's Chapel, and Eton College. In 1802, he was 
appointed to succeed his grandfather, John Sale, the 
elder (father of the Almoner of S. Paul's) as lay clerk 
of the above two places, which he resigned in 181 1 on 
obtaining similar appointments at S. Paul's and West- 
minster, having previously officiated as deputy there, 



OP .S. PAVl's CATBEDtlAL. I49 



In 1820 he was sworn in as a gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, in the room of Joseph Corfe. He 
continued to divide his time between the three choirs 
until his death, which took place on October 8th, 
1856, at the Cloisters, Westminster. 

Few of Clark's Church compositions are now known, 
beyond a fine double chant in A minor, included in 
the present S. Paul's Chant Book, and sung to the 
77th Psalm, on the isth morning of the month, to 
which it is admirably adapted. 

Aspiring to some fame in pursuits of a literary cha- 
racter, he wrote in j?>22, An Account of the Song "God 
save the King" assigning its composition to John Bull. 
In 1814 he had published a collection entitled The 
Words of the most Favourite Pieces performed at the 
Glee Club, the Catch Club, and other Public Societies, 
8vo, a valuable work, the utility of which was increased 
by the publication, in 1840, of Thomas Ludford 
Bellamy's Lyric Poetry of Glees and Madrigals, con- 
taining the words of many pieces composed since the 
publication of Clark's book, and also of a good many 
by earlier writers not included by him. 

Prefixed to Clark's collection of 18 14 was a short 
account of " God save the King," in which, however, 
he assigned its composition to Henry Carey, 

Like Dr. Spray, Dr. Pring, Miss Hackett, Edward 
Taylor and others, Clark busied himself in endeavour 
ing to procure for the various cathedral choirs a 
restoration of their ancient rights and privileges. 

He issued a second edition of his Words of Glees 
in 1824, " revised, improved, and considerably en- 
larged," and was also the author of the following 
books and pamphlets : — On the Sacred Oratorio of the 
Messiah previous to the death of Handel, 8vo, 1852; 
An Examination into the derivation, etymology and 
definition of the word " Madrigale," 8vo, 1852; An 
Address on the existing high pitch of the musical scale, 



tJO THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



8vo, 1845 ; A Memorial to the Dean and Canons of S. 
George's Free Chapel, Windsor, and the Provost and 
Fellows of Eton College, 8vo, 1834 ; and Reminis- 
cences of Handel, the Duke of Ghandos, Powells the 
Harpers, the Harmonious Blacksmith, with music and 
engravings, etc., etc., folio, 1836. These publications 
are now, by no means commonly met with. 

Clark was, no doubt, a man of some industry and 
possessed of considerable enthusiasm ; but he was 
too prone to credit idle stories, and to commit them 
to paper' without first making strict enquiries into 
their veracity. As an example of this, his folio pam- 
phlet on Handel and the " Harmonious Blacksmith " 
incident, is little better than a farrago of nonsense. 

There is not very much to chronicle respecting 
the minor canons of S. Paul's as practical musicians 
during this period. The following brief notices must 
therefore suffice. 

The Rev. Edward James Beckwith was minor 
canon and Succentor from 1797 until his death on 
January 7th, 1833, in his sixty-second year. He was 
the son of Edward Beckwith and a native of Norwich 
— a city which has produced more than one composer 
of distinction. One of his nephews, the Rev. H. A. 
Beckwith, was a priest vicar of York, and rector of 
Collingham ; his brother, Dr. John Christmas Beck- 
with, the composer of many chants and anthems, was 
organist of Norwich Cathedral and of the church of S. 
Peter Mancroft. John Beckwith, his uncle, a volu- 
minous composer of anthems, was a lay clerk of Nor- 
wich Cathedral, so it will be seen that the family was 
one of musicians. 

The Rev. E. J. Beckwith's compositions include a 
Sanctus and Kyrie Eleison in the key of C, printed in 
W. Hawes' collection, together with a few excellent 
chants. 

Mr. Beckwith like many of his contemporaries was 



OP &. PAULS, CATHEDRAL. tgi 



a pluralist, for, besides being a minor canon of S. 
Paul's, he was one of the priests in ordinary to the 
King, rector of S. Alban's, Wood Street, and vicar of 
Tillingham in Essex. On his death he was buried in 
the crypt of S. Paul's, where there is a flat stone to his 
memory. 

His son, the Rev. Edward George Ambrose Beck- 
with, was appointed a minor canon of S. Paul's in 1825, 
and of Westminster Abbey in 1828. He received the 
succentorship on the death of his father in 1833, and 
held it until his death in September, 1856, when he 
was succeeded by the Rev. W. C. Fynes Webber. 
He was also rector of the church of S. Michael 
Bassishaw, near Guildhall, and was for some time 
chaplain of Bromley College. Both he and his father 
were originally choristers of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, as was also the Rev. Richard Webb, another 
minor canon, a diligent collector of music, and the 
composer of several madrigals. Besides the seventh 
minor canonry of S. Paul's, to which he was appointed 
in 1799, the Rev. Richard Webb was a minor canon 
of Westminster Abbey, and S. George's Chapel, 
Windsor ; a priest in ordinary of the Chapel Royal, 
S. James', and vicar of Kensworth, Herts, a living in 
the gift of the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's. He 
died at Windsor, on April 13th, 1829. 

His successor at S. Paul's, the Rev. James Lupton, 
was originally a chorister of York Minster under 
Matthew Camidge. He afterwards proceeded to 
Oxford, matriculating at Christ Church in 1819. His 
musical abilities procured for him in 1824, a chap- 
laincy at New College, where, for some time, he was 
a contemporary of the late Rev. Thomas Henry 
Hawes (son of the Almoner of S. Paul's), who was 
then holding a similar post. 

Five years later Mr. Lupton came to London and 
received the minor canonries of S. Paul's and West- 



t52 THE OkGANtSTS AND COMPOSERS 



minster, which he held, together with the livings of S. 
Michael's, Queenhithe, City, and Blackbourton, Ox- 
fordshire,, until his death on S. Thomas' Day, Dec. 
2 1 St, 1873. He was buried in the West cloister walk 
of Westminster Abbey, near Dr. Dupuis. 

Minor Canon Lupton was the composer, inter alia 
of numerous chants, a Sanctus and Kyrie in G, for 
some time in use at Westminster Abbey, and a psalm- 
tune called " Stamford " contributed to the tune book 
edited by Hawes for the Rev. W. J. Hall's hymnal, in 
1836. 

Another tune called " Cloister Hymn " was com- 
posed for, and inserted in, the Rev. Peter Maurice's 
well-known collection of psalmody, entitled "Choral 
Harmony," in 1853. Mr. Lupton was the author of 
Observations on the Public Schools Bill. He was reputed 
in his day, one of the ablest chanters of Tallis' famous 
service and Litany, and his fine, clear voice, preserved 
to the last, will long be remembered at S. Paul's. 

It remains now to close this chapter with an account 
of the life and labours of one of the most eminent 
Church musicians, our present century has produced, 
viz., John Goss. In whatever clime the solemn tones 
of our time-honoured Liturgy are heard, or any pre- 
tensions to a choral service made, there will also be 
heard the strains of this most delightful of eccle- 
siastical composers. 

Enchanting harmonist, the art was thine 
Unmatched to pour the soul dissolving air. 

Rarely a week, nay, a single day, passes without 
one of his chants, services or anthems being used in our 
cathedrals, " preaching and teaching," as it has been 
well remarked " the truths ot religion, with as much 
point and purpose as the most eloquent sermon, by 
the most eminent divine.' 
, John Goss was born at Fareham, Hants, on 



OP S. PAULAS CATHEDRAL. 1$^ 



December 27th (S. John Evangelist's Day), 1800. 
Like Gibbons, Purcell, Beckwith, Wesley, and others, 
he came of a musical stock, his father, Joseph Goss, 
being organist of the parish church and possessing a 
good local reputation, whilst his uncle, John Jeremiah 
Goss, a gifted alto-singer, was a member of the three 
metropolitan choirs, and on his death in 18 17 was 
buried in the crypt of S. Paul's. 

Through the influence of his uncle, young Goss was 
admited a chorister of the Chapel Royal in 181 1. 
The master of the children was then John Stafford 
Smith (the immediate predecessor of Hawes) of whom 
our composer was wont to relate some amusing anec- 
dotes. The education of the " Young Gentlemen " 
of His Majesty's Chapel Royal, S. James' was, in 
those days, of a very happy-go-lucky description. 
Beyond the three R's, and the learning of the chants, 
canticles and anthems, necessary for divine service, 
little or no instruction was given to the boys, who 
taught each other the rudiments of music and com- 
position, the master marking and enforcing progress 
by a liberal use of the cane. 

On one occasion it is related that young Goss 
bought, out of his hardly-saved pocket money, a copy 
of Handel's Organ Concertos in Walsh's Pianoforte 
Edition. Whilst walking across the school-room one 
day with the book under his arm, he met his master, 
who accosted him with " What's that you have under 
your arm?" "If you please. Sir," said young Goss 
trembling, " it's only Handel's Organ Concertos, I 
thought I should like to learn to play them." " Oh ! 
only Handel's Concertos," replied Stafford Smith, 
" and pray. Sir, did you come here to learn to />lay or 
to sing ?" " To sing, Sir," said Goss totally discomfited. 
The master then seized the book and crowned his 
argument by hitting his pupil on the head with it. 
Poor Goss never saw his beloved book again. 



1S4 2*^-2? OMANtSTS AND COMPOSBttS 



Notwithstanding this, and other pieces of petty 
spite recorded of him, Stafford Smith seems to have 
been really fond of this boy, " and," says Dr. W. A. 
Barrett, " was wont to take him about during his daily 
walks, and to tell him stories of his own childhood, 
and of the great men he had seen and spoken with. 
He had seen and remembered Handel, and pointed 
out the place where the great man breathed his last. 
He told how that in his youth, as a Chapel boy, he 
had borrowed a gun to shoot snipe at the top of that 
very Brook Street in which Handel had died ; and 
how he had known Dr. Arne, whom he called a con- 
ceited Papist, an evil living man, but a God-gifted 
genius for melody. He had known Haydn, and held 
all these three great men up to the future organist of 
S. Paul's, as examples for imitation when he began to 
write. He regretted, even then, the growing fashion 
for discarding the pure principles of melody, in favour 
of massive, startling harmonies, and the fascinations of 
instrumental colouring. ' Remember, my child,' he 
was wont to say, ' that melody is the one power of 
music which all men can delight in. If you wish to 
make those for whom you write love you, if you wish 
to make what you write amiable, turn your heart to 
melody, your thoughts will follow the inclination of 
your heart.' " 

"Then, as if to enforce his precept by a me- 
morable argument, not likely to be soon forgotten, 
when he returned home he impressed his teaching 
on the skin of his pupil by a mild castigation. By 
this means his dignity as a master was maintained, 
he consoled himself for having unbent his mind to 
a junior, and felt that he had justified his position 
as a senior, according to the rule then prevalent 
with parents and guardians."* 

* Bfigliih Cfleea and Fart Songs, an Snquirp into their Siitorical Develop' 
ment, by W. A. Barrett, Mus.Bac, Oxon., 1886. A valuable additon to our 
somewhat scanty information on the subject. 



Oi' S. PAULAS oatuedraL ts5 



The way in which Goss in after years carried his 
old master's precepts into practice may be seen by 
a glance at any of his compositions. 

Upon the breaking of his voice Goss resided for 
a short time with his uncle in Wood Street, West- 
minster, with whom also lived, as an articled pupil, 
James Turle. Little did these two lads then think that 
they were destined to become the organists of the two 
great churches of the metropolis. 

For the further study of composition Goss repaired 
to Attwood. He was fondly attached to that admirable 
man and musician. It is well known that he cherished 
every memorial of his intercourse with him, and after 
his death never alluded to him without considerable 
emotion. 

Goss' voice subsequently settled down into a light 
and pleasing tenor, and, for some time, he accepted 
an engagement to sing in the chorus of the opera. 
This was in 1817, when Mozart's Don Giovanni vias 
first presented to an English audience, though in a 
sadly mutilated form, under the direction of H. R. 
Bishop who, in after years, confessed himself heartily 
ashamed of the business. Attwood was present at 
this representation of his master's work, and con- 
tinued his attendance, it is said, for twenty-one nights 
in succession. 

In i8zi, Goss received his first organ appointment, 
which was to Stockwell Chapel, now S. Andrew's 
Church — a fact of which several of his biographers do 
not appear to have been cognizant. Three years later 
he was a successful competitor for the organistship of 
the new Parish Church of S. Luke, Chelsea, a fair 
specimen of the revival of the pointed style from the 
designs of Savage — not of Barry as stated by the late 
Canon Mozeley in his Reminiscences of Oriel and the 
Oxford Movement. The rector of Chelsea at the time 
of its completion was the Rev. Gerald Valerian Wellesley. 



IS6 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Here Goss remained until 1838, his time being 
divided between teaching (of which he began to have 
a large connection, coupled with a professorship at 
the Royal Academy) and glee singing. Even at this 
comparatively early period Goss seems to have had 
considerable experience in part writing, when we 
examine his charming set of Six Glees and One 
Madrigal published in 1826, which includes "Kitty 
Fell," " The Sycamore Shade," and " Ossian's Hymn 
to the Sun,'' the last named gaining a prize at the 
Glee Club in 1833.+ 

While organist at S. Luke's, Chelsea, Goss pub- 
lished a collection of Parochial Psalmody, consisting, 
besides hymns, &c., of responses and chants. Among 
the latter was the well-known double chant in C minor, 
arranged by Goss himself from the Allegretto of Beet- 
hoven's Symphony, No. 7 (Op. 92). 

This collection, was published in four handy little 
pocket volumes the first and fourth volumes consist- 
ing of psalmody, responses and chants ; the second 
of sacred melodies, and the third of organ voluntaries. 
The title-pages were embellished with some pretty little 
vignettes, one of them representing the exterior of S. 
Luke's Church, and another a cherub playing upon an 
organ in some marvellous manner — very charming 
nevertheless. 

It was also during the above period that Goss 
edited, while resident at 30, Sloane Street, The Sacred 
Minstrel in 3 vols, octavo, consisting of a number of 
songs, duets, trios, etc. by various composers, English 
and foreign. The first volume made its appearance 
in 1833, with a dedication to Mrs. J. W. Lockwood. 
The compositions of this period in the department of 
sacred song writing were, as a rule, feeble in the ex- 

\ '* This collection is a casket of gems of the rarest order and qualifies 
him for a place among the higher ranks of English glee writers." — W. A. 
Barrett. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 157 

treme, and, to such, many of the pieces in The Sacred 
Minstrel afforded a notable exception. Especially 
deserving of mention in this collection are two songs 
by the late William Hutchins Callcott, " They shewed 
me the Lord on His Throne " and " The Star of Beth- 
lehem " (both to words by the Rev. J. W. Cunning- 
ham, Vicar of Harrow) ; four by Attwood, previously 
mentioned in connexion with that composer ; one by 
Thomas Forbes Walmisley, " Lo, the Lilies of the 
Field" ;* a setting of the Lord's Prayer by the versatile 
Tom Cooke; "Gratitude" by Sir Henry Bishop; 
"The Lord of Hosts " by John Barnett (composer of 
that charming opera, The Mountain Sylph), and four 
by Goss himself, " Stand up and bless the Lord," 
" They are not lost, but gone before," " O had I wings 
like yonder bird," and "Weep not for me," the last- 
named being a particularly touching and expressive 
little composition to equally beautiful words by the Rev. 
Thomas Dale, from 1843 to 1870 one of the Canons 
Residentiary of S. Paul's. The book also contained 
some adaptations from the works of Marcello, Per- 
golesi, Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Hummel, Cheru- 
bini, Neukomm, and others 

Goss appears to have taken up orchestral writing at 
this epoch of his career, for we find that an overture 
in F minor was written for the concerts of the Phil- 
harmonic Society in 1825, and performed several 
times. It may be interesting to state that it was 
revived at the Chester Musical Festival in 1882. The 
success of this inspired Goss with courage, and shortly 
afterwards another overture, in E flat, appeared from 
his pen. Both were full of graceful, tender phrasing, 
sometimes most skilfully handled, but neither would 



* A very pleasing treble solo, " Lord, help us on Thy word to feed," by 
Thomas Attwoud Walmisley (son of T. F. Walmisley), given in the third 
volume, should be added to these. It ib quite in the beautiful an4 charac? 
terisiic style of that compose):. 



IS8 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



probably satiate the cravings of admirers of the modern 
advanced school. At a meeting of the Philharmonic 
Society in 1833 it was resolved to offer Goss the sum 
of jQ^tS ^o"^ ^" occasional orchestral piece, but there 
is no evidence to prove that he produced anything 
more in this department of music. 

In 1833 Goss composed an anthem (his first work 
of the kind of any importance) to words from the 51st 
Psalm commencing " Have mercy upon me, O God." 
This he sent in to compete for the Gresham Prize 
Medal. It was successful, and he afterwards pub- 
lished it at J. Alfred Novello's, 67, Frith Street, Soho, 
with a dedication to Attwood. An examination of the 
score of this masterly composition will show how much 
Goss was indebted to the influence of the above com- 
poser. A copy in the writer's possession is inscribed 
in a neat, fair hand, "For Miss Hackett, with the 
Authot's respectful compliments." 

Upon the death of Attwood in 1838, Goss was 
nominated his successor as organist of S. Paul's, 
obtaining the appointment, it is said, through the in- 
fluence of the Dukes of Cambridge and Wellington. 
At the same time he received the vicar choral's place, 
held in combination with the organistship. 

For the celebration of the Queen's Coronation in 
the same year he produced an anthem, " O Lord grant 
the Queen a long life," and, in honour of Her Ma- 
jesty's Marriage two years later, wrote another, " The 
Queen shall rejoice." Both were printed at Cramer's, 
but have seldom been performed. The first-named 
contained a very beautiful treble solo. 

Several good stories are current in reference to 
Goss' appointment as organist of S. Paul's. Dr. Hop- 
kins in his interesting and amusing paper, previously 
referred to, related some which are worth repeat- 
ing :— 

" In the year 18^8, Thomas Attwood, the org 



OF &. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 1 59 

of S. Paul's Cathedral, died, and Sir John (then Mr.) 
Goss thought of applying for the appointment, and 
sought an interview with the Rev. Sydney Smith, for 
the purpose of talking the matter over with him. 
Sydney Smith commenced by tantalizing Goss slightly. 
' I suppose Mr. Goss, you are aware what the statuta- 
ble salary is ? ' ' Not exactly.' ' Well, it is about 
£ZA /«y annum.' ' Oh ! indeed is that all ? Well, 
as I am receiving about .;£^ioo at Chelsea, I think 
I will, if you will allow me, consider the matter a 
little further before I leave my name,' and he was 
about to retire when Sydney Smith continued : ' Per- 
haps Mr. Goss, before you go, you would like to know 
whether any other appointment or any perquisites ap- 
pertain to the office of organist ? ' And he then entered 
into particulars which gave so different a complexion 
to the matter that Goss at once entered his name." 

" Time went on, and Goss began to wish he could 
gain some tidings as to whether anything had been 
decided at the Cathedral ; when, one evening he met 
Sydney Smith at a large dinner party. He did not, 
however, like to make any enquiry. At the table Goss 
sat opposite Sydney Smith to whom fell the duty of 
carving a fine piece of salmon. ' Mr. Goss,' enquired 
Sydney Smith, ' what part shall I send you ? ' ' I have 
no choice, thank you.' Thereupon he cut a piece 
right across the fish, and handing it said 'Accept 
that ; and I trust Sydney Smith will always be found 
ready to assist Mr. Goss through thick and thin.' 
Goss readily perceived the possibility of a double 
meaning being conveyed by this witty speech ; and, 
on his return home, found a letter awaiting his arrival, 
acquainting him of the successful result of his apphca- 
tion to S. Paul's. 

" Mr. Goss had not long been installed before he 
discovered that the organ stood in need of the addi- 
tion pf a few new and useful stops j so be took the 



l60 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



opportunity one week day after service, of asking 
Sydney Smith whether these desirable alterations 
might be made. ' Mr. Goss,' replied Sydney Smith, 
' what a strange set of creatures you organists are. 
First you want the bull stop, then you want the tom- 
tit stop ; in fact, you are like a jaded cab-horse, always 
longing for another stop. However, I will ascertain 
what may be done in the matter.' And it is almost 
needless toadd that the amiable organist had his desire.', 

" In the Psalms " (continues Dr. Hopkins) " when- 
ever there occurred any reference to 'storms and 
tempest,' the organ used to give forth a deep roll, to 
the great delight of Miss Hackett, who would look 
up at the instrument with a smile of intense satisfac- 
tion. On one occasion, when the Psalms had been 
unusually full of references to atmospheric disturb- 
ances, and the organ had been demonstrative to an 
unusual degree, and this good lady's face had been 
beaming almost incessantly, after service Sydney Smith 
said " Mr Goss, I do not know whether you have ever 
observed the phenomenon ; but your organ never 
thunders but what Miss Hackett's countenance 
lightens ! " * 

Another little anecdote of the witty canon may find 
a place here. It is as follows : — One of the adult 
singers during lesson or sermon-time having con- 
tracted a habit of staring fixedly into the dome, ap- 
parently in a state of deep meditation, Sydney Smith 
was asked by some one who had observed him, who 
such an individual might be. " Oh," replied Sydney, 
" he is a sleeping partner in a ham and beef shop close 
by, and always appears to me to be engaged in a pro- 
found calculation as to how many slices of ham and 
beef it would take to cover the dome of S. Paul's." 



"* See Dr ^a^Vms* PersmwX Reminiscences and ReiOlUctions^ a aperre^cl 
tiefore the College of Organists. i8S$. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. l6l 



There is a curious tradition at S. Paul's about 
Sydney Smith's musical predilections. It appears 
that music in a minor key always had a depressing 
effect upon him. He said that it unnerved him, and 
when in residence he was compelled to forbid the 
Succentor to introduce it into the Cathedral services. 

But to return to our subject. One of Goss' chief 
publications soon after he became organist of S. Paul's 
was A Collection of Chants — Ancient and Modern, in 
score with an accompaniment for the organ, folio. This 
compilation, which appeared in 184 1, was one of con- 
siderable utility, and was enriched by many compo- 
sitions of great originality and meritj chiefly by James 
Turle, Sir John Leman Rogers, Hobbs, the Rev. 
James Lupton, the Rev. E. G. A. Beckwith, and Goss 
himself, a large proportion of which appeared for 
the first time. The arrangement, however, of some 
of the old-established cathedral favourites was not 
generally so good as might have been expected from 
such an editor, being inferior to that in Bennett and 
Marshall's Oxford collection which had been pre- 
viously used at S. Paul's.* Goss's compilation forms 
the ground-work of the present ^S". Paul's Cathedral 
Chant Book, published in October, 1878. Two hun- 
dred and fifty-seven chants were printed by Goss, 
grouped under the heads of single, double, unison, 
major and minor. 

In the following year (1842) Goss wrote his anthem 
" Blessed is the man." It met, however, with but a 
cool reception from certain members of the composer's 
choir, and several unkind criticisms passed thereon 
deterred him, it is said, from writing another anthem 
for ten years. This composition, a short "full 
with verse" anthem, is extremely musicianlike and 



* Ten copies of this collection were subscribed for by the Dean and Chap- 
ter of S. Paul's on its publication in 1829. 

, M 



l62 



TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



expressive, combining the ancient and modern styles 
in the happiest and most judicious manner. 

For ten years then, the sweet voice was silent, but 
the pen was busily employed in many ways. 

About 1846 Goss commenced editing, in conjunc- 
tion with his old fellow-pupil James Turle, then 
organist of Westminster Abbey, a collection of Cathe- 
dral Services and Anthems in two volumes, by standard 
composers. Some of these had not been previously 
published in a cheap and accessible form, whilst others 
had never been printed at all. The following list of 
the pieces contained in this handsome and useful 
collection may not be unacceptable : — 
SERVICES. 

( Gibbons in F, 

Batten in D minor. 

Rogers in D. 

Childe in F. 

Childe in G. 

Aldrich in G. 

Arnold in B flat. 

Cooke in G. 
, Aiiwood in F. 

Barrow in F. 

Boyce in A, 

Boyce in C. 

Rogers in A minor. 

Hayes in E flat. 

Cooke (R.) in C. 

ANTHEMS. 
Farrant. 



Morning, Communion, and 
Evening Services. 



Morning and Evening Service. 
Morning Services. 



Evening Services. 



Hide not Thou Thy face 

Lord, for Thy tender 

mercies' sake. Farrant. 

Bow Thine ear. ^ Byrde. 

Almighty and Everlasting 

God Gibbons. 

O God. Thou art my God Pv.rcdl. 

Teach me, O Lord Rogers, 

Awake, up, my glory. Wise. 

The Lord hear thee. Blow. 

O Lord God of my salva- 
tion. Clark. 

Praise the Lord, Jeru- 
salem. Clark. 

give thanks. Aldrich. 

1 have set God, Gold-win. 



Hear my prayer. Btroudt 
In Thee, O Lord. Weldm. 
Cry aloud and shout. Cro/t, 
God is gone up. Crojt. 
Sing praises to the Lord. Croft. 
We will rejoice Croft. 
I will arise. Creyghtot 
I will sing of Thy power. Greene. 
O clap your hands. Greene. 
Keep, we beseech Thee. Travers 
Blessed be Thou. Kent. 
Turn Thee unto me. Boyce. 
Wherewithal shall Boyce. 
Praise the Lord, O Jeru- 
salem Haya. 
Call to remembrance. Battithillj 



OF s. Paul's catbedral. 163 

Any uneasiness that Goss may have felt respecting 
the criticisms passed upon his anthem, " Blessed is 
the man" must have been completely dispelled 
by the warm reception accorded to the noble 
Dirge which he composed at the request of Dean 
Milman for the state funeral of the Duke of Welling- 
ton at S. Paul's on November i8th, 185s. " Well do 
I remember," says one who was present, " the rehearsal 
of this work by a large and fine choir in the music 
room, Store Street. When the last bars piaHissimo 
had died away, there was a profound silence for some 
time, so deeply had the hearts of all been touched by 
its truly devotional spirit. Then there gradually arose 
on all sides the warmest congratulations to the com- 
poser, it could hardly be termed applause, for it was 
something more genuine and respectful." 

The anthem previously mentioned, set to the words, 
"And the King said to all the people, &c." was per- 
formed on the solemn day with grand effect, as well 
as a short full one, " If we believe that Jesus 
died," a beautiful and pathetic piece of writing in the 
key of D minor. Both these compositions were pub- 
lished in a volume prepared by Goss for the occasion, 
similar to that edited by John Page for Nelson's state 
funeral. It comprised the whole of the music per- 
formed, viz.. The Burial Service of Croft and Purcell ; 
Handel's anthem, " His body is buried in peace " ; 
Mendelssohn's chorale, " Sleepers, Wake " from S. 
Paul; chants by Lord Mornington and Beethoven; 
and the Dead March in Saul. 

After this, hardly a year passed without an anthem 
appearing from the pen of Goss, although the then 
Chapter of S. Paul's was not one particularly calcu- 
lated to afford a Church composer much encourage- 
ment. 

For the Bi-centenary Festival of the Sons of the 
Clergy on May 10th, 1854, our composer produced 

M 2 



io4 THE- dRGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



" Praise the Lord, O my soul," one of his best-written 
a.nd most popular anthems. It may not be generally 
known that it was sung on the above occasion with 
orchestral accompaniment — the slow movement, "O 
pray for the peace of Jerusalem " being sung soUo 
voce by the whole of the voices, 250 in number, and the 
succeeding fine bold choral recitative, " They that put 
their trust in the Lord " by the whole of the tenors and 
basses, 120 strong, in unison. Attwood's Cantate 
Domino and Deus Misereatur in D were used, and the 
service was held under the dome. 

A short full setting of the Alagnificat and Nunc 
Simittis, in the key of E major, may also be assigned 
to this period. 

In the same year Goss edited, in conjunction with 
the Rev. W. Mercer of Sheffield, a pointed Psalter 
with a collection of chants and hymn tunes — an ex- 
ceedingly useful and, in its day, an enormously popular* 
manual. About the same time he revised the musical 
edition of the Rev. W. J. Hall's " Mitre Hymn Book," 
previously arranged by Hawes, but made no striking 
original contributions to the collection. 

In 1856 Goss succeeded William Knyvett as one of 
the composers to the Chapel Royal, the other being 
Sir George Smart, who was likewise organist. This 
appointment gave further impetus to his labours. 

For the enthronement of the Bishop of London 
(Dr. Tait) on December 4th, 1856, Goss composed 
" O praise the Lord, laud ye," an effective, short full 
anthem in the key of C. This was sung in procession' 
from the West door to the choir, on the above 
occasion, producing a fine effect. 

In the following year he wrote for insertion in the 
Musical Times two of his most popular smaller 
anthemS' — " Behold, I bring you glad tidings " (for 
Christmas) and " Christ our Passover " (for Easter). 
To the same periodical he contributed in 1859 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 165 



another short full anthem, " Almighty and Merciful- 
God." 

For the public funeral of Admiral the Earl of Dun- 
donald in Westminster Abbey on November 14th., 
i860, he had ready "O Lord God, Thou strength of 
my health," and in the following year made that mag- 
nificent contribution to modern Church music in the 
shape of "The Wilderness." 

In 1862 his once much-abused anthem, "Blessed 
s the man " was, for the first time, published, being in- 
cluded, together with a short full one — " These are 
they which follow the Lamb" (composed in 1859) — 
in a Collection of Anthems for certain Seasons and Fes- 
tivals of the Church, then being formed by the Rev. 
Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley. Another exquisite full an- 
them, " I heard a voice from Heaven," dedicated to his 
son, the Rev. John Goss, Succentor of Hereford Cathe- 
dral, was probably composed about the same time.t 

In 1863 there followed in rapid succession from 
Goss' fertile pen, " Stand up, and bless the Lord ' 
(written for the re-opening of Hereford Cathedral after 
its restoration by Sir G. G. Scott in 1863)*, "Lift up 
Thine eyes round about" for the Feast of the Epiphany, 
and " O taste and see " for the Special Sunday 
Evening Services at S. Paul's, which .were then not 
so strictly congregational as they are now. These 
three anthems perhaps show Goss at his best ; they 
abound in fertile imagination, and that charmingly 
descriptive part-writing in which he has had few equals. 

At the request of Dean Milman in 1865, Goss set 



* For the same solemnity the Rev. Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley (then Pre- 
centor of Hereford) composed a complete Morning, Communion, and 
Evening Service- in C, for double choir, i.e. in eight part's ; likewise a very 
fine antnem, " Blessed be Thou." Mr. George Townshend Smith (organist 
of Hereford, 1842 — 1876) wrote for the same function an elaborate anthem, 
" O how amiable are Thy dwellings." 

t This anthem was sung on the occasion of the funeral of the late Rev. Dr. 
Liddon, Canon- Residentiary of S. Paul's, Sepi, i6;h, iSgo, 



1 66 TSE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



to music as an anthem his beautiful lines " Brother, 
thou art gone before us " from The Martyr of 
Antioch. It was performed at the Festival of the 
Corporation of the Sons of the Clergy at S. Paul's in 
1865, when the Prince of Wales was present as one 
of the stewards. The first movement of this lengthy 
composition was afterwards set by Goss to the words 
" Lord, let me know mine end " as being more 
generally useful for choral purposes. 

Between the years 1865 and 1868 Goss produced 
several miscellaneous compositions, including a Burial 
Service in E minor, Morning and Evening Services in 
A and C, and four anthems — "Come, and let us 
return," " Hear, O Lord," " O give thanks," and " In 
Christ dwelleth all the fulness of the Godhead." 

In 1869 he wrote his tuneful Te Deum in F, and 
his loveliest inspiration, viz., the little short, full anthem 
in A flat, "OSaviourof the world." This is always sung 
at S. Paul's at matins on Good Friday, and it has been 
truly said that, considering its modest pretensions, it 
is one of the most natural, perfectly written and ex- 
pressive pieces in the whole range of sacred musical 
literature. For depth of expression, it has not been 
inaptly compared to Mozart's last vocal composition 
" Ave verum Corpus " frequently sung as an Introit 
at the cathedral services. It was well known to Goss' 
intimate friends that he delayed the completion of the 
anthem " O Saviour of the world " for some weeks, in 
consequence of his being unable to find the right chord 
to suit a certain passage in the words. Yet the whole 
appears so free and spontaneous, that it is difificult to 
believe that it is not the result of a single uninter- 
rupted effort. 

Four longer anthems were written about the same 
period (1869 — 1871), viz., "Fear not, O land," "I 
will magnify Thee," " O praise the Lord of Heaven," 
and "The glory of the Lord," all of them con- 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 167 



taining numberless gems, and " music that lingers in 
the memory, and refuses to be forgotten." They 
prove at the same time that Goss' talent for melody 
and composition was as fresh as of yore, and that 
too, at an age when most men have ceased to write 
altogether. Goss thoroughly understood how to unite 
to sound learning the expression of truth combined 
with sublimity, and deep, though simple piety of 
feeling, in a degree which has since rarely been ap- 
proached and far less surpassed. 

The above magnificent series of Church composi- 
tions was fitly crowned in 1872 by the grand Te Deum 
in D major, and the anthem, " The Lord is my 
strength," written for the Thanksgiving Service held 
at S. Paul's for the restoration to health of the Prince 
of Wales. 

Gounod, the distinguished French composer, at that 
time a refugee here, had also written a festal TeDeum 
with the intention of having it performed on the same 
occasion. But it was not used : and very properly so. 
For Goss in his capacity as composer to the Chapel 
Royal as well as that of organist of S. Paul's, claimed 
the privilege of composing the music for the national 
thanksgiving, but the modesty which had distinguished 
him throughout his life, and the long course of indif- 
ference with which he had been regarded by the 
Cathedral body, kept him at first from asserting his 
right. Had not his numerous friends urged him to 
furnish the necessary music for the great day, the first 
Church composer then living would have been silent, 
upon the very occasion when his voice ought to have 
been heard. However, he acquitted himself as we 
know, most admirably, and upon the grand effect with 
which the Te Deum and anthem were sung on that 
memorable 27th of February, 1872, it is needless here 
to expatiate. 

Shortly afterwards Goss was urged to set the Bene- 



1 68 TBE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



dicius to music in order that it might be used with the 
Te Deum as a morning service. He complied, and it 
was probably while listening to a performance of 
it by the fine choir of the Cathedral, that his last 
visits to S. Paul's were paid, for, shortly after the 
Thanksgiving Day, he retired from the organistship, 
but continued to attend the Cathedral services and 
never lost an opportunity of encouraging, by words of 
praise or advice, those who were trying hard to improve 
the musical services of his beloved church. 

Soon after the Thanksgiving Day Goss received the 
honour of knighthood from the Queen, and her thanks 
for his music. Four years later the degree of Doctor 
in Music honoris causd was conferred on John Goss 
by the University of Cambridge, his distinguished 
pupil Arthur Sullivan being at the same time the 
recipient of a similar degree. 

Thus, surrounded by respect and honours and ripe 
in years. Sir John Goss enjoyed well earned rest. He 
died at his house on Brixton Rise, near the great city 
in which the whole of his long, useful, and laborious 
life had been passed, on Monday, May loth, 1880, 
in the eightieth year of his age. He was buried in 
Kensal Green Cemetery on the Saturday following, 
the first part of the service being rendered chorally at 
S. Paul's, and in the course of which the affecting 
anthem, " If we believe that Jesus died " was sung. 

On the anniversary of the death of Sir John Goss in 
1886 a cenotaph to his memory was unveiled in the 
crypt of S. Paul's, not far from that of Miss Hackett 
" the chorister's friend." It is a handsome piece of 
workmanship, the principal material employed being 
alabaster, varied by black and white marble. The chief 
feature of the memorial is a panel with an exquisite 
piece of sculpture in pure white Carrara marble by 
Hamo Thornycroft, R.A. It represents five choristers 
in surplices, holding music-books, and represented 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 169 

as singing ; the pipes of an organ are seen in the back 
ground. At the time of the erection of this cenotaph 
the features of the choristers depicted thereon were 
likenesses of certain of the boys then, and until lately, 
in the cathedral choir. The carving is in basso relievo. 
Below the panel appears in musical notation the 
opening phrase of the anthem " If we believe that 
Jesus died," and underneath it the following inscrip- 
tion : — 

"In remembrance of Sir John Goss, Knight, Mus.D, 
Cantab., Composer to Her Majesty's Chapels Royal and 
34 years organist and vicar choral of this Cathedral. 
Bom, Dec. 2'jth, 1800 — Died May 10th, 1880. His 
genius and skill are shewn in the various compositions 
with which he enriched the music of the Church. His 
virtues and kindness of heart endeared Mm to his pupils 
and friends, who have erected this monument in token of 
their admiration and esteem." 

The compositions of Sir John Goss not chronolo- 
gically alluded to in this sketch include the overture 
and music to The Sergeant's Wife, an operetta, the 
libretto of which was originally intended to be used 
by Attwood, but given by him to Goss (1827)* ; four 
canons — "Hallelujah," "Who can tell how oft he 
oifendeth" (1823), "I will alway give thanks" (1823) 
and " Cantate Domino" (1824); A Requiem, in 
memory of the Duke of York (1827) ; a similar com- 
position for William Shield (1829); an anthem 
"Forsake me not " still in MS. \ two short ones — 
" Enter not into judgment " and " My voice shalt 
Thou hear in the morning, O Lord," and two others 
published posthumously — " God so loved the World " 
(in the Musical Times for May, 1881) and "The God 
of Jeshurun " (printed in Novello's series of Octavo 



* This was produced at the English Opera House, now the Lyceum, and 
ran for more than a hundred nights. 



I/O TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Anthems), The last-named was edited by Sir Arthur 
Sullivan, who remarked in a prefatory note " This 
anthem was left by the late Sir John Goss completed 
down to the fifty-seventh bar. Numerous sketches, 
altered and modified, testify to the difficulty he seemed 
to encounter in continuing from that point. As none 
of them were satisfactory to him, I have not made use 
of them, but have continued and finished the anthem 
in the endeavour to preserve the characteristics of his 
writing." 

Sir John Goss edited The Organist's Companion — a 
Series of Voiuniaries, chiefly selected from the celebrated 
works of Handel, Bach, Graun, Haydn, Mozart, Rinck, 
6fc.., in four volumes ; Twenty-five Voluntaries for the 
Organ arranged from the works of etninent composers ; 
The Melodist — a Collection of Songs and Ballads by 
various composers ; Six Songs from Scripture by Moore, 
with additions; An Introduction to Harmony (1833) • 
and an arrangement of Tallis' Responses for the Special 
Services at S. Paul's. He was the composer of many 
psalm and hymn tunes, and it is interesting to com- 
pare the style of those written for the little manuals in 
the early Chelsea days, with those to be found in The 
Mymnary and other modern collections of tunes. 

The character and works of Sir John Goss were 
thus summed up in one of the leading musical periodi- 
cals at the time of his death : — 

" As an organist, it is difficult to pass an opinion on Goss. The 
organs of his youth were very different instruments to those of 
our time, and if he were not a brilliant performer from a modern 
point of view, it is equally certain that many of our young organ- 
ists would be utterly unable to produce the fine effects which 
Goss produced on an organ having two octaves of very clumsy 
pedals, a gamut-G swell, a l6-ft. (CCC) great organ manual, and 
two or three unruly composition pedals. He always accom- 
panied the voices (especially when soli) with thoroughly good 
taste, and his extempore voluntaries were sometimes models of 
grace and sweetness. 

As a man, Goss commanded universal respect. The chief 



OF & Paul's cathedral, 171 



features of his character were humility, genuine religious feeling, 
and a strong love of home and home-ties. So deep-seated was 
his humility that it produced a sort of shyness in his manner 
which partially unfitted him for the rougher duties of public life. 
The discipline and efficiency of the cathedral choir reached a very 
low standard during the latter portion of his career. But, 
although Goss was not altogether the man to cope with those 
self-willed musicians who were on the staff, he must not be 
solely blamed for the unsatisfactory state of the cathedral choir. 
The fact is, he had, for a considerable period, to deal with a 
Chapter which, taken as a body, had neither the power nor wish 
to face the unpleasant duty of becoming reformers. His hearty 
interest in all the improvements which he lived to witness in the 
reorganisation of the choral staff by the present Dean and Chap- 
ter, and the sincere pleasure which the now beautiful musical 
services gave him, prove beyond doubt that, had his lot been 
cast in better days, Goss would have been second to no one in 
his efforts to raise the musical credit of St. Paul's to its proper 
level. Probably no musician ever had fewer hostile detractors 
than Goss. This was partly due to his natural amiability, but 
also partly to the fact that he often shunned and avoided those 
unpleasant calls of duty in which to take definite action means 
to make a personal enemy. If we admire or envy him in this 
respect, we must not the less give honour to those who accept 
trusts and perform public duties at all hazards. That Goss was 
a man of religious life was patent to all who came in contact with 
him, but an appeal to the general effect of his sacred composi- 
tions offers public proof of the fact. It is not less true in music 
than in other arts, that the artist writes his character in his 
works. In uncouth modulations and combinations can be 
traced the man who wishes to be thought original ; in over- 
wrought tone- colouring the bad taste of a man who, had he 
been trusted with a paint-brush instead of a pen, would have 
revelled in violent contrasts and in the grotesque ; in pedantries, 
and conventional, clever tricks stands out the man who is anxious 
to be thought learned, and values artifice more than art. A 
careful study and familiar knowledge of the sacred compositions 
of Goss leaves a very definite feeling that their author was a 
man of refined thought, leligious in life, possessing a keen appre- 
ciation of the resources of his art, tempered by a firm resolution 
to use them only in a legitimate manner. There is that gentle- 
ness and repose about them which eminently characterised the 
man himself. He treated all others with consideration and 
goodness, and seemed hurt when he had occasion to realise the 
fact that others did not always treat him in the same way. He 
loved quietness and valued the affection of others. " — The Musical 
Times, Jane, 1880. 



172 THS ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Let us conclude this chapter with some impressions 
of a visit paid to S. Paul's, during the days of Goss, 
by the eminent poet-bishop of Western New York, 
the Very Rev. Arthur Cleveland Coxe. 

" Going to S. Paul's to morning service, on Sunday the 4th of 
May (1851), I entered the south transept, and, for the first time, 
beheld its interior. The effect of the immense vault of the dome 
as it first struck my sight, was overpowering ; the more so, 
because at that moment, a single burst of the organ and the swell 
of an Amen from the choir, where service was already begun, 
filled the dome with reveberations that seemed to come upon me 
like thunder. I was so unprepared for anything impressive in 
S. Paul's, that I felt a sort of recoil, and the blood flushed to my 
temples. I said to a friend, who happened to be with me, 
' After all, 'tis indeed sublime ! ' I now went forward with 
highly excited expectations, and the voice of the clergyman in- 
toning the prayers within the choir, increased my anxiety to be 
at once upon my knees. I glanced at the monument of Howard, 
and entered beneath the screen. The congregation seemed 
immense. A verger led us quite up to the altar, and as he still 
found no place, conducted us out into the aisle, where I passed 
the kneeling statue of Bishop Heber with a trembling emotion of 
love and admiration, and so was led about and put into a stall 
(inscribed ' Weldland,' with the legend Exaudi Domine justi- 
■tiam), where kneeling down I gave myself up to the solemn 
worship of God, and solemn worship it was ! I never, before or 
since, heard any cathedral chanting, whether in England or on 
the continent, that could be compared to it for effect. The two 
clergymen, who intoned the Litany, knelt in the midst of the 
choir, looking towards the altar. Even now I seem to be hear- 
ing their full, rich voices, sonorously and articulately chanting 
the suffrage — By Thy glorious Resurrection and Ascension — to 
which organ and singers gave response — Good Lord deliver us — 

as with the voice of many waters Tears gushed from my 

eyes and my heart swelled to my throat as this overwhelming 
worship was continued." 



^ 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 1 73 



CHAPTER V. 

Music at the Cathedral in the present day. 

Little now remains to be told. On the resignation 
of Sir John Goss in 1872, as narrated in the foregoing 
chapter, the authorities at S. Paul's appointed Dr. 
(now Sir John) Stainer as his successor in the important 
post. A happier selection could not have possibly 
been made. His appointment may have been partly 
influenced by his old association with S. Paul's as a 
chorister, but it, no doubt, mainly arose from the fact 
that an active administrator as well as a musician 
was sorely needed. That the organist of the cathedral 
should be a sound churchman was a sine qua non. All 
these qualities were combined in Dr. Stainer. 

It is a painfully well-known fact, that under Goss, 
able as he was as a musician, and unrivalled as a com- 
poser, but lacking that quality so essential in a modern 
choir-master, viz., tact, the services at S. Paul's had 
reached a pitch of slovenhness hardly to be found 
elsewhere in England. It was impossible sometimes 
for the choir to sing a simple response, or an Amen, 
with neatness and precision. 

To make a long and unpleasant story short, Goss 
had, as previously remarked, for a considerable time 
to deal with a Chapter which, taken as a body, had 
neither the wish nor the pecuniary power to face the 



174 2!ff£ ORGAmSTS AND COMPOSERS 

disagreeable duty, at their time of life, of becoming 
cathedral reformers.* The intense interest, however, 
which Goss took in all the improvements which he 
lived to witness in the thorough reconstruction of the 
choral body by the present energetic and far-seeing 
Dean and Chapter, and the sincere pleasure afforded 
him by the greatly improved musical services, all tend 
to prove that, had his lot been cast in times more 
favourable to the encouragement of cathedral music, 
Goss would have -been by no means behindhand in 
exerting himself to the utmost, in trying to raise the 
musical credit of S. Paul's to its proper level in the 
eyes of English churchmen and musicians. 

Soon after his appointment in 1838, Goss wished 
to introduce some salutary reforms into the services, 
which were carried on in a most perfunctory manner ; 
but his suggestions, though kindly listened to by 
Sydney Smith and other members of the Chapter, were 
never acted upon. 

But the time was now (187 1) come for commuting 
the estates of the Cathedral, and it was no light enter- 
prise to calculate and weigh the claims of the various 
interests which were concerned in the vast machinery 
connected with the great Church of the metropolis. 
This was nearly completed at the time of the death of 
Dean Mansel, the successor in 1868 of Henry Hart 
Milman ; and it was on the basis of his calculations 
that the liberal arrangements of the Ecclesiastical 
Commissioners were subsequently effected.* 

Dr. Stainer then, as previously observed, was no 

* Dean Milman, Archdeacon Hale, and Canons Dale and Melville were 
all men well advanced in years in iS68. the ^lear of the death of the last 
named. 

* Dean Mansel — "The Christian Philosopher" — died at Cosgrove Hall, 
Northamptonshire, Sunday, July 30th, 1871, He was succeeded by the 
Very Rev. R. W, Church, the present Dean. On S. Paul's Day, 1879, a 
stained glass window, representing the Incredulity of S. Thomas, with an in- 
scription by Archdeacon Hessey, was unveiled to his memory in the north- 
west chapel of 5. Paul's. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 175 

Stranger to S. Paul's, having spent nearly ten years of 
his life as a chorister, frequently taking the organ upon 
occasion. 

John Stainer was born on June 6th, 1840, and was 
placed in the choir in 1847 under William Bayley, the 
then singing master. While a chorister his precocious 
talent and general sharpness were observed by Miss 
Hackett, who paid for a course of organ lessons for 
him from George Cooper, sub-organist of the Cathe- 
dral, at S. Sepulchre's, Holborn. While still in the 
choir he was, in 1855, appointed organist of the church 
of SS. Benedict and Peter, Paul's Wharf (now the 
Welsh Church), of which the Rev. J. H. Coward, 
classical master to the choristers, was then Rector.f 
With the exception of a course of lessons in counter- 
point and harmony from Dr. Steggall, the instructions 
of Mr. Bayley were the only ones Stainer ever had. 
At the early age of seven he could play Bach's Fugue 
in E major (called by old Sam. Wesley " The Saints in 
Glory Fugue ") and the overture to Kandel's Act's and 
Galatea on the piano, besides being a good performer 
on the organ. This early period of Stainer's life is 
associated with his friendship with Arthur Sullivan, 
then a chorister of the Chapel Royal under the Rev. 
Thomas Helmore ; and Sir John humourously 
recalls how the two boys were wont, on half holidays, 
to take trips on the Thames penny steamers, and how 
their enjoyment was enhanced by the consumption of 
oranges and nuts. 

In 1858 Stainer was appointed organist of the 
beautiful church of S. Michael's College, Tenbury, 
erected by Mr. Henry Woodyer for that munificent 
man and eminent Church musician the late Rev. 



t Mr. Coward's predecessor at S. Eenedict's, was the Rev. W. J. Hall, a 
fellow minor canon, whp, in 1851, was preferred to the chapter living of 
Tottenham. 



•176 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Sir F. A. Gore Ouseley, whom Stainer has re- 
cently succeeded in the Professorship of Music at 
Oxford. 

A year later, on the resignation of Mr. Ben- 
jamin Blyth, Stainer was made organist of Magdalen 
College, Oxford, where, under his direction, the choral 
services were greatly raised, and subsequently became, 
like those of S. Paul's, unsurpassable. 

In i860, Stainer was appointed successor to Dr. 
Stephen Elvey, as organist of S. Mary's, the Univer- 
sity Church. While at Magdalen he passed through 
the examinations which secured him the degrees of 
Bachelor and Master of Arts, and those of Bachelor 
and Doctor in Music. 

From the time of his appointment to S. Paul's 
in 1872, until that of his resignation in 1888, 
Stainer continued to pour forth service after service 
and anthem after anthem, in all of which beauty 
• of melody, great individuality of form and originality 
of harmony, scientific skill and expressive effect were 
blended in the happiest and most judicious manner. 
Where all is so fine, it would be invidious to single 
out any one composition for special remark, but it is 
impossible to resist pointing out the Morning Service 
in E flat, The Communion Service in A and D, the 
Evening Service in E major, and the anthems " I 
desired Wisdom," " O clap your hands," and " I saw 
the Lord," as being among the highest flights of his 
inventive genius. 

That the hand of this eminent composer has not 
lost its cunning may be seen in one of his last con- 
tributions to Church music, which took the shape of 
an anthem, composed for the festival service held at 
S. Paul's on June 23rd, 1887, in celebration of the 
fiftieth reign of our Sovereign. 

The annexed is a complete list of Sir John Stainer's 
Church compositions down to the present time. 



OF S. PAUL'S GATHBDRAL. lyf 



SERVICES. 

In A and D. Te Deuvi, Benedictus, Kyrie, Credo, Offertory 

Sentences, Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis, Magnificat and 

Aunc Dimittis. 
In A. Kyrie, Credo, Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis (short setting). 
In A minor. Benedicite Omnia Opera (unpublished). 
In B flat. Te Deum, Benedictus, Kyrie, Credo, Ojfertory, Sanctus, 

Benedictus, Agnus Dei, Gloria in Excelsis, Magnificat 

and Nunc Dimittis. 
In C. Te Deum Laudamus (Parochial setting). 
In D. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (for men's voices only, 

unpublished). 
In D. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (Parochial setting). 
In E. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis. 
In E flat. Te Deum, Benedictus, JuUlate, Introit, " Jesus said 

I am the Bread of Life," Kyrie, Credo, Offertory, 

Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis, Magnificat and Nunc 

Dimittis. 
In F. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (Parochial setting). 

The Te Deum, Benedictus, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis 
arranged to various Gregorian Tones and harmonized. Series 
I. to IV. 

Magnificat arranged to S. Saviour's Tone. 

A complete Choir Book of the Holy Communion containing 
the whole of the proper Plain Song of the Priest's part, together 
with the ancient Confiteor, Paternoster, Sursum Corda, etc., and 
the Kyrie, Credo, Sanctus, Gloria, etc., of Marbecke. 

Various arrangements of the Nicene Creed and Creed of S, 
Athanasitts, The Miserere, the Versicles and Responses, the Bene- 
dicite, &c. 

ANTHEMS. 

Verse Anthems. 
*Drop down ye heavens. 
Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God. 
Ye shall dwell in the land. 

Full Anthems with verses. 
And all the people saw the thundering!. 
Awake, put on thy strength. 
Hosanna in the highest. 
I am Alpha and Omega. 
1 desired wisdom. 
*I saw the Lord, 
Let the peace of God. 

N 



J 78 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Lead Tdndly light. 

Lo I Summer comes again. 

Lord, Thou art God alone. 

O clap your hands. 

O Zion that bringest good tidings. 

Sing a song of praise. 

The hallowed Day. 
*The morning stars sang together. 

The righteous live for evermore. 

There was a marriage in Cana of Galilee. 
*They were lovely and pleasant in their lives. 

Thus speaketh the Lord of hosts. 

Full Anthems. 

Behold, God is my helper. 
Blessed is the man that endureth temptation. 
Deliver me, Lord. 
Leave us not, neither forsake us. 
Let every soul be subject. 
* The Lord is in hts holy temple. 
They have taken away my Lord, 
What are these that are arrayed. 

Notwithstanding the composition of this long series 
of services and anthems, coupled with his innu- 
merable professional avocations, Sir John Stainer has 
found time to produce several works of greater magni- 
tude, such as Gideon, an oratorio; and two Can- 
tatas — The Raising of Jairui Daughter (composed 
for the Worcester Festival of 1878), and S. Mary 
Magdalene viitten for the Gloucester Festival of 1883. 
One of Sir John Stainer's latest achievements in this 
department of composition is a Lenten oratoriette or 
meditation on the Passion, entitled The Crucifixion. 
This, on account of its comparative facility of exe- 
cution, has proved an immense favourite with parochial 
choirs. 

Sir John Stainer has composed some pieces for 
the organ, including a grand " Jubilant March," and 

* These were written for Sir Fredericlc Ouseley's Collw%ian cf 4nOtem* 
tor the Chnrek Seaiont. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 179 

has also published some very acceptable arrangements 
from the works of the great masters. An exhaustive 
and erudite treatise on the organ has appeared from 
his pen ; and, in conjunction with Dr. W. A. Barrett 
(vicar choral of S. Paul's) he has edited a compen- 
dious Dictionary of Terms used in musical art. Many 
of his hymn tunes contributed to Hymns Ancient and 
Modem, and 7%< Hymnary, are among the most 
original and beautiful modern compositions of the 
kind our Church possesses. 

Various publications have been edited by Sir John 
Stainer, including Croft's anthem, " Sing praises to the 
Lord," and Dr. W. Hayes' " Save, Lord, and hear us " ; * 
The S. Paul's Cathedral Chant Book (1878) ; ITie Gre- 
gorian Tones with Accompanying Harmonies for the 
Merton Psalter; and The Cathedral Psalter, and Cathe- 
dral Psalter Chant Book in conjunction with Barnby, 
Turle, Rev. S. Flood Jones, and Rev. J. Trout- 
beck. He has also edited, with the co-operation 
of the Rev. H. R. Bramley, a very compre- 
hensive collection of Christmas Carols, New and Old 
in three volumes, some of which have also been 
arranged for men's voices only. In 1879 a little 
volume entitled I'he Music of the Bible appeared from 
his busy pen, and he has also written on the Great 
Bell of S. Paul's and other campanological subjects, 
on which he is a great authority. Sir George Grove's 
Dictionary of Music has been enriched by many con- 
tributions from Sir John Stainer. A very charming 
male voice glee, "Bind my brows," a madrigal in 
the olden style, " The Praise of Victoria," and several 
graceful songs, are among Sir John Stainer's principal 
contributions to secular music. 

The services Sir John Stainer has rendered to music 



* An edition in octavo size of Mendelssohn's M(yming (md, Evening Service 
should be added to these. 

N 9 



l80 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



in England have, by no means, been confined to 
S. Paul's. He is a brilliant instrumentalist, and as an 
organist he has few equals, and in some respects he 
is acknowledged by the highest authorities to be quite 
without a rival, but in innumerable other ways he has 
worked with all the enthusiasm of genius for the pro- 
motion and diffusion of the art he has loved from 
childhood, and there are few men whose influence on 
the music of this country has been so great and 
salutary. The grand orchestral services on festivals 
and other solemn days at S. Paul's all owe their origin 
to his great tact and extraordinary ability for organiza- 
tion, and in the training of the large voluntary Sunday 
Evening Choir he has taken the keenest interest. 

Such honours as are at the disposal of his 
fellow musicians have been freely showered upon 
him, for he is universally beloved and esteemed, but 
his many onerous duties, his organistship of this, his 
presidency of that, and his incessant hard work as an 
examiner, have all involved responsibility and constant 
application, and the result is that his sight and general 
health have given way under the severe strain of sheer 
hard work. On the 4th of May, 1888, he played his last 
service at S. Paul's, retiring from his post of organist 
there in time, as he has pathetically expressed it, to 
save what little eyesight is left to him. Like his talented 
predecessor, he received, during the summer of the 
same year (1888) the honour of knighthood. 

George Clement Martin, the successor of Sir John 
Stainer, was bom at Lambourn, a Berkshire village, 
September 11, 1844. The parish church contained 
an unusually fine organ for such a situation, while the 
services were greatly in advance of those to be found 
in most villages at that period. 

It was not, however, until his sixteenth year that 
Dr. Martin had serious thoughts of adopting music as 
his profession, and he was then quite unable to play 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. i8i 



any instrament, but after some months' study it was 
found that he was fully competent to take the parochial 
services, and was appointed organist of Lambourn 
church. One of his fine hymn tunes, contributed to 
Hymns, Ancient and Modem, bears the name of his 
native village. For more advanced study in the theory 
of music he repaired to Dr. Stainer, then organist of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, and in due course took 
his degree of Bachelor in Music. 

In 187 1 he was appointed organist to the private 
chapel of the -Duke of Buccleuch at Dalkeith, which 
post he held, together with that of organist of S. John's, 
Edinburgh, until 1874, when he was invited by the 
Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's to succeed Mr. Frederick 
Walker as music master to the boys of the newly 
constructed choral foundation of the cathedral. 

Two years later he succeeded George Cooper as 
sub-organist. In this position Dr. Martin showed 
himself possessed to such a large degree of the many 
qualities necessary to a successful administrator — for, 
as previously remarked, the direction of such a choir 
as that of S. Paul's demands something more than 
executive ability — that, when in 1888 Sir John Stainer 
resigned his position as chief organist. Dr. Martin 
was indicated by a remarkable concensus of opinion 
as the most proper successor to that eminent 
musician. 

Dr. Martin's labours in the sphere of English 
Church music have been neither few nor small, 
his services and anthems bearing the stamp of sound 
musicianship, and being brim full of sterling musical 
coin, with a tone and ring unmistakably his own. 

It would be superfluous and absurd to speak in 
this place of Dr. Martin's abilities as an organist; 
suffice it to say that under his guidance the musical 
services of S. Paul's are by no means likely to descend 
from the high level to which they have been raised by 



t82 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



the talented musician to whom he is so worthy a 
successor. 

The degree of Doctor in Music was conferred on 
the present distinguished occupant of the organist's 
seat at S. Paul's by the Archbishop of Canterbury, in 
1883, in recognition of his unflagging labours in the 
field of EngUsh Church music. It may be explained 
that this, the Lambeth, degree is one rarely conferred 
on a musician. Among those who have been its 
recipients are John Blow, Zechariah Buck (the 
venerable Norwich organist), John Henry Gauntlett, 
Herbert Oakeley, W. H. Longhurst, E. J. Hopkins, 
Warwick Jordan, C. G. Verrinder, and Edmund Hart 
Turpin. 

The following is a hst of Dr. Martin's compositions 
for the Church : — 

SERVICES. 

In A. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (composed for the Sion 
College Choral Union, 1877). 

In B flat. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (composed with ac- 
companiment for military band, for the festival held 
at S. Pauls in 1878 in aid of the School for Daughters 
of the ofiicers of the army. 

In C. Te Deum, Benedictus, Kyrie, Credo, Offertory Sentences, 
Sanctus, Gloria in Excelsis, Magnificat and Nunc 
Dimittis (the last two movements composed for the 
Dedication Festival at S. Paul's 1877). 

In A. Je Deum and Benedictus, for men's voices, unpublished.* 

In D. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (Parochial setting). 

In E flat. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (Parochial setting). 

In G. Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis (composed for the annual 
Festival of the London Church Choir Association, 
1887). 



* In the early part of September, 1886, an epidemic in the choir school 
deprived the Cathedral of trebles for more than a month. During this 
period the whole of the services were sustained by men's voices. To meet 
the emergency, this Te Deum was composed, rehearsed and produced for 
tlie Sunday service within a week. It is a most scholarly and brilliant 
composition, and probably one of the first things of the kind ever written by 
an English Church musician, thereby opening up quite a new path in art. 



OP s. Paul's gatbedral. 183 



Three settings of Benedicite Opera Omnia, in F, E flat, and G. 
Setting of Benedicite for men's voices (unpublished). 
Thirteen Ojfertory Sentences in the Office of Holy Communion, 
Three Double Chants (in the 5'. Paul's Chant Book), 

ANTHEMS. 

Behold, now praise the Lord (meVLsyo\cesoxi\y) unpublished. 

Come, my soul must thou be wAing (Si 4 v.) 

Hail I thou that art highly favoured (for the Annunciation 

of the B. V. M.) 
Ho ! everyone that thirsteth (bass solo). 
Holiest, breathe an evening blessing (k 4 v.) 
Holy Spirit come, O come (treble and bass solos).* 
In the end of the week. 
Magnify His name.^f 

bejoyiful in the Lord, all ye lands ^ 4 v.) t 
O come be/ore his presence (tenor solo). 
Rejoice in the Lord, O ye righteous ^ 4 v.) § 
The great day of the Ijird (^ 4 v.) 
Whoso dwelleih under the defence (tenor solo). 

Dr. Martin has done good service to cathedral 
music by editing cheap octavo editions of the fine 
old services, Gibbons in F (transposed to G, as sug- 
gested by Sir Frederick Ouseley), Croft and Elvey in 
A, Travers in F, Aldrich in G, Cooke in G, and Samuel 
(the elder) Wesley in F. He has also edited octavo 
copies of Battishill's fine six-part anthem, " O Lord, 
look down from Heaven," Byrde's "Sing joyfully," 
and J. C. Beckwith's " My soul is weary." A very 
useful and comprehensive collection of Responses to 
the Commandments, selected firom English com- 
posers, ancient and modern, has been compiled by 
him. He has also published some very admirable 
and acceptable arrangements for the organ from 



• Composed (with Latin words) for the Convocation Service at S. Paul's, 
April 30m, 1880. 

t Composed for the Festival of the London Church Choir Association at 
S. Paul's, 1890. 

t Composed for the Festival of the Gregorian Association, 1S90. 

I Composed for the Festival of the Sion College Choral Union, 1879 



1 84 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Schumann, Beethoven, Spohr, Gounod, and others, 
and has edited a series of settings of the Communion 
Service for parochial use. 

It would be unpardonable to omit the names of the 
two Coopers, father and son, from a chronicle of the 
prganists of .S. Paul's, though neither of them was 
actually on the foundation. The elder Cooper was 
assistant organist to Attwood, and the younger to Goss 
with the title of sub-organist. 

When only eleven years of age George Cooper, Junior, 
was a good organ-player. It was Attwood's delight to 
make him extemporize before Mendelssohn during his 
visits to the cathedral, and the great composer is said 
to have marked and commended him on these occa- 
sions. 

George Cooper was appointed organist of the Chapel 
Royal on the death of Sir George Smart in 1867, and 
was also organist of S. Sepulchre's, Holborn. His 
compositions for the church were neither manifold nor 
of much account ; it is as a performer on, and arranger 
for the organ that he will be longer remembered. His 
accompaniments to the psalms at S. Paul's, and of 
services and anthems that he hked, were very fine. 
As a player of Bach he was simply unsurpassed. One 
of the greatest treats imaginable to the writer was to 
" drop in" to S. Sepulchre's after the Sunday evening 
services at S. Paul's, to stand at the altar-rails and 
listen to George Cooper's noble interpretations of 
those wondrous pieces of music — the fugues of John 
Sebastian Bach, on the grand old Harris organ, which 
then occupied its legitimate place at the "West end of 
the church. 

Mr. William Hodge is Dr. Martin's able and 
talented coadjutor as sub-organist of St. Paul's. 

The names of George Buckland, James Shou- 
bridge, William Machin, William Winn, and Charles 
Lockey must not be omitted from the roll of 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 185 



vicars choral of S. Paul's within the last forty years. 
All were gifted vocalists, and the prestige of S. Paul's 
in this respect is well maintained at the present day, 
several of the vicars and assistant vicars choral being 
not only singers of refined taste, but composers of 
undoubted ability. 

Prior to the removal of the organ-screen of S. Paul's 
in i860, and even up to the year 1 871, six men and a 
dozen boys could, when they chose to put forth their 
best powers, execute the choir-music with excellent 
effect. When, however in 1872 the dome was con- 
stituted the future abiding-place of the congregation, 
the greatly increased space through which the sound 
was to travel demanded a far larger body of vocalists. 
Accordingly, the number of boys was gradually raised, 
until 1874, when it reached its present strength, that 
of forty. 

In the above year a large school-house for the ex- 
clusive education and maintenance of the choristers of 
S. Paul's was erected from the designs of Mr. Penrose, 
the cathedral surveyor, funds having been obtained for 
the purpose from the Ecclesiastical Commissioners. 
This building stands upon the ground formerly occu- 
pied by the Proctors' offices in Doctors' Commons, 
and is said to be contiguous to the site of the original 
choral Grammar School of S. Paul, coeval with the 
first foundation of the cathedral. 

The teaching staff comprises a head master, three 
under masters, and the organist of the cathedral 
as trainer of the boys' voices, and general instructor in 
music. Lately one of the assistant vicars-choral has 
been appointed second music master and professor of 
the pianoforte. The present head-master represents the 
ancient statutory Magister Scholce Cantus, and Magister 
Schohz Grammatices in one. The forty boys are 
boarded and lodged in the house. They receive 



TSE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



nothing, and, with the exception of clothes pay for 
nothing. Their time is divided between their duties 
in church, their musical training and their general 
education. The school has been inspected in refer- 
ence to the last named by a qualified examiner, and 
his reports have been satisfactory. 

The names of boys between the ages of eight and 
ten are entered as candidates, on receipt of their bap- 
tismal certificate, and their parents' name and pro- 
fession. They are required to pass an examination in 
the following subjects : — ^The leading incidents of Holy 
Scripture and the Church Catechism; Reading, Writing, 
and the four Elementary Rules of Arithmetic ; and the 
simple rules of Latin Grammar. Although, in addition, 
a knowledge of the theory of music is appreciated by 
the examiners, this qualification is not considered 
apart from a good voice and ear, which are absolutely 
indispensable. Examinations are usually held twice 
or thrice in the year, according to the number of vacan- 
cies likely to occur at the end of a term. Due notice 
of the day and hour, is sent to those whose names 
have been entered. At these examinations it may be 
stated that on an average, only two or three out of 
about twenty-five candidates are successful. 

Boys are admitted at first only upon probation, and 
before they are formerly received into the choir their 
parents must give an undertaking that they will not 
remove them without express permission. The health 
of the boys and the general state and discipline of the 
school appear to be excellent. The advantages of 
the establishment, perhaps enable the Dean and 
Chapter to draw their choristers from a much better 
class of boys than was the case formerly. 

The whole school has a half holiday every Thursday 
afternoon, when the cathedral service is sung by the 
men's voices only. Should a Saint's day fall on a 
Thursday the holiday is transferred to some more 
convenient day in the same week. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 187 

The boys have about a fortnight's holiday after the 
octaves of Christmas and Easter, leaving in two por- 
tions ; but in the summer (usually in the month of 
August) the boys are given their holidays simul- 
taneously, the services being sustained , in their 
absence, entirely by the men's voices. They have a 
large partially-covered playground upon the roof of 
the school-house, an open space or field being an abso- 
lute impossibiUty in close proximity to the cathedral. 

UnUke the children of the Chapel Royal, the 
choristers of S. Paul's formerly had no distinguishing 
or uniform dress ; whereas, in their neat black suits, 
Eton collars and square caps with the peculiar fringe- 
less tassels, they are now easily recognizable in the 
public streets.* 

At the time of the reconstruction of the choral 
staff, twelve assistant vicars-choral were appointed, 
in addition to the six vicars-choral already on the 
foundation. An efficient number of deputies was 
enrolled, and an exhaustive table of rules and regula- 
tions drawn up for their observance. 

On Sundays, thirty-six boys and eighteen vicars 
and assistant vicars-choral are present at the morn- 
ing and afternoon services, the adult singers being 
distributed as follows : — 3 altos, 3 tenors, and 3 basses 
on the Decani side, and a Uke number on the Can- 
toris side. On week days, the whole of the boys 
attend, but only twelve adult singers, six on either 
side, unless a certain service or anthem require extra 
voices. 

The new regulations respecting the minor canons 
have been dealt with at considerable length in the 
first chapter. 



* An Interesting account of the system of musical education adopted witli 
regard to tlie choristers of S. Pam'si will be found in Mr. J. S. Curwen's 
little book, Stvdia in Worship Music (Second SeriesX 



1 88 THE ORGANISTS AAD COMPOSERS 



The hours* of the capitular Offices at S. Paul's are 
at present arranged as follows : — 

On Sundays. At 10.30, choral matins, Litany, and 
full choral celebration of the Holy Communion, with 
sermon by the Dean, a prebendary, or a minor canon, 
according to circumstances ; at 3.15, first choral 
evensong with sermon by one of the four canons 
residentiary ; at 7.0, second choral evensong, with 
sermon by a preacher especially appointed by the 
Bishop or the Dean and Chapter. 

On week-days. At lo.o, choral matins, with Litany 
on Wednesdays and Fridays, and, on Saint's days, a 
full choral celebration of the Holy Communion ; at 4.0. 
choral evensong, with a sermon on Holy days, and on 
Wednesdays and Fridays during the season of Lent. 

On Christmas Day, Good Friday, and Ascension 
Day the services are held at the same hours as on 
Sundays, with the exception, however, of Christmas 
Day, when there is no sermon at the quarter past 
three service, and no second evensong. 

Besides the above there is a daily celebration of 
the Holy Communion in the North- West or Morning 
prayer Chapel at 8 a.m., first started on New Year's 
Day, 1877.1 -^t the same hour matins is said in the 
Crypt Chapel sine cantu, and there is a short evening, 
or compline service, in the North-West Chapel at 
8.O., which is partially choral. 

In the same place there is held daily, at a quarter- 
past one, a short mid-day Office, intended principally 



* The greatest punctuality is, and always has been, observed in the com- 
mencement of the daily Offices at S. Paul's. The same remark applies to 
Westminster. Frequenters of the Abbey will remember, probably, how the 
clergy and choristers contrive to be in their places, two or three minutes 
before, lo and 3, and how, their preliminary devotions being ended, they 
await the striking of the ancient clock in the South transept, when the 
Minor Canon immediately commences the Office. The effect of this daily 
punctual waiting upon God, is very touching and solemn. 

t On the greater Festivals, and on all Saints' days, there is an additional 
celebration at 7.15 a.m. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 1 89 

for business men, by whom it appears much appre- 
ciated. This is also partly choral, and a very admirable 
manual of prayer has been drawn up for use at it, by 
Canon Liddon. In Lent this service is transferred to 
the Dome, when an address is given every day (Satur- 
days excepted) by some preacher of eminence. The 
singing of the hymns at these services by an immense 
body of voices in unison, without any accompaniment, 
is exceedingly impressive, tending to remind one of 
what must have been the effect of the singing in the 
days of Paul's Cross. 

At Bishop Compton's Visitation in 1696 (the most 
important Post Reformational Visitation, it is said, 
now extant) the daily choral services at S. Paul's were 
to be sung at lo.o and 3.0. Morning prayer on 
Sundays was at 9.0. Early morning prayer was said 
at 6.0 from Lady Day to Michaelmas, and at 7, from 
Michaelmas to Lady Day, with evening prayer at 6 
o'clock all the year round. 

At Bishop Gibson's Visitation in 1742, the hours of 
the Sunday and week-day capitular Offices were 
altered to a quarter before 10, and a quarter after 3, 
and the late evening prayer was abolished. 

In November, 1869, the hour of daily choral matins 
was altered to 10 o'clock, the time of choral evensong 
having been, some time previously, altered to 4 o'clock. 
A little later the Sunday morning Office was ordered 
to be sung at half-past 10 o'clock. 

It will thus be seen that the only service, the hour 
of which has never been changed since 1 742, is the 
iirst evensong on Sundays at a quarter past 3. 

During Dr. Van Mildert's tenure of the deanery,* 
the hour of early matins was made 8 o'clock to suit 
the altered habits of the community. 

In the time of Queen Elizabeth these same early 

* From jSae to 1826. 



IQO THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



prayers were read at 5 o'clock, in summer, and at 
6 o'clock in winter, in Jesus Chapel, by all the minor 
canons in turn, except the Sub-Dean and the two 
Cardinals. At the Visitation of Bishop Vaughan, 
however, in 1605, all the minor canons and especially 
the Sub-Dean and Cardinals were ordered to be present 
at matins in Jesus Chapel. An old newspaper called 
The Dutch Mirror, published in the days of Queen 
Anne, informs us that the shop-keepers and residents 
in S. Paul's Churchyard, were wont to rise before six, 
and, soon after, were at their devotions on the marble 
floor of the cathedral. 

The Morning Prayer Chapel, separated from the 
North nave aisle by one of Grinling Gibbons' chaste 
and beautiful wooden screens, has, of late years, been 
enriched by several embellishments. It was opened 
two years after the choir, viz., on February ist, 1699.* 
The eastern end of the crypt has, for some time been 
fitted up as an under-church with an altar, desks, chairs, 
etc. Much care has lately been expended on this 
portion of the building, which is, with its numerous 
memorials, fast becoming one of the most interesting 
sights of the cathedral. 

The evening services first started under the Dome 
on Advent Sunday, i858,t have proved an immense 



* The arrangement for the renovation and re-decoration of this beautiful 
chapel were among the last acts of that christian philosopher, Henry Long- 
gueville Maosel during his all too short career as Dean of S. Paul's. 

t At Westminster Abbey nave Sunday Evening Services were commenced 
(though there had been a series in 1851— the Great Exhibition year) in Jan. 
1858 ; nearly a year, it will be seen, in advance of those of S. Paul's. They 
owed their organization to the energy and ability of the Rev. J. Clarke 
Haden, for twenty-three years Minor Canon and Precentor of the Abbey. 
Mr. Haden was, for some time, a Minor Canon of S. Paul's, and it may be 
mentioned that, while reading the prayer for the Queen, at the afternoon ser- 
vice of April ist, 1843, he was fired at by a German, who proved to be Insane. 
Happily he escaped unhurt. Mr. Haden died at Nightingales, Bucks, oii 
Oct. 29th, 1869, and was buried at Chalfont, S. Giles. Close to the door 
leading into Westminster Abbey from the West cloister, there is a tablet 
to his memory,_with the appropriate inscription, " I was glad when they said 
unto me, we will go into the house of the Lord." 



OF S. PAUL'S CATSEDRAL. 191 



boon to the people of this great city, many of whom, 
having no fixed places of worship, are regularly 
attracted. The attendance is always large, but when 
a preacher of extraordinary celebrity is announced it 
is simply vast. A large volunteer choir (surpliced) 
numbering, together with the cathedral choristers, 
about seventy voices, leads the service on these occa- 
sions. The music is of the plainest description, only 
chants and hymns being sung. Being essentially a 
people's service the music is perhaps more cha- 
racterized by heartiness than finish. When not 
effective, it is the fault of the congregation for not 
helping to make it so ; but it is only fair to state that 
the singing of such hymns as " The Old Hundredth," 
Tallis' "Canon," "Abide with me," the Easter 
Hymn, and many others, by the thousands under 
the Dome produces an effect often approaching the 
sublime. It has always been the wish of the Dean 
and Chapter to make this service as good a specimen 
of the parochial style, as those m the morning and 
afternoon are of the cathedral or reflective type. 

On Sundays, Mondays, Tuesdays, Thursdays, and 
Saturdays, Te Deum and Benedictus are the canticles 
invariably sung at matins. On Wednesdays and Fridays 
Jubilate is used instead of Benedictus. The canticles 
used at evensong throughout the year are MagniUcat 
and Nunc Dimittis. In Advent and Lent Benedicite 
is sung in lieu of Te Deum. 

An anthem is sung every day at matins and even 
song, with the exception of Sundays, Wednesdays, and 
Fridays, when the Litany follows onimmediately afterthe 
third collect at matins. On Sundays and Holy Days an 
Introit (generally a short, anthem or a movement from 
an oratorio, a chorale, or a hymn) is sung between the 
Litany and the Communion service. It is somewhat 
to be wished that the Sancius could be occasionally 
sung as an Introit, for it has, in this place, a peculiarly 



192 



TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



solemn effect, and as before remarked, there is as 
much propriety in its repetition as in that of the Gloria 
Patri. Care, however, should be taken when the 
Sanctus is used as an Introit to select it from the 
services of those composers who have interpolated the 
words " of the majesty " into their settings.* In the 
Sanctus as given in the Communion service, these 
words do not occur. 

It is to be regretted that the anthem is omitted at 
S. Paul's on the mornings of Litany days, i.e., Sundays, 
Wednesdays, and Fridays. One of those exquisite 
short compositions of a penitential, but not lugubrious 
character, of the school of Tallis, Byrde, Batten, 
Gibbons, Rogers, or Aldrich, might be chosen, and 
thus form a fitting introduction to the deep supplica- 
tion which follows. It is pleasant to observe that 
the anthem has of late years been restored in this 
place at S. Peter's, Westminster, where irregularities 
ot every kind formerly prevailed, but which the autho- 



* The following list of services where the BavxtVA is so set, may be found 
interesting. 



Gibbons in F. 

Childe in A minor. 

Childe in E minor. 

Rogers in D. 

Rogers in E minor. 

Bryan in G. 

Nares in F. 

Arnold (for Boyce) in A. 

Arnold in B flat. 

Porter (for King) in C. 

Sir John Stevenson in C. 

Sir John Stevenson in E flat. 

Sir John Stevenson in F. 

Smith (of Dublin) in C. 

Marsh in D. 

Clarke-Whitfeld in E. 

Attwood in F. 

Rev. Lord O'Neill (for Kelway 

in B minor.) 
Attwood in D. 



Beckwith (Rev. E. G.) in G 
Croft in A. 
Croft in B minor. 
King (W.) in B flat. 
King (Chas.) in B flat. 
Davy (for King) in F. 
Woodward in B flat. 
Hawes in F. 
Hawes in G. 
Sir John Rogers in F. 
Walmisley in F. 
Hopkins (J. L.) in C. 
flopkins (J. L.) in E flat. 
Hopkins (E. J.) in F. 
Hopkins (E. J.) in A. 
Turle in D. 
Ouseley in G. 
Garrett in D. 
Garrett in E. 
Ross in F. 



Beckwith (Rev. E. J.) in C. 

The last-named service has two settings of the BmvAui (i) as an Introit 
with the words " oif the majesty," (2) in its proper place in the Communion 
Service. 



OF S. PAULS GATHEDRAL. I03 

rities of that church have for some time past, 'done 
their best to reform. 

On the afternoons of Thursdays (unless a Saint's 
Day) the service is sung by the men's voices only, the 
boys, as previously stated, being given a rest and half- 
holiday. Special music, including a very beautiful 
and touching set of versicles and responses, has been 
composed for this service, chiefly by members of the 
cathedral choir. The singing of the whole Sunday and 
daily services in the same manner during the boys' 
summer holiday, has necessitated the composition of 
some settings of the morning canticles as services, and 
also of the office of the Holy Communion. 

On all Fridays throughout the year, except during 
the periods between Easter Day and Trinity Sunday, 
and Christmas Day and the Octave of the Feast of the 
Conversion of S. Paul, the choral capitular offices are 
sung without organ accompaniment, and the anthem is 
frequently selected as bearing reference to the event 
relating to our redemption which took place on a 
Friday. Should a Holy Day fall on a Friday the 
organ is then used, and if a similar feast fall on a 
Saturday, the organ is used at the first evensong, viz. 
Friday afternoon. 

These unaccompanied services, of which the effect 
is very solemn and beautiful, have been the means of 
calling into existence some exceedingly fine anthems 
by modern composers. Mention may be made of 
Champney^s' " O Most Merciful Jesu," Martin's 
" Hohest, breathe an evening .blessing," Stainer's 
" Grieve not the Holy Spirit of God," and Dr. Pole's 
clever and effective setting of the Hundredth Psalm 
for two choirs. On such occasions the services of 
those great masters, Aldrich, Boyce, Cooke, Croft and 
Elvey, Gibbons, King, Travers, Rogers, and others, 
are heard to great advantage. The organ is not used 
at S. Paul's on the last four days of Holy Week, 

o 



194 y^-® ORGANISTS AND GuMPOSERS 



except for a choral celebration of the Holy Commu- 
nion on the morning of Maundy Thursday. The first 
evensong of Easter is sung at four o'clock on Satur- 
day, when the organ is of course used. * By far the 
most important modern improvement which we have 
to chronicle is the regular establshment, since Easter 
Day, 1873, of a full choral celebration of the Holy 
Communion every Sunday and Holy Day, Formerly, 
the only parts of this, our highest service, sung at 
S. Paul's were the Sanctus (as an Introit), the Kyrie 
and the Nicene Creed. Even the singing of the last- 
named was laid aside early in the present century and 
not resumed till about 1842. Attwood never included 
it in his services for this reason . 

Few things can surpass the Eucharistic OfiSce as 
now rendered at S. Paul's. Gounod, the distinguished 
French composer, when he heard it, remarked that 
it was the most superb thing of its kind on this side 
the Alps. 

Sir John Stainer, in 1873, at the request of the Dean 
and ChapteT, prepared a complete choir book of the 
Office, containing the whole of the traditional music 
of the Priest's part, together with the ancient Confiteor 
and Pater Noster, newly and beautifully harmonized, 
and a very lovely Sevenfold Amen of his own com- 
position, to be sung after the Prayer of Consecration 
and the Blessing. 

For the Kyrie, Credo, Sanctus, and Gloria in Ex- 
celsis, the music of the best modern English com- 
posers is drawn upon, varied by the occasional intro- 



* At the Cathedral of Lichfield and also at that of Durham it was the 
ctistom there years ago, and possibly may be so now, to sing the Fridav 
Morning Service mth the organ, and the Evening Service without it— a most 
ridiculous use, rendering the whole affair utterly meaningless For full 
solemnity of effect the organ should be silent on Friday throughout the 
day, as it is at S. Paul's, Westminster Abbey, and S. Andrew's Weill 
Street. It is very gratifying to find that the beautiful custom of sinein^ 
without the organ on Friday is being generally adopted in our Cathedraft 
and College Chapels, v-itucurais 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 195 



duction of one of the masses of the great continental 
masters, adapted to the words of our Communion 
Service. 

The Creeds, and indeed the entire services, of 
Schubert in G and B flat, Hummel in D, and 
Weber in E flat, Mozart in B flat, Beethoven in C, 
and Gounod's Messe Solennelle and Messe des Orpheo- 
nistes (for men's voices only) are veritable sermons in 
music. The same remarks will apply to the services 
of our own composers Stainer in A, and E flat, Martin 
in C, Smart in F, Thorne in E flat, Garrett in D, 
Wesley in E, and Stanford in B flat. 

The custom has arisen at S. Paul's since 1873, of 
performing on January 25th (Feast of the Conversion 
of S. Paul), and on Tuesday in Holy Week, large 
selections from Mendelssohn's S. Paul, and Bach's 
great ^l Matthew Passion, respectively. These services 
are sung by an augmented choir with the accompani- 
ment of an orchestra, the whole of the singers and 
players being surpliced. Spohr's Last Judgment is given 
in its entirety on the first Tuesday in Advent, by the 
cathedral choir alone. These functions are attended 
by overflowing congregations, who evince, by their 
reverent demeanour, that they regard the service, not 
as a mere musical performance, but as a solemn act 
of worship to the Almighty, aided by the noblest 
music ever conceived by mortal man. 

But perhaps one of the most interesting gatherings 
of the year from a musical point of view is the time- 
honoured Festival of the Corporation of the Sons of 
the Clergy, held annually in May. It is conducted 
upon the same lines as the services above alluded to. 
The music for the canticles and anthem is varied 
each year, but the Old Hundredth Psalm and the 
Hallelujah Chorus are fixtures in the musical arrange- 
ments. The cause of this most deserving Charity is 
always pleaded by some pieacher of eminence, and 
o ? 



196 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

the service attended by the Archbishops and Bishops 
and other high functionaries. 

The cathedral is placed, by the Dean and Chapter, 
at the disposal of many Guilds and Associations for 
their annual Services, in which music is made a 
prominent feature, such as the Festivals of the London 
Church Choir Association, and the Lay Helper's 
Association, besides others, too numerous to specify 
in this place. These gatherings greatly tend to 
deepen and broaden the spiritual work of a cathedral 
like S. Paul's, and to cause the mother Church, not 
only of the diocese, but of all England, to be regarded 
as the f ount and centre of religious life and wor- 
ship. 

Compared with those of some cathedrals, the 
manuscript music library of S. Paul's is neither in- 
teresting nor extensive, having suffered considerably 
from wear and tear, and the negligence of former suc- 
centors. Of late years, however, much pious care has 
been bestowed upon it by the librarian of the cathedral, 
the Rev. Dr. Sparrow Simpson, and, as little or no 
manuscript music is now used for choral purposes at 
S. Paul's, the whole of the volumes have been removed 
from the choir and places adjacent, carefully rebound 
and repaired where necessary, and placed upon the 
shelves of the Library, where they can readily be con- 
sulted for purposes of reference. 

The admirably compiled manuscript catalogue of 
this collection is due to Mr. Henry King, one of 
the assistant vicars-choral of the cathedral, the editor, 
likewise, of the very comprehensive and usefully- 
arranged book of words of anthems adopted in S. 
Paul's. 

A large quantity of manuscript Church music was 
bequeathed to S. Paul's by Granville Sharp, the 
philanthropist, and presented by his administratrix for 



Of S. PAUL'S CATBELRAL. 1 9^7 



the use of the choir, Aug. 30th, 18 14. It consisted of 
more than twenty volumes of chants, services, and 
anthems, in various sizes and bindings. — {From a 
memorandum in the possession of Mr. Ifawes.) 

The library of printed music by ancient and modern 
composers possessed by S. Paul's, is probably without 
a rival in the British Isles. It consists of twenty-four 
sets of octavo books all uniformly and strongly bound, 
and lettered in sets, A, B, C, D, and so on. The first 
set (A) bears date on its contents page, 1876 ; while 
the last set (X) was completed in 1889. Forty books 
make up a set, so some idea of the extent of the 
S. Paul's printed music library may be gathered 
from that fact. A comprehensive reference table is 
used by the choir-librarian, by means of which a 
certain anthem or service can be found in a minute. 
Besides the above-mentioned sets there are a great 
many quarto volumes, containing music exclusively 
for men's voices ; together with sets of folio volumes 
of vocal parts, copies of oratorios, cantatas, etc., far 
too numerous to particularize. The choir also pos- 
sesses a fair collection of the printed works of the great 
composers and editors, such as Boyce, Arnold, Page, 
Hayes, Croft, Alcock, Woodward, Greene, Attwood, 
Ouseley, Rimbault, etc., subscribed for at the period 
of their publication by various Deans and Chapters. 



The history of a great cathedral, its architecture and 
ritual, the study of the lives of its bishops, clergy, 
choristers, organists, and musical life generally, form 
undeniably, a study of deep and engrossing interest. 
But all these things, beautiful as they are in them 
selves, recall us to the ever-needed truth that art, 
ritual and music, are in themselves, as nothing, that 
spiritual worship is everything. 

In these times it behoves a cathedral to be some- 



igS THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



thing more than " a petrifaction of religion." It must 
set an example of spiritual activity to the whole of 
the diocese. 

The renewed life of our cathedrals, and especially 
that of S. Paul's, is one of the most interesting and 
striking features of the great revival of true Church 
principles during the last fifty years, and of which we are 
now reaping so abundant a harvest. When we 
compare the chilling neglect and cold indifference, 
once everywhere visible, with the stately services 
and hearty co-operation now the order of the day at 
the great cathedral in the heart of this mighty city, we 
may well thank God and take courage. No one 
who has had the privilege of being a worshipper in S. 
Paul's can fail to come away impressed by the solemn 
and spiritual tone which prevails there, and the care- 
ful training evidenced by the accuracy and ability 
with which music of the highest order is daily pro- 
duced. Well may it be said that upon S. Paul s the 
day has broken, and that the dark shadows which 
once seemed to envelop it, have at last flown 
away. 






OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 1 99 



APPENDIX A. 



Some Account of the Organ, past and present, 
OF S. Paul's Cathedral. 

It is to be regretted that the information we possess 
concerning the organ or " pair of organs " in Old 
S. Paul's is of so meagre and scanty a character. 

That an instrument existed there until the Great 
Fire of 1666, we well know, the builder being William 
Beton, but all details as to its size and mechanism are 
completely lost. 

Hollar, the distinguished engraver, has, however, 
preserved the shape of the case to us in his fine view 
of the interior of the choir given in the iirst edition of 
the History of Old S. Paul's by Sir William Dugdale 
in 1658. Hollar was a contemporary of Dugdale, and 
his view, which must have been drawn from actual 
survey, is, no doubt, as authentic as any we possess. 
The organ is depicted as standing above the stalls on 
the North side, having a very picturesque case of 
mediaeval design, with shutters, and a choir organ in 
front, all strictly secundum artem. This organ escaped 
the iconoclastic zeal of the Puritans, remaining un- 
touched during the Protectorate, and only falling a 
victim to the Great Fire of 1666. 

A very pleasing view of the interior of the old choir 
taken, apparently, from a point towards the South 



■AOO TSE ORGANISTS AND GOMPOSMRS 



East end, and showing a portion of the stalls and the 
organ, was given among a series of woodcuts of Old 
S. Paul's published in The Graphic newspaper at the 
time of the Prince of Wales' Thanksgiving Day in 
February r^i'iz; and some years ago, an interesting 
collection of engravings of ancient London was on 
view at Guildhall, when the present writer remembers 
seeing there more than' one interior view of Old 
S. Paul's. Some of these showed the organ, which 
did not differ very materially from Hollar's view given 
in Dugdale. 

The original draft of Father Schmidt's contract for 
the organ of the new cathedral was, by a piece of 
great good fortune, discovered about ten years ago by 
Mr. W. H. Cummings. He contributed the result of 
his researches to the Musical Times of March 1880 
as follows : — 

" All that has hitherto been known respecting the 
organ originally built by Father Smith for S. Paul's 
Cathedral is to be found in ' The Organ : its History 
and Construction,' by Hopkins and Rimbault (third 
edition, 1877), and that account is taken from a maga- 
zine published in 1819, under the editorship of Dr. 
Busby. It gives various details of certain disputes 
between Father Smith and Sir Christopher Wren, but, 
unfortunately, no authorities are given, so that one is 
unable to decide how far the story is true, or how 
much of exaggeration there may be in it. Dr. Rimbault 
has also reprinted a very curious broadside, found in 
the British Museum, entitled ' Queries about S. Paul's 
Organ,' * which doubtless emanated from Smith's rival, 
the celebrated organ-builder, Renatus Harris, or from 
some of his partisans. The eleventh Query asks, 
' Whether the great organ-builder will condescend to 
submit his organ to the same Scrutiny which all 

* This will be found at full length at the end of this appendix. — J. S. B. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 201 



Artists of the same Profession do in all Countries ? 
And if it be deny'd whether it will not give the World, 
and particularly the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's, 
reason to fear that this Noli-me-tangere proceeds from 
some secret cause ? ' and the twelfth Query asks, 
' Whether the Cupola, or the Organ at S. Paul's, will 
be first finished ? ' " 

" The writer of this anonymous broadside was evi- 
dently not aware of the terms of Smith's contract, by 
which he was bound to submit his work to be " ap- 
proved by able organists," &c. 

" I have had the good fortune to discover the original 
contract ; it is important as a piece of history. The 
document is written very clearly in a clerk's hand, on 
stamped paper, and is signed by " Bernard Smith " 
with a bold autograph. It is preceded by a minute, 
as follows : — 

S. Paul's Church, London : — At a ^Committee, Friday, Oct. 
19th, 1694. 

Present. 

Lord Mayor of London. Dr. Oxenden. 

Ld. Arch Bp. of Canty. Sr. Thomas St. George. 

Ld. Bp. of London. Sr. Thomas Pinfold. 

Ld. Bp. of Lincolne. Dr. Godolphin. 

Mr. Dean of S. Paul's. Dr. Newton. 

Mr.Sweetaple ) sheriffs. Sr. Chr. Wren. 

Mr. Cole, i 

Ordered that it be referred to the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's 
and to Sr. Chr. Wren and Dr. Blowe to receive Proposalls from 
Mr. Smith Organ-Maker, and to; treat and agree with him to 
make the Organ for S. Paul's. 

At a Committee, Wednesday, Deer. 19th, 1694. 

Present. 
Lord Bp. of London. Mr. Dean of S. Paul's, 

Sr. Thomas Meres. Dr. Newton. 

Sr. Charles Hedges. Sr. Chr. Wren. 

Sr. Thomas Pinfold. Dr. Stanley. 



202 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



The following Contract was considered approved and confirmed 
by the Committee abovesaid ; and was Ordered to be entered in 
the Book of Contracts and signed accordingly. 

Memd. : That in pursuance of the Order first above written it 
was then agreed by the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's and ye 
Surveyor of the Workers of S. Paul's Cathedral for and in the 
behalfe of the Rt. Honable. ye Lords and others Corns, for 
rebuilding and adorning ye said Cathedral with Bernard Smith 
Organ-Maker, to make a large Organ containing 21 stops, part 
wood and part metall, and 6 halfe stops, according to Two Lists 
of ye said stops hereunder expressed as foUoweth — 

The First List. 

Stops in the Great Organ. 

Two Open Diapasons, Stop Diapason, Principal Great Twelfth, 

Ffifteenth,' Cornet, Mixtures, Sesquialtera, Trumpet. 

Stops in ye Chayre Organ. 

Principall, Stop Diapason, Hoi fleut, Voice Humane, Crum 

home. 

Echoes or halfe Stops. 

Diapason, Principall, Cornet, Trumpet. 

The Second List. 

Stops in the Great Organ. 

Hoi fleut, Small Twelfths. 

Stops in the Chayre Organ. 

Quinta Dena Diapason, Great Twelfth, Ffifteenth, Cimball. 

Echoes or halfe Stops. 

Ffifteenth, Nason. 

And the said Bernard Smith doth hereby agree to make all ye 
said stops in Workmanlike manner together with all sound- 
boards. Conveyances, Movements and Bellowes thereunto apper- 
taining and to fix ye same and tune them perfectly according to 
ye best of his skill in ye Case that shall be set up and provided 
with all Ornaments, Carvings, Gildings, and Outside painting 
over the Great Entrance of the Choire of S. Paul's at the Charge 
of ye said Corns. ; the said Bernard Smith being only at ye 
Expence of all ye inside work, — of ye Pipes, Conveyances and 
Movements as afforesaid to render it a compleat Instrument 
from Double F faut to C sol fa in Alt inclusive. 

And the said Bernard Smith doth also Agree to set up and 
tune fit for use all ye stops expressed in the first of the afforesaid 
Lists at or before the ffive and Twentieth Day of September 
which shall be in ye yeare of Our Lord 1695. And the rest of 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 203 



the said Stops (expressed in ye Second List) at or before our 
Lady Day ensuing for the intire sume of Two Thousand Pounds, 
to be paid in manner following (that is to say) ffoure Hundred 
Pounds in hand (the Receipts whereof he doth hereby acknow- 
ledge), and when ye Sound-board and first Setts of Pipes (ex- 
pressed in ye first of the afforesaid Lists) shall be made and 
provided, the further sume of One Thousand Pounds, and the 
residue to make up ye intire Sume, when ye said Organ shall 
with all ye stops be ffixed in the Case provided, and shall be 
approved by able Organists, and particularly Dr. John Blowe, 
Organist to their Maties. and such others as the Dean and 
Chapter of S. Paul's shall nominate. 

In Witness whereof the said Bernard Smith hath hereunto 
set his hand the Day and yeare first above written. 

BER -. SMITH. 
Witnesse. 

Jo : Oliver. 
Law : Spencer. 
John Widdows. 

" The old ' Smith ' organ has undergone many altera- 
tions since it left his hands, and his matchless tone- 
work has, perhaps, met with scant reverence ; still, 
many of his pipes exist in the present organ. I 
possess many pipes, portions of two stops — one metal 
and the other wood — removed, I think, from the 
' Chayre organ,' when I was a boy, by the late Mr. 
Bishop, the organ-builder, who gave them to me at 
that time in response to an inquiry as to whether he 
would sell them." 

The above account deals with the original instru- 
ment pretty exhaustively, and will leave us free to say 
a few words respecting the various alterations and im- 
provements it has undergone since it left Schmidt's 
hands in 1696. 

For nearly a hundred years the instrument remained 
in the state above described. A swell organ was then 
added by a builder named Crang, or, as some accounts 
have it, Cranz. In 1802 during Attwood's organist- 
ship the organ was taken to pieces and cleaned by 



i04 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Ohrmann, "an ingenious Swedish artist," and his 
partner and son-in-law, Nutt. Both these personages, 
we are informed by David Hughson in his History 
of London, lost their lives through a severe cold con- 
tracted during the engagement. 

In 1826, while Attwood was still organist, Bishop, 
a well-known organ-builder, added an octave of pedal- 
pipes which were, for many years, held in great esti- 
mation. He also first introduced the Concussion 
Valves, and thus secured what had never before been 
achieved — the steadiness of the wind. Previous to 
1826, in order to preserve the mechanism of the 
organ from dust, &c., the front pipes of the Great and 
Choir organ-cases were furnished with huge glass 
window-sashes which were shut down when the in- 
strument was not in use. In several old engravings 
of solemnities at S. Paul's in the possession of the 
writer, these contrivances figure in a very prominent 
manner. Doubtless, the idea was borrowed from the 
design of the organ-case in the old Cathedral, where 
shutters, like those of a triptich, concealed, at certain 
times, the pipes from view. Some portions of the 
mechanism, for raising and letting down these sashes, 
may be seen attached to the oak-work of the present 
organ at this day. 

Bishop again improved the organ in 1849, adding a 
very beautiful swell extending in compass down to 
gamut G, i.e., the lowest G of the bass stave. A new 
key-board was at the same time introduced, the 
colours of the keys having previously been reversed, 
the long ones being black and the short white. The 
same builder likewise increased the compass and 
efficiency of the pedal organ, and placed in the Great 
Organ, for the first time, the clarabella stop, his own 
very beautiful invention. 

In 1849 the specification of the S. Paul's organ 
stood as follows : — 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 20S 



Great Organ (Compass CCC to F in alt). 


1. Open Diapason. 

2. Open Diapason. 

3. Stopped Diapason (clara- 
bella treble). 

4. Principal. 

5. Twelfth. 

6. Fifteenth. 


7. Block Flute. 

8. Tierce. 

9. Sesquialtera (2 ranks). 

10. Mixture (2 ranks). 

11. Trumpet. 

12. Trumpet to middle C. 

13. Clarion. 


Swell Organ (Compass Gamut G to F in alt). 


14. Open Diapason. 

15. Stopped Diapason. 

16. Principal. 

17. Sesquialtera (3 ranks). 


18. French Horn. 

19. Hautboy. 

20. Trumpet. 


Choir Organ (Compass FFF to F in alt). 


21. Open Diapason. 

22. Stopped Diapason. 

23. Du ciana. 

24. Viola da Gamba. 


25. Principal. 

26. Twelfth. 

27. Fifteenth. 

28. Cremona (to tenor C). 



Pbdal Organ (Compass CCC to C, two Octaves). 
29. Open Wood. 

Accessory Stops, etc. 

1. Great to Pedal. I 3. Swell to Great. 

2. Choir to Pedal. | 4. Swell to Choir. 

Four Composition Pedals acting on Great Organ. 

The organ remained in the above state until the year 
i860, when the screen and return stalls were removed. 
It was then re-built under the middle arch of the 
choir on the North side. The manuals were placed 
in the stalls, but this situation being attended with 
some inconvenience, they were, in 1863, removed to 
the side of the organ in the gallery. This portion of 
the work was entrusted to Mr. Henry Willis. 

The circumstances attending the complete re- 
building of the organ in 1871-2, by the same eminent 
artist have already been set forth in the third chapter. 



206 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



It was judiciously determined, however, at this time 
to retain all the pipes of Father Smith's which were 
in good condition. Many of these proved to be quite 
sound ; a fact which may be accounted for in this 
way : — Smith was so particularly careful in his choice 
of wood as never to use any that had the least flaw or 
notch in it ; and so tender was he of his reputation, 
as never to waste his time in trying to mend a bad 
pipe, either of wood or rrietal ; if it had any radical 
defect he instantly threw it aside and made another. 

Part of the organ was ready for use on the Prince 
of Wales' Thanksgiving Day, February 27, 1872, and 
the whole was completed shortly afterwards. 

S. Paul's organ in 1872, and as at present : — 



Great Organ. 



IS- 

16. 

17- 

18. 
10. 



Double Open Dia- 
pason 16 ft. 

Large Open Dia- 
pason 8 „ 

Small Open Dia- 
pason 8 „ 

Claribel Flute 8 „ 

Quint 5i„ 

Octave 4 ,, 



7. FlUte Harmonique 4 

8. Octave Quint 2| 

9. Super Octave ... 2 
10. Fourniture (3 ranks) 
n. Mixture (3 ranks) 

12. Trombone 16 

13. Tromba 8 

14. Clarion 4 



Swell Organ. 



Contra Gamba 16 ft. 

Open Diapason ..... 8 „ 
Lieblich Gedact 8 ft. tone. 

Salcional 8 ft. 

Vox Angelica 8„ 

Octave 4 „ 



21. Super Octave 2 ft. 

22. Echo Cornet (3 ranks). 

23. Contra Posaune 16 ft. 

24. Hautboy 8„) 

25. Cornopean 8„ 

26. Clarion 4,, 



Choir Organ. 



-27. 
28. 
29. 
3°- 
31- 
32- 



Bourdon ... 16 ft. tone. 
Open Diapason ... 8 ft. 

Violoncello 8 ,, 

Claribel Flute 8„ 

Lieblich Gedact, 8 ft. tone 
Dulciana 8 ft. 



33. Octave 4 ft. 

34. Fliite Harmonique 4 „ 

35. Flageolet 2,, 

36. Como di Bassetto 8 „ 

37. Cor Anglaisp S„ 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 



207 



Solo Obgan. 



38. Fldte Harmonique 8 ft. 

39. Concert Flute 4,, 

40. Corno di Bassetto... 8 „ 



41. Orchestral Oboe . 8 ft. 

42. Tuba Major 8„ 

43. Clarion 4,, 



Pedal Organ. 



44. Double Open Dia- 
pason (wood) ... 32 ft. 
45. Open Diapason (wd.) 16 „ 

*46. Violon (metal) 16 „ 

*47. Octave 8 „ 



48. Violoncello (metal) 8 ft. 

*49. Mixture (3 ranks) 

50. Contra Posaune ... 32 ft. 

51. Grand Bombarde... 16 „ 

52. Clarion 8 , 



Couplers. 



58. Solo to Pedals. 

59. Swell to Pedals. 
6q. Great to Pedals. 

61. Choir to Pedals. 

62. Ventil on Pedal Organ. 



53. Swell to Great (unison). 

54. Swell Super-Octave to 

Great. 

55. Swell Sub-octave to Great. 

56. Solo to Great. 

57. Choir to Great. 

Four Pneumatic Combination Pistons to Great Organ. 
Four Pneumatic Combination Pistons to Swell Organ. 
Four Pneumatic Combination Pistons to Solo Organ. 
Four Pneumatic Combination Pistons to Choir Organ. 
Four Pneumatic Composition Pedals to Pedal Organ. 
Double-action Pedal to "Great to Pedals." 
Double-action Pedal to " Solo to Great." 
Compass of all the Manuals, CC to A, 58 notes. 
Compass of Pedals, CCC to F, 30 notes. 

Every register of the organ is complete, having its own pipes 
throughout. 

The Stops marked * consist entirely of pipes . of Father 
Smith's organ. The pipes of No. 27 are of oak. 

The Pneumatic Lever is applie I to the Great Manual, Swell 
Manual, Choir Manual, Pedal Clavier, and likevvise to the draw- 
stop action of the Swell, Choir, and Pedal Organs. 

To those interested in the minuticB of organ mech- 
anism, the following table of the various wind-pres- 
sures, expressed in inches of the wind-guage. may not 
be unacceptable : — 

On the Great Organ. — (i) Flue work (old open diapason, etc.), 
3J ; (ii) Flue work (new open diapason, etc. ), 5 ; (iii) Reeds, 6. 



208 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



On the Swell Organ. — (i) Flue work, 3J ; (ii) Reeda, 6. 

On the Choir Organ. — (i) Flue work, 2j ; (ii) Reeds, 3J. 

On the Solo Organ. — (i) Flue work, 4 ; (ii) Reeds, 3^ ; (iii) 
Reeds (tuba and clarion), 14 in bass, 17 J in treble. 

On the Pedal Organ. — (i) Flue work (violon), 2\ ; (ii) Flue 
work (32 ft. diapason), 3^ ; (iii) Other flue work, 7; (iv) Reeds 
(32 ft. reed), 3^ ; (v) Reeds (16 ft. and 8 ft.), 18. 

The manuals are placed in the North choir organ 
case. The Swell and Choir organs are on the South 
side ; the Great and Solo, on the North. The Pedal 
organ is under the Westermost arch of the choir on 
the North side, behind the stalls, with the exception 
however, of the violon, which constitutes the front 
gilt pipes on the South side. 

There being but a space of six feet in depth avail- 
able on either side, the sound boards (the chambers 
of air below the sliders) are placed over one another, 
viz., three for the Swell Organ, three for the Great 
Organ, one for the Choir (in South Choir Organ case) 
and one for the Solo (over the Great Organ sound- 
boards). 

" The action which connects the keys of the swell 
and choir organs with their sound-boards on the oppo- 
site side consists partly of ordinary trackers, partly of 
Willis' patent pneumatic tubes. The action is prac- 
tically instantaneous, and the organs on both sides 
can be coupled together and used simultaneously 
without any loss of precision. 

" The organ, from i860 to 1880 was blown by 
hydraulic power. It is now blown by an ' Otto Silent 
gas-engine ' by Crossley, which acts upon Willis' patent 
cylindrical feeders. These are four cyhnders, each 
provided with a double set of valves ; two cylinders 
supply the high-pressure reservoir, two the low pres- 
sure. Two zinc trunks carry the wind from the engine- 
room, which is in the crypt at the end of the North 
transept, to the interior of the organ, through an 
opening in the floor under the pedal-organ sound- 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 209 

boards. The flooring is also here cut away for the 
purpose of sinking some of the largest pipes of the 
open diapason, 32 ft. The subordinate changes of 
pressure before enumerated are contrived by appli- 
ances inside the instrument. 

"There is electric communication between the 
organ-loft and the engine-room. The organist has 
the power of ringing a bell "in the engine-room and 
directing ' wind off,' or ' wind on ' ; the bellows auto- 
matically answer the order by wiring the ' on ' as it 
rises, and 'off' as it falls. There is also electric com- 
munication and a speaking-tube between the organist 
and the singers in the stalls below, a simple and useful 
appendage to the organ-loft which has prevented 
many a troublesome musical contretemps. On great 
days, when an orchestra of 50 performers and a 
special choir numbering more than 300 take part in 
the service, an electric communication is maintained 
between the left footoi the conductor and a moveable 
arm which beats time close to the music-book of the 
player. When the selection from Mendelssohn's 
oratorio S. Paul is performed on the Dedication Fes- 
tival (January 25 th), or the great Passion Music of 
Bach on Tuesday in Holy Week, precision and unity 
between organ, band and choir would be absolutely 
impossible but for this contrivance. These electric 
communications were carried out by Mr. Henry 
Abrahams, of Northumberland Alley, Fenchurch 
Street."* 

As it stands, the S. Paul's organ may be pronounced 
for purity and grandeur of tone, and perfect mechan- 
ism, a model of a Cathedral organ, worthy of sus- 
taining the now magnificently rendered and greatly 
expanded services. 



* From an account of the S. Paul's organ written by Sir John Statner. and 
printed in the Hand Book to the Cathedral (Griffith and Farran, 1883). 
P 



210 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



"QUERIES ABOUT S. PAUL'S ORGAN." 

I. — Whether Sir Christopher Wren would not have been 
well pleas'd to have received such a Proposal from 
the Organ-builder of S. Paul's, as shou'd have erected 
an Organ, so as to have seperated (sic) 20 foot in the 
Middle, as low as the Gallery, and thereby given a 
full and airy Prospect of the whole length ot the 
Church, and Six Fronts with Towers as high as 
requisite ? 

II. — Whether the difficulty this Organ-builder finds in making 
Pipes to spealt, whose bodies are but l6 Foot long, 
does not prove how much harder it would have been 
for him, to have made Pipes of 22 Foot speak as those 
at Exeter ; or 32 Fool as several organs beyond Sea? 
And whether he has reason to complain of want of 
height, or room in the case for higher, and larger 
Pipes, since those (fa common size have put him to a 
Non-plus? And whether he has not the greater 
reason because he gave the Dimensions of the Case 
himself? 

III. — Whether the double Bases of the Diapasons in S. Paul's 
Organ speak quick, bold, and strong, with a firm, 
plump, and spreading Tone, or on the contrary, slow, 
soft, and only buzzing, when touch'd singly? And 
whether they may not more propeily be called Mutes, 
than speaking Pipes ? 

IV. — Whether the Organ be not too .'oft for the Quire now 
'tis enclosed ? And, if so, what will it be when laid 
open to the Cupolo (sic), and Body of the Church ? 
And what further addition of Strength and Lowdness 
will it require to display iis Harmony quite through 
the large Concave of the Building, and answer the 
service of the Quire, which is the noblest for Echo and 
Sound, aud consequently of the greatest advantage to 
an Instrument, of any in Europe ? 

V. — Whether the Sound-boards and Foundation of the In- 
strument, as well as contrivance and Disposition of 
the whole Work, will adroit ol more Stops to render the 
Organ in Proportion, five limes as Lowd as now it is ? 

VI. — Whether if 12 S'ops (supposing there were so many in 
the Great Organ) were plaid in full Chorus, 'twould 
not make .S. Paul's Organ vibrate and faint? And if 
so, how can it be rcnder'd lowder by the addition of 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 211 



Stops, since the wind that does not well supply 12, 
must of necessity worse supply 13, and so onward? 

VII. — Whether 'tis possible to make an Organ lowder, that 
has all the strength it can contain already ? 

VIII. — Whether there been't Organs in the City lowder, 
sweeter, and of more variety than S. Paul's (which 
cost not one-third of the Price) and particularly, 
whether Smith at the Temple, has not out-done Smith 
of S. Paul's? And whether S. Andrew's Under- 
shaft,* has not out-done them both ? 

IX. — Whether the Open Diapason of Metal that speaks on 
the lower set of keys at S. Andrew's Undershaft, be 
not a Stop of extraordinary Use and Variety, and 
such as neither S. Paul's has, or can have ? 

X. — Whether Depth in the Case gives not Liberty for cor- 
tainining the greater Quantity and Variety of Work ? 
And if so, why should not S. Paul's have as great 
variety as other Organs, and the order of the Work be 
as well contriv'd and disposed for Tuning and other 
Conveniences, since its case is near double the Depth 
to any in England ? 

XI. — Whether the great Organ-builder will condescend to 
submit his Organ to the same Scrutiny, which all 
Artists of the same Profession do in all Countries ? 
And if be deny'd whether it will not give the World, 
and particularly the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's 
reason to fear, that this 7V(7/j-»i« te«^cr^ proceeds from 
some secret Cause ? Ai.d to Quesiion — 

XII.— Whether the Cupolo or the organ at S. Paul's will be 
first finished ? * 

Apropos of the great rivalry existing between 
Schmidt and Harris, it was the ambition of the 
latter "to erect" (wrote Steele in No. 552 of The 
Spectator) "an organ in S. Paul's Cathedral over the 
West door, at the entrance into the body of the 
church, which in art and magnificence shall transcend 



*" Puilt by Harris at a cost of £1,400. and opened May 315:1, 1696. 

t Ihe organ was opened wiih divine s rvice on the Thanksgiving for the 
Peace of Ryswick, Dec. 2, 1697, but the Cathedral was not entirely finished 
until 1710. 

P 2 



912 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



any work of that kind ever before invented. The pro- 
posal in perspicuous language sets forth the honour and 
advantage such a performance would be to the British 
name, as well as that it would apply the power of 
sounds in a manner more amazingly and forcible than 
perhaps has yet been known, and I am sure to an end 
much more worthy. Had the vast sums which have 
been laid out upon operas without skill or conduct, 
and to no other purpose but to suspend or vitiate our 
understandings, been disposed this way, we should 
now perhaps have an engine so formed as to strike 
the minds of half the people at once in a place of 
worship with a forgetfulness of present care and 
calamity, and a hope of endless rapture, joy, and 
hallelujah hereafter." 

A list of the principal organs erected by Bernard 
Schmidt and his two nephews, Gerard and Bernard, 
may not be without interest to some readers : — 



S. Paul's Cathedral. 

Durham Cathedral, 

Winchester Cathedral. 

Bipon Cathedral. 

Southwell Cathedral. 

Oxford Cathedral. 

S. George's Chapel, Windsor. 

The Temple Church. 

Chapel Royal, Whitehall. 

Trinity College Chapel, Cam- 
bridge. 

S. Mary's (University) Church, 
Cambridge. 



Eton College Chapel. 

S. Mary's (University) Church, 

Oxford. 
S. Margaret's, Westminster. 
S. Clement Danes, Strand. 
S. Peter's, Cornhill. 
S. Mary-at-Hill, Eastcheap. 
S. Mary Woolnorth, Lombard 

Street. 
S. James's, College Hill. 
All Saints', Derby. 
Holy Trinity Church, Hull. 
Hampton Court Palace Chapel. 



^ 



OF S. PAVLS CATHEDRAL. 213 



APPENDIX B 



The words of the following anthems by Organists 
and Composers of Old S. Paul's Cathedral, were given 
in the second edition of Clifford's Divine Services and 
Anthems, described in full in Chapter II. : — 

By Adrian Batten, Organist (1624 — 1640). 

Almighty God which modest. 

* Almighty God, who in Thy wrath. 
Almighty God, M^ hose praise. 
Behold now praise the Lord, 

Bow down Thine ear. 
*Christ, Our Pascal Lamb. 

* Deliver us, O Lord our God, 
*Godliness is great riches. 
God so loved the world. 
*Have mercy upon me. 
*Hear my prayer. 

*Hear the prayers, O our God. 

Holy, Holy, Holy. 

I am the resurrection. 

I heard a voice from. Heaven. 

If ye love Me 

In Bethlehem Town (for the Epiphany). 

*Lord, we beseech Thee. 

*Lord, who shall dwell. 

Not unto us, O Lord. 

*0 clap your hands. 

*0 how happy a thing it is. 

O Lord, our Governor. 

O Lord, Thou hast searched me out. 

*0 praise God in His Holiness. 

*0 praise the Lord all ye heathen. 



214 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



sin^ unto the Lord. 
*Out of the deep. 
Ponder my words. 

* Praise the Lord, O my soul. 
Save us, O God, while waking. 
*Sing we merrily. 

The Lord is my Shepherd. 
'''Turn thou us, O good Lord. 
We beseech Thee. 
■* When the Lord turned again. 
* These have been printed. 

By Albertus Bryan, Organist (1640— 1666). 

Behold how good and joyful. 

1 heard a voice in Heaven. 

By William Byrde, Chorister (1553 to 1558). 

* Arise, O Lord. 

Alas / when I look back. 

Be unto me, O Lord. 

*Bow down Thine ear. 

*Christ rising from the dead. 

Exalt Thyself God. 

Even from the depth. 

*Hear my prayer. 

How long shall mine enemies. 

Lead me, O Lord. 

Let not wrath. 

Look down, O Lord. 

O God, the proud are risen. 

U God, Whom our offences. 

*0 Lord, make Thy servant Charles. 

*0 Lord, rebuke me not. 

O Lord, turn not away. 

^Prevent us, O Lord. 

•".Vaz/g me, O God. 

*Sing joyfully. 

Teach me. O Lord. 

*Thou God that guidesi 

* These have been printed. 
By William Cranford, Vicar-Choral (1620^ 
O Lord, make thy Servant Charles. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 21 S 



By. Simon Ive, Vicar-Choral C1633). 
Almighty and Everlasting God. 

By Randolph Jewett, Almoner (1660 — 1675). 
Bow down Thine ear. 
I heard a voice from Heaven. 
O God the Kin); of Glory, 
The King shall rejoice. 

By Thomas Morley, Organist (1588). 

How long wilt Thou forget me. 
O Jesu Meek. 
*Out of the deep. 

* Printed in Barnard, 1641. 

By William Mundy, Vicar-Choral (1591). 
*Ah ! helpless wretch. 
Bow down Thine ear. 
Increase my joy. 
Let us now laud and magnify. 
My song shall be. 
O give thanks. 

Lord our Governour. 

*0 Lord the Maker of all things. 
*0 Lord, the World's Saviour. 
The secret sins. 

* Printed in Barnard, 1641. 

By Martin Pierson (Almoner, 1630). 
Blow ye the trumpet. 

1 will magnify Thee. 

By John Tomkins, Organist (1621 — 1624). 
The Lord hear thee. 

The following are the names of the composers of 
the remaining anthems as given in Clifford ; some of 
them are well known ; others only to the musical 
antiquarian : — 

John Am.ner. Sir Wm. Leighton. 

John Bennett. Matthew Locke. 

John Blow. Henry Loosemore. 



2l6 



THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Richard Browne. 
John Bull. 
George Carre. 
William Childe. 
^apiain Hy. Cooke. 
Thomas Coste. 
Thomas Day. 
Michael Este. 
Richard Far rant. 
Alphonso Ferrabosco 
Laurence Fisher. 
Richard Gibbs. 
Orlando Gibbons. 
Christopher Gibbons. 
Nathaniel Gyles. 
John Heath. 
John Hilton. 
John Hingston. 
John Holmes. 
Edmund Hooper. 
Pelham Humphreys. 
John Hutchinson. 
Robert Hutchinson. 
Robert Johnson. 
Robert Jones. 
Harry Lawes. 
William Lawes. 



Edward Lowe. 
George Mason. 
Henry Molle. 
'Thomas Mudde. 
Robert Parsons. 
William Philips. 
Richard Portman. 
Richard Price. 
Robert Ramsay. 
Benjamin Rogers. 
John 6'hepKarde. 
Edward Stnith. 
Henry Smith. 
William Stonard. 
Peter Stringer. 
Thomas Tallis. 
Gyles Tomkins. 
John Tomkins. 
Rev. Wm. Tucker. 
William Tye. 
John Warde. 
Peter Warner. 
Thomas Weelkes. 
Robert White. 
Thomas Wilkinson. 
John Wilson. 
Leonard Woodson. 



A copy of the 1664 edition of Clifford, in a fair 
state of preservation, is in the possession of the 
writer. As the book is excessively rare he would be 
pleased to shew it to any one interested in such 
matters. A copy of the first edition is with Dr. A. H. 
Mann, organist of King's College, Cambridge, the 
possessor of a very extensive collection of books of 
words of anthems used in our cathedrals in times past 
and present. Surely the bibliography of such a col- 
lection would be of much interest. Let us hope for 
such a work some day from the pen of so enthusiastic 
a collector as the amiable and talented organist of 
King's College. 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 217 



APPENDIX C. 



A Synopsis of Cathedral Music. 

Being Short Biographical Notices of the 
PRINCIPAL English Church Composers, who have 

BEEN incidentally ALLUDED TO IN THE PRECEED- 
ING pages, together with a summary of THEIR 
CHIEF PRINTED SACRED COMPOSITIONS. 

ABBREVIATIONS TO REFERENCES. 

Arnold sigDifies Arnold's Cathtdral Mutie^ Rimbault's (the second) edition 
3 vols, folio, 1843 — 7. 

B 4RNAKD signifies harnard's Church Mttaic, xo vols, folio, 164T. 

BoYCK signifies Bcyce's Cathedral Miuie, 3 vols, folio, 1760—78. 

Cath. Ch. Bk. signifies Novello's Cathedral Choir Book, 2 vols, folio, 1848. 

Cath. Mag. signifies The Cathedral Magazine, 3 vols, 410, 1760. 

Complete Sbrvicb signifies the Canticles at Matins and Evensong together 
with the OfBce of Holy Communion with or without &anctut and Gloria 
in Sxcelsii. 

Cope signifies Anthemt by Eminent Composer* of the Sngliih Church, edited 
by the Rev, Sir \V. H, Cope, Bart., M.A.f Minor Canon of Wtxtmintter, 
8vo. 1849. 

Folio (Novello) signifies music published by Novello and Co. in folio size, 

Goss and Tttrle signifies Services and Anthems, Ancient and Modem, edited 
by John Gobs ami James Turle^ 2 vols, folio, 1848. 

Hawes siRnifies Chants^ Sanctuses and Responses tu used at 3. PauVs and 
Westminster Abbey edited by W, Hawes, folio, c. 1830. 

MOTETT Soc. signifies A Ooiieciion of Ancient Church^Music originally 
printed for the Motett Society^ edited by Dr. Rimbault, 2 vols, folio, 184a. 

Face signifies Ha/rmonia Sacra.— A. Collection of Anthems, edited by John 
Page, 3 vols, folio, 1800 

Octavo (Novello) signifies music published by Novello in octavo size. 

Parish Choir signifies music printed in The PatHsh Choir, a periodical, de- 
voted to Church music, 3 vols, 8vo, 1846 — 50. 

Rimbault signifies Cathedral Music, consisting of Services and Anthems 
selected from the books of the different Cathedrals^ etc., edited by Dr. Rim- 
bault, I volume only published, containing Services, folio, 1847. 



2l8 THE ORGANISTS AhD COMPOSERS 



Adcock, James, born at Eton, 1778. Chorister of 

Eton College and S. George's Chapel, Windsor, 1786. 

Lay Clerk of S. George's, 1797, of Eton, 1799. Shortly 

afterwards appointed Lay Clerk of King's, Trinity, and 

S. John's Colleges, Cambridge. Master of the Choristers 

at King's College. Died at Cambridge, April 30, i860. 

Evening Services in B flat and E Jlat (folio, Novello) 

Anthem : " My soul truly ivaiteth " (published by 

Cramer, 1850). 

Alcock, John, Mus.B., Oxon (1755^, Mus.D. (1761). 
Born near S. Paul's Cathedral, April 11, 1715, or if an 
advertisement prefixed to his Complete Service (1753) is 
to be relied upon, in 1 717 or 18. Chorister of S. Paul's 
under Charles King, Mus.B. Organist of S. Andrew's, 
Plymouth, 1737 ; of S. Laurence, Reading, 1741. Organist 
and Vicar Choral of Lichfield Cathedral, 1749 — 60. 
Organist of Sutton Coldfield, 1761 — 86,and of S. Editha, 
Tamworth (both near Lichfield), 1766 — 90, retaining his 
place of Vicar Choral. Private Organist to the Earl of 
Donegal. Died at Lichfield, February, 1806, and was 
buried in the Cathedral Close. 

* Divine Harmony, a Collection of Fifty-five Double 
and Single Chants for four voices, as they are sung 
at Lichfield Cathedral, 1752. 

A Morning, Communion, and Evening Service in E 
minor, 4to, 1753. 

A Collection of Anthems in Score for i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 
arid 8 voices, and part of the i tfith Psalm in Latin for 
8 voices and instruments in 21 parts, folio, 1771. 

Six New Anthems for 2, 3, and 4 voices with two haut- 
boys and a bassoon and figured for the organ, com- 
posed by John Alcock, Doctor in Mustek, and Mr. 
John Alcock, Bachelor in Musick and Organist of 
Walsall,-io\\o, c, 1780. 

The Harmony ofSion. A Collection of one Hundred 
and Six Psalm Tunes, by various composers, 1802. 

* This collection of Chants is now exceedingly scarce. A copy in the posses- 
sion of the writer contains a portrait of Alcock in his Doctor's rohes. It 
likewise has, appended, Dr. Alcock's proposals for printing a collectioa 
of English Cathedral Music, in which, however, he was anticipated by 
Dr Greene. The circumstance is alluded to in this woik, in connection 
with the memoir of that composer. 



OF s. pavl's cathedral. 219 



Aldrich, Very Rev. Henry, B.A., Oxon (1666): 
M.A. (1669), B.D. and D.D. by accumulation (1682). 
Born in Westminster 1647, ^ind educated at Westminster 
School. Took holy orders 1669. Rector of Wem, Shrop- 
shire, and Canon of Christ Church, Oxford, 1682 ; Dean 
of Christchurch, 1689. Died at Oxford, Dec. 14, 1710, 
and was buried in the Cathedral. The monument to his 
memory is placed most appropriately on one of the piers 
supporting the tower-arches, over the Decani choir 
stalls. 

Services. 

Complete Service in G — Boyce, Vol I. 
Morning and Evening Service in A — Arnold, Vol I. 
Evening Service in E minor — Arnold, Vol III. 
Sanctus and Gloria in Excelsis in G — Ouseley. 

Full Anthems. 
By the Waters 0/ Babylon ( i 6 v) — Cope. 
Not unto us {A 4 v) — Arnold, Vol I. 
O give thanks {a 6 v) — Boyce, Vol II. — Parish Choir. 
O Lord God of my Salvation {from Palestrina, a ^v) 
—Page. Vol II.— Cope. 

pi aise the Lord all ye heathen (d 4 v) — A rnold, Vol I. 
Out of the deep (i 4 v) — Boyce, Vol II. — Parish Choir. 
We have heard with our ears {from Palesttina, i 4 «/) 

— Arnold, Vol I. 

Full Anthems, with Verses. 

Behold now, praise the Lord (i 5 v) — Cope. 
God is our hope and strength (i 5 v) — Page Vol II. — 
Cath. Mag., Vol. II. 

Verse Anthem. 

1 am well pleased {from Carissimi, a 3 v) — Arnold, 
Vol III 

Amner, John. Lay Clerk of Ely Cathedral, 1604 ; 
organist, 1610 ; died, 1641. 

Angel, Alfred. Bom 1816. Succeeded S. S. Wesley 
in 1842 as oreranist of Exeter Cathedral. Died at Exeter 

May 24, 1876. 



220 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Anthems. 

Blessing, Glory, Wisdom {for double choir), adapted 
from Bach— folio and %vo (Novello). 

Blow ye the trumpet in Zion {Gresham Prize Composi- 
tion 1842). Verse Anthem— folio {Novella). 

Armes, Phillip, Mus.B., Oxon. (1858), Mus.D. (1864). 
ad eundem Dunelm (1874). Born at Norwich, iSsd- 
Chorister in Norwich Cathedral, 1846 — 1848 ; in Roches- 
ter Cathedral 1848 — 1850. Organist of Holy Trinity 
Church, Milton, Gravesend, 1855 ; of S. Andrew's, Wells 
Street, 1857 ; of Chichester Cathedral, i860; of Durham 
Cathedral, 1862. 

A Morning and Evening Service in G, Communion 
Services in A and B flat, and six Anthems composed 
by Dr. Armes, are published by Novello &' Co. 

Arnold, Samuel, Mus.Bac. and Mus.D., Oxon (1773). 
Bom in London Aug. loth, 1740. Chorister of the Chapel 
Royal. Organist and composer to the Chapel Royal in 
succession to Dr. Nares, 1783. Organist of Westminster 
Abbey in succession to Dr. Cooke, 1 793. Died at Duke 
St., Westminster, Oct. 22nd, 1802. Buried in the North 
Aisle of the Abbey. 

In A, Communion and Evening Service {in continua- 
tion of Boyc^s Morning Service in A, full)— folio 
and 8vo {JVovello). 
In B flat, Complete Service — Goss and Turle, Vol I. 
Verse Anthem {A 3 v) : Who is this that comethfrom 

Edom — Page Vol I. — %vo {Novillo). 
Cathedral Music. Being a Collection in Score of the 
most valuable and useful Compositions for that Set vice 
by the several English Masters of the lyth and i&th 
Centuries, 4 vols, folio {including an organ part), 
1790. Second edition by Dr. Rimbault, 3 vols, folio, 
1843—7- 

Baildon, Joseph. Born 1727, Gentleman of the 
Chapel Royal, Lay Vicar of Westminster Abbey, and 
Organist of All Saints' Church, Fulham, and S. Luke's 
Old Street, Middlesex. Died in London, May 7, 1774. 

Full Anthem (i 4 v), Behold how good and joyful- 
Page, Vol in. 



OF a. Paul's catbedral. 221 



Banks Ralph. Born 1767. Chorister in Durham 
Cathedral. Pupil of Thomas Ebdon. Organist of Roches- 
ter Cathedral, 1788. Died at Rochester, Sept. 20, 1841. 
Buried in the nave of the Cathedral. 

Cathedral Music, folio, published at Chi^ppeWs post- 
humously, c. 1842, containing : — 
In G, Morning and Communion Services, 
In C, Evening Service. 
In E, Benedicite Omnia Opera. 
In A, Sanctus and Kyrie. 

Anthems. 
Creator Spirit, by Whose aid {Full d 4 v). 
Give ear, O Heavens {Full A8 v, with versi, i 4 v\ 
Lord, remember David {solo), adapted from Handel. 
O Lord, grant the King {Full with Verse d 5 v). 
*0 sing unto the Lord ( Verse d j v). 
Sing praises to the Lord {Treble solo). 
■fTAe souls of the Righteous ( Verse <i 2 v). 
Six double chants. 

* Composed for the re.openiiig of the organ at Rochester Cathedral, Nov. 

22nd. (S. Cecilia's Day) 1840. 
t Composed for the Funeral of the Ven. Archdeacon Law, D.D., Feb. is, 

iSss- 

Barnby, Joseph. Bom at York, August i2th, 1838. 
Chorister in York Minster, 1846 — 1852. Organist of 
S. Andrew's, Wells Street, 1863— 1871; of S. Anne's, 
Soho, 1 87 1. Organist and Precentor of Eton College, 1875. 

Five Services and over thirty Anthems by Mr. Joseph 
Barnby, are published by Novella &• Co. 

Barrow, Thomas. One of the Children and subse- 
quently one of the Gentlemen, and Music Copyist of the 
Chapel Royal. Lay Vicar and Music-Copyist of S. 
Peter's, Westminster. Diedl789. 

Morning and Evening Service in F. — Rimbault{printed 

from the original MS. in the possession of Mr. W. 

Hawes). — Goss and Turle. 
Single chant in F. 
Double chant in G {both printed in Dr. Rimbaulfs 

Cathedral Chants of the XVI., XVII. and XVIII. 

Centuries. i,to, 1844). 



222 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Battishill, Jonathan. Born in London, May, 1738. 
Chorister of S. Haul's Cathedral, 1748 ; Organist of S. 
Clement, Eastcheap, and afterwards (1767) of Christ 
Church, Newgate Street. Died at Islington, Dec. 10, 
1801. 

Six Anthems and Ten Chants, edited by John Page,, 
Vicar Choral of S. Pauls, folio, 1804, containing : — 

Verse Anthem :— 
The Heavens declare (i 3 v) — composed June, 1759). 

Full Anthems with Verses : — 
Behold, how good and joyful. 
I waited patiently {composed Dec, 1758). 
Unto thee lift I up mine eyes {composed Dec^ 10, 1761). 

Full Anthems :— 
O Lord, look down from Heaven (^ 7 v), composed 

June 5, 1765. 
Save me O God {a 5 v), composed Dec, 1761. 
Two Double Chants. 
Eight Single Chants. 



Call to remembrance {Full ^ 7 v, with Verse a 3 v) — 

Page Vol I., 8vo (Novello). 
Deliver us O Lord {Full d. 4 v) — Page Vol III. 
How long wilt Thou forget me {treble solo) — Pcige 

Vol II. 
Iwillmagnify Thee {Full h/^v, with Versedjv) — Page 

Vol in. 

Beale, William, commonly known among musicians 
as " Madrigal Beale." Born at Landrake, with S. Erney 
Cornwall, Jan. x, 1784. Chorister of Westminster Abbey ; 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1816 — 20; Organist of 
Trinity and S. John's Colleges, Cambridge, in succession 
to Dr. Clarke- Whitfeld, 1820—21 ; Organist of Wands- 
worth Parish Church and S. John's, Clapham Rise, 182 1. 
Died in London May 3rd, 1854. One of our most 
esteemed composers in the madrigalian style. 

Double Chant in A (major and minor) — prinied in 
Gos^ Chants, 1841. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 223 



Beckwith, John Christmas, Mus.B. and Mus.D., 
Oxon(i8o3). Born Dec. 25, 1750. Assistant organist to 
Dr. Philip Hayes at Magdalene College, Oxford; organist 
of S. Peter Mancroft, Norwich, 1794 ; of Norwich Cathe- 
dral in succession to John Garland, 1808. Died at Nor- 
wich, June 3rd, 1809, and was buried in the church of 
S. Peter, Mancroft. 

Stx Anthems in Score, dedicated with the utmost respect 
and gratitude to the Dean a7id Chapter 0/ Norwich, 
folio, c, 1790, containing : — 

Ponder my words {duet, two trebles or tenors). 

Blessed is the man that hath not walked {full with 
verse). 

Sing unto the Lord a new song {bass solo). 

I bow my knee {full cL 5 v). 

I will sing unto the Lord {treble or tenor solo). 

The Lord is very ^reat and terrible {Verse <J 3 w) 



My soul is weary, 8vo {Novella) edited by Dr. G. C. 

Martin. 
The First Verse of every Psalm of David with an 

Antient or Modern Chant in Score, adapted as much 

as bossible to the sentiment of each psalm, folio, 

1808. 

\* One of the earliest instances of a pointed psalter. 

John Christmas Beckwith and the Rev. Edward James 
Beckwith (Minor Canon of S. Paul's, etc.), were the sons 
of Edward Beckwith, Lay Clerk (Oct. i6th, 1751) and 
Master of the Choristers (Nov. i8th, 1759) of Norwich 
Cathedral, and organist of S. Peter, Mancroft (Dec. 4th, 
1780). He was bom June 2nd, 1734 and died Dec. 30th, 
1793. His brother John Beckwith (born 1728, died May 
i8th, 1800), was also a lay clerk of Norwich Cathedral. 
The ddtes are taken from their gravestones in the North 
cloister walk of Norwich. John Beckwith was a volu- 
minous composer of services and anthems, but none of 
them have been primed. Ur. John Christmas Beckwith 
is usually described in books of words of anthems as 
" Beckwith Junior." 



224 rfl^S ORGAmSTS AlTD COMPOSERS 



Bennett, Alfred ^^'illiam, Mus.B., Oxon, (1825.) 
Son of Thomas Bennett,* organist of Chichester Cathe- 
dral, 1803— 1848. Organist of New College, Oxford, and 
St. Mary's University Church, in succession to William 
Woodcock, Mus.B., 1825. Killed by a fall from a coach 
while proceeding to the Festival of the three choirs at 
Worcester, Sept. 12, 1830. The Rev. Thomas Mozley 
alluded, in terms of approbation, to Bennetts musician- 
ship in his " Reminiscences," Second Series. 

Cathedral Music, i vol, folio, edited posthumously hy 
Thomas and Henry Bennett; containing: — 

Services .• — 
In E, Te Deum and Jubilate. 
In F, Magnificat and Nunc Dimittis {arranged from 

Mozart, Novella, Webbe, etc.) 
In G, Evening Set vice. 

Anthems. 
/ waited patiently {verse, two trebles'). 
O praise the Lord of Heaven {verse d, 5 v"). 
O Zion that bringest {d. 7 v). 



Cathedral Chants, edited in conjunction with William 
Marshall, Mus.B., ^to, 1829. 

Bevin, Elwav. Born about 1570, pupil of Tallis. 
Organist of Bristol Cathedral, and Gentleman Extraordi- 
nary of the Chapel Royal, 1589 — 1637. The exact date 
of his death has never been ascertained. 

Complete Service in the Dorian Mode — Barnard. 
Boyce, Vol. I. 

Bishop, John. Bom 1665. Organist of King's Col- 
lege, Cambridge, between Michaelmas and Christmas, 
1687. Organist of Winchester College, 1695 Succeeded 



* Thomas Bennett published " Cathedral Selections," a small collection 
of standard Anthems, responses, chants, Ac. Also Sacred MeloHies, a 
collection of Psalmody, in six parts, i8i+— 1838, On his death, March 
31st, 1848, he was buried in the Cathedral yard. His son, Henry 
Bennett, succeeded him as organist of Chichester until i860. 



OF S. PAUL'S OATHBDRAL. 225 

Vaughan Richardson, as organist of Winchester Cathe- 
dral, 1729. Died Dec. 19, 1737. Buried in the cloisters 
of Winchester College. 

Full Anthems. 
Bow down Thine ear (d 4 v) — CoUeeiate Series ( Weekes 

&'Co.) 
Call to remembrance (d 4 v) — TAe Choir, No. 67. 
Holy, Holy, Holy (i 4 v) — Parish Choir. 
O be joyful in God {& 4 v) — The Choir, No. 65. 

Bishop, Sir Henry Rowley, Knt., B.Mus., Oxon. 
(1839), Mus.D. (1853). Born Nov. 18, 1782. Professor 
Music in the University of Edinburgh, 1841, and in 
that of Oxford in succession to Dr. Crotch, 1848. Re- 
ceived knighthood 1842. Died April 30, 1855. Buried 
in Finchley Cemetery. 

Collection of Cathedral Chants, folio {Manchester) 

Blake, Rev. Edward, D.D. Born at Salisbury, 
1708. Fellow of Oriel Coll., Oxford. Perpetual Curate 
of S. Thomas', Salisbury, 1740. Vicar of S. Mary the 
Virgin, Oxford, 1754. Prebendary of Salisbury and 
Rector of Tortworth, Gloucestershire, 1757. Died June 
II, 1765. 

Verse anthem; I have set God alway before me — Page, 
Vol. //., %vo, Novella. 

Blow, John, Mus.D., Cantuar. Born (as usually 
stated) at North Collingham, Notts, 1648 ; * one of the 
first set of children of the Chapel Royal after the Resto- 
ration, 1660. Organist of S. Peter's, Westminster, 1669 
to 1680, and again from 1695 to 1708. Gentleman and 
Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal, 1674; organist 
1676. Almoner and Master of the Boys at S. Paul's, 
1687 to 1693. First Composer to the Chapel Royal, 1699. 
Died in London, Oct. i, 1708. Buried in the North choir 
aisle of S. Peter's, Westminster. 



* There is a strong probability that Blow was bom in London. A MS. 
note of Antony k Wood's in his Athens. Oxon., shows that Dr. Rogers told 
Wood that this was the ease. The Registers of North Collingham Church 
do not confirm the statement that Blow was bom there. 

Q 



226 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



In A, Complete Service — Boyce, Vol I. 

In G, Complete Service — Boyce, Vol I. 

In E minor, Complete Service — Boyce, Vol III. 

In G, Kyrie and Credo {triple measure) — Boyce, Vol I. 

In D, Sanctus and Gloria in Excelsis — Motett Soc. 

Verse Anthems. 
I beheld, and lo {d, 4 v) — Boyce, Vol III., 8vo, Novello. 
I was in the spirit (d 4 v) — Boyce, Vol II., Svo, Novello. 
Lord, how are they increased (d 2 v) — Cath. Mag. 
O Lord, I have sinned {d 4 v) — Boyce, Vol III. 
O Lord, Thou hast searched me out id 2 v) — Boyce, 

Vol in. 

O sing unto God (d 3 v)— Boyce, Vol III. 
*Praise thou the Lord (d 6 w). 
*Save Lord, and hear us {d 4 v). 
*Shew us Thy mercy {d 4 v). 
*The voice of the Lord {d 4 v). 

Full Anthems with verses). 
God is our hope and strength (d 8 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
*Look upon my adversity {d i,v). 
O God, wherefore art Thou absent {d 5 v) — Boyce, Vol 

Save me, O God [d 4 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
Sing we merrily \d 6 v) — Page, Vol II. 

Full Anthems. 
* Consider mine enemies (d \v). 
My God, look upon me {d 4 v)^Boyce, Vol II. 
Praise the Lord, O my soul (i 8 v) — Cepe. 
*Up, Lord and help me {d 4 v), 

* These were, for the first time published by Vincent Novello in 1846, 
under the title of Seven Short AnUnmg, 

Boyce, William, Mus.B. and Mus.D,, Cantab. (1749). 
Bom 17 10. Chorister in S. Paul's under Charles King, 
afterwards studied under Greene and Pepusch. Organist 
of S. Peter's, Vere Street, 1734; of S. Michael's, Comhill, 
1736— 1768; of Allhallow's, Thames Street, 1749—1769 ; 
Composer to the Chapel Royal, 1736 ; Organist of the 
same, 1758 ; Master of the King's Band, 1755. Died at 
Kensington, Fe-b. 7, 1779. Buried in the crypt of S. Paul'§ 
Cathedral, 



Of a. FAVl's CATSMDJUi,. 22^ 



Cathedral Music, bein^ a Collection in score qfthe most 
valuable and useful compositions for that service by 
the several English Masters of the last two hundred 
years, 3 vols, folio {large and small paper) 1760— 
1778. Second edition with prefatory metnoir by Sir 
John Hawkins, 1788. Modem editions by Vincent 
Novello and Joseph Warren, 1849. 

Nine copies of the original issue were subscribed for by the Dean and 
Chapter of S. Paul's. 

Original Cathedral Music, Vol. I., containing fifteen 
Anthems and a Te Deum and Jubilate in score in 
A {verse) for i, 2, 3, 4, and 5 voices, edited by Dr. 
Philip Hayes, folio, 1780. 

Vol. II. A collection of twelve Anthems and a short 
Morning Service in C in score for i, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6 
voices, folio, 1790. 

Vol. III., containing two Morning Services in A and 
G, a Burial Service in E minor, and thirteen an- 
thems. 

Vol. IV., containing seven Anthems, a Pastoral Hymn, 
a Sacred Round, and two Double Chants in F and 
D.* 

* The authenticity of the Double Chant in D is questioned. 

The two last-named volumes were edited by Vincent Novello in 1846, several 
of the compositions contained in them having been hitherto unpublished. 
Novello likewise re-edited Vols. I. and II. uniform with Vols. 111. and IV. 
These comprised nearly the whole of the known sacrvd works of this eminent 
composer. 

Bridge, John Frederick, Mus.B., Oxon. (1868), 
Mus.D. (1874). Born at Oldbury, Worcestershire, Dec. 
5, 1844. Chorister in Rochester Cathedral, 1850 — 1859. 
Studied under John Hopkins and Sir John Goss. 
Organist of Trinity Church, Windsor, 1865-9. Suc- 
ceeded J. J. Harris, as organist of Manchester Cathedral, 
1869. Professor of Music at Owen's College, Manches- 
ter, 1872. Permanent Deputy-Orgaaist of Westminster 
Abbey, 1875. Full Organist and Master of the Choristers 
on the death of James Turle, 1882. Professor of Har- 
mony at the Royal College of Music, and of Music at 
Gresham College (1890). Conductor of the Western 
Madrigal Society, etc., etc. 

A complele Set.vice in G, Commitnien and Evening 
Services in D, the Offertory Sentences, a Service for 



^28 TEM ORGAlTISTS AND CoMPOSERll 



the Solemnization of Matrimony, and eleven an- 
thems by Dr. Bridge are published by Novello Ssf Co. 
In the Westminster Abbey Chant Book edited by him, 
there is i Single Chant and 3 Double Chants. 

Dr. Bridge has published several other anthems elsewhere. His contri- 
butions to the repertory of Christmas Carol Music are among the most beau- 
tiful specimens of the kind we possess. 

Buck, Zechariah, Mus.D., Cantuar. (1853). Born 
at Norwich, Sept. 9, 1798. Chorister in Norwich Cathe- 
dral under Garland and J. Beckwith. Organist of Nor- 
wich Cathedral, 1828 ; resigned, 1877. Died at Newport, 
Essex, Aug S, 1879. 

Anthems. 

Come hither, Angel tongues invite (composed for the 
enthronement of Dr. Hinds, Bishop of Norwich, by 
whom the words were written, 1849). 

/ heard a voice from Heaven (for the funeral of Bishop 
Stanley, 1849). 

O Lord, give Thy Holy Spirit. 

All these were published in Dr. Bunnett's Saered Harmony, folio, 1865, 
together (with several Chants, Santt'Uies, Kyries, and Hymn Tunes, by Dr. 
Buck. 

Eight Chants, published in E. L. Farr's Collection 
folio. 

Bull, John, Mus.B., Oxon (1586), Mus.D., Oxon, 
(1592). Borne. 1563. Organist of Hereford Cathedral, 
1582. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1585. First Pro- 
fessor of Music atGresham College, London, 1596 — 1607. 
Organist of Antwerp Cathedral, 1617 — 1628. Died at 
Antwerp, March 13, 1628. 

Full Anthem', Deliver me, O Lord — Barnard. 
Verse Anthem; Lord, my God^Boyce, Vol II. 

Byrde (Byrd or Bird) William. Bom about 1538. 
Chorister in S. Paul's Cathedral. Organist of Lincoln 
Cathedral, 1563 — 69. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 
1569. Died, July 4, 1623. 

Complete Service in D minor — Barnard— Boyce, Vol 



OF s. paVl's cathedral. i2§ 



Anthems. 

Arise, O Lord {ci 4 v) — Cath. Mag., Vol. I. 

Bless the Lord, ye angels (d. 5 v) — Motett Soc. 

Bow Thine ear \d, 5 v) — Barnard— Boyce, Vol. II — Zvo, 

{Novello). 
I will not leave you (cL J v) — Cope. 
O Lord, turn Thy wrath (d, 5 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
Prevent us, O Lord {d, 5 v) — Barnard — Motett Soc. 
Save me, O God (^ 4 v}— Motett Soc. 
Sing joy fully {p. 6 v) — Barnard — Boyce, Vol II—%vo, 

{Novello). 

For other works see list of Barnard's Church Music. 

Callcott, William Hutchins (Son of Dr. John 
Wall Callcott, the eminent glee composer). Born at 
Kensington, 1807. Died there Aug. 5, 1882. For some 
time organist of S. Barnabas, Kensington. 

Anthems. 

From whence come wars (i 4 v) — %vo {Novello'). 
Give peace in our time {treble sold) — Zvo {Novello). 
He maketh wars to cease [d. 4 v)— folio {Addison &= Co.). 
In my Father's House are many mansions. 
O Lord revive Thy work {cL 4 v)— folio {Addison 6^ Co.). 
Thou visitestthe earth {d. 4 v) — ^va {Novello). 

Camidge, John. Born 1734. Chorister in York Min- 
ster. Afterwards studied under Greene and Handel. 
Organist of York Minster in succession to Dr. Nares, 
1756. Died 1803. Buried in S. Olave's Churchyard, 
York. 

Camidge, Matthew. Born 1764. Chorister in the 

Chapel Royal. Succeeded his father as organist of York 

Minster, 1803. Resigned Oct. 8, 1842. Died Oct. 23, 

1844, Buried in S. Olave's Churchyard, York. 

Cathedral Music, folio, c, 1790, containing Morning 

and Evening Service in F, six Anthems, 24 Single 

and 6 Double Chants. 

Camidge, John, Mus.B., Oxon (1812), Mus.D. (1819), 
Mus.D., Cantuar (1855). Born 1790. Succeeded his 



230 THB ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



father as organist of York Minster, 1842. Died Septem- 
ber 21, 1859. Buried in the York Cemetery. 

Cathedral Music, folio, 1828. Containing Morning 
and Evening Service in A, Evening Service in Eflat, 
six settings of the Sanctus and Kyrie, four Anthems, 
49 Double Chants and one Quadruple Chant. 

Chard, George William, Mus.D., Cantab (1812). 
Born 1765. Chorister in S. Paul's Cathedral under R. 
Hudson. Lay Clerk of Winchester Cathedral, 1788. 
Organist of the same in succession to Peter Fussell, 1802. 
Organist of Winchester College, 1832. Died at Winches- 
ter, May, 23, 1849. Buried in the College cloisters. 
Anthems. 
Have 7nercy Lord on me {adapted from Paisello) — folio, 

{Novella.) 
Kappy the man {full cl 4 v), 1836. 
Is there not an appointedtime {bass solo), folio, {Novella). 
O Lord, we beseech Thee {full d, 4 i/.) 
To celebrate Thy praise {full d, 4 v) — printed in Dr. 
W. H. Longhursfs Short Anthems. 

'Very few of the Church compositions of this respectable musician^ have 
been printed. The MSS. of three Services and five Anthems are in the 
possesion of the writer. Five of Chard's Chants were printed in Bennett 
- and Marshall's Collection (1829). 

Childe William, Mus.B., Oxon (1631), Mus.D., 1663. 
Born at Bristol, 1606. Chorister in Bristol Cathedral, 
Pupil of Elway Bavin. Organist of S. George's Chapel. 
Windsor, 1631, and one of the organists of the Chapel 
Royal, Whitehall. Composer to the King, 1661. Died 
at Windsor, March 23, 1697. Buried in the North choir 
aisle of St. George's Chapel.* 

Sekvices. 

In A minor. Complete Service— Ouseley. 

In D major. Complete Service — Boyce, Vol III. {the 
favourite Service of King Charles I). 

In E fiat, Complete Service — Arnold, Vol I. 

In E minor. Complete Service — Boyce, V0I I. 



* The stone, which is well preserved, is quite close to the iron Kate leading 
into the North choir aisle. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 23 1 



In F, Complete Service — Goss and Turle, Vol I. 
In G, Complete Service — Goss and Turle, Vol I. 

Anthems. 

If the Lord Himself (& 5 v) — Arnold, Vol I. 

O clap your hands {d 4 vy—Cope. 

O Lord, irrant the King {d 4 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 

O praise the Lord, laud ye (d 4 v) — Cope. 

O pray for the peace {d 5 v) — Arnold, Vol I. 

Praise the Lord, O my soul (4 4 ») — Boyce, Vol II. 

Sing we merrily (d 7 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 

Chipp, Edmund Thomas, Mus. B., Cantab. (1859) 
Mus.D. (1861). Son of T. P. Chipp, the player on the 
Tower Drums. Bom Dec. 25, 1823. Chorister in the 
Chapel Royal. Organist of Christ Church, Albany St., 
1843 ; of S. John's, Downshire Hill, Hampstead, 1846. 
Member of the Queen's Private Band, 1843 — 5- Organist 
of S. Olave's Southwark, 1847. Subsequently of S. Mary 
at Hill J the Panopticon, Leicester Square (1855) ; Holy 
Trinity Church, Paddington {1856) ; the Ulster Hall, 
Belfast ; the Kinnaird Hall, Dundee ; and S. Paul's 
Church, Edinburgh. Succeeded R. Janes in 1866 as 
organist of Ely Cathedral. Died at Nice, Dec. 17, 
1886. 

Nine Services and three Anthems by Dr. Chipp are 
printed by Novello &" Co. 

Church, John. Born at Windsor, 1675. Chorister 
of S. John's College, Oxford. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, 1697. Lay Vicar and Master of the Choristers 
of S. Peter's Westminster, 1704. Died Jan. 6, 1741. 

Complete Service in F—Ouseley. 
Four Single Chants, printed in Vandernan's Divine 
Harmony, 1770 

Clarke (afterwards, 1814, Clarke-Whitfeld or 
Clarke- Whitfield) John, Mus.B., Oxon (1793), Mus. 
D., Dublin (1795), Cantab, ad eundem {ij<)q), Oxon., ad 
eundem (1810). Born at Gloucester, Dec. 13. 1770. Organ- 
ist of S. Laurence, Ludlow, 1789— 1794; of Armagh 



232 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Cathedral, 1794 — 1797. Master of the Choristers* at 
Christ Church and S. Patrick's Cathedrals, Dublin, 1798 ; 
organist of Trinity and S. John's Colleges, Cambridge, 
in succession to Dr. Randall, 1799. Organist of Here- 
ford Cathedral in succession to Aaron W. Hayter, 1820. 
Resigned 1833. Professor of Music at Cambridge, 1821. 
Died at Holmer near Hereford Feb. 22, 1836. Buried in 
the East Walk of the Bishop's Cloister of Hereford 
Cathedral. 

Cathedtal Music, 4 vols, folio (1805 — 1822) : — 

Vol I., containing two Services ana, seven Anthems. 

Vol II., containini; eight Services and twenty-four 
Chants. 

Vol III., containing twelve Anthems. 

Vol IV., containing Service in. E, six Anthems and 
twenty four Chants. 

Thirty Favourite Anthems, selected from various Eng- 
lish composers, 2 vols, folio. 

Selection of Single and Double Chants, Responses, etc., 2 
vols, oblong, i^o. 

Cooke, Benjamin, Mus.D., Cantab. (1775), Oxon, ad 
eundem (1782). Born 1734. Deputy organist of S. Peter's, 
Westminster, 1746 ; succeeded Bernard Gates as master 
of the choristers, 1757 ; Lay Vicar, 1758 ; full organist in 
succession to John Robinson, 1762. Organist of S. Martin 
in the Fields in succession to Joseph Kelway, 1782. Died 
at Dorset Court, Cannon .Row, Westminster, Sept. 14, 
1793. Buried in the West cloister of the Abbey. 

Morning and Evening Service in G — Goss and Turle 

— Cath. Ch.Bk. 
Ditto, with Sanctus, Kyrie, and Credo, edited by Dr. G. 

C. Martin, &vo (Novello). 

Cooke, Robert, Son of the above. Bom 1768. Organ- 
ist of S. Martin in the Fields, 1793, and of S. Peter's, 
Westminster, in succession to Dr. Arnold, 1802. Drowned 
in the Thames, Aug 13, 1814. Buried in the West clois- 
ter at Westminster. 



Not organist as usually stated in ertpr. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 233 



Evening Service in C {composed 1806) — Rimbault — 

Goss and Turle — Cath. Ch. Bk.* 
Five Double Chants {printed in The Westminster 

A bbey Collection. Edition <?/ 1 8 ; 5 ). 

'*' It should be stated that the first printed copy of R. Cooke's Service in 
C was published at Birchall's for Henry Cooke, the composer's brother 
(died Sept. 30th, 1840, aged 74), several years before the appearance of 
Rimbault's and the other editions mentioned above. 

Cooke, Captain Henry. Born c, 1610. Appointed 
Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal, 1660. Com- 
poser of " The King's Private Musick for Voyces," 1664. 
Died July 13, 1672. Buried in the East cloister of Wes- 
minster Abbey. 

The Words of eighteen of Captain Cooke's Anthems 
were printed in Cliffords Divine Services and An- 
thems \imo (1664). 

CoRFE, Arthur Thomas (son of Joseph Corfe, organ- 
ist of Salisbury Cathedral, died 1820). Born at Salisbury, 
April 9, 1773. Chorister in Westminster Abbey, 1782. 
Organist and Master of the Choristers of Salisbury Cathe- 
dral on resignation of his father, 1804. Died, while 
kneeling at prayer, Jan. 28, 1863. Buried in the South 
cloister of Salisbury Cathedral. 

The adapter of some anthems from the works of Mozart 
and others. 

Creyghton, Rev. Robert, D.D. Bom 1640. Son 
of the Rt. Rev. Robert Creyghton, Bishop of Bath and 
Wells. Professor of Greek in the University of Cam- 
bridge, 1662. Canon Residentiary and Precentor of 
Wells Cathedral, 1674. Died at Wells, Feb. 17, i733.t 

Services. 
In Bflat, Morning and Evening Service — Ouseley. 
In Eflat, Complete Service — Rimbault— Cath. Ch. Bk. 

Anthems. 
Behold now, praise the Lord {full d 4 v.) — Far. Ch. 
I will arise (full d. 4 v)—Boyce, Vol Il.—ivo [Novella). 

t This, and several other dates in the course of these biographical notices, 
will be found to vary from those generally received ; but such changes have 
not been made without consulting the best and latest authorities. 
R 



234 y-?-?^ ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Praise the Lord^ O my soul (full with verse, d, 5 v), %vo, 
{Novella).* 

* Many of Creyghton's compositions for the Church are still in MS. Dr. 
Rimbault possessed scores of complete services in B flat, C, D, E flat, 
and F minor, and several anthems. The preservation of these composi- 
tions was entirely owing to Henry Cooke, a former Vicar Choral of 
Wells, who transcribed the whole in score from the original part-books 
now destroyed. 

Croft, William, Mus.D., Oxon. (1713). Born at 
Nether Eatington, Warwickshire, 1678 (baptized Dec. 
30). Chorister in the Chapel Royal. Organist of S. 
Anne's, Soho, 1700 — 11. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, 1700. Joint organist of the same with Jeremiah 
Clark, 1704 ; sole organist, 1707. Master of the Chil- 
dren and Composer to the Chapel Royal and organist of 
S, Peter's Westminster, in succession to Dr. Blow, 1708. 
Died at Bath, Aug. 14, 1727. Buried in the Norih choir 
aisle of Westminster Abbey. 

Services. 
In A, Morning and Communion Service — Rimbault — 

"^Hawes (1840} — Zvo, Novella {edited by Dr Martin). 
In B minor, Morning Service — Arnold, Vol I. 
In B minor, Sanctus and Gloria in Excelsis — Arnold 

Vol I 
In Eflat, Morning and Evening {Cantate) Service — 

Rimbault- Mlawes (1840). 

Anthems. 
Cathedral Music, or Thirty Select Anthems in Score, 
consisting of i, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 Parts, to which 
is added the Burial Sei vice as it is now occasionally 
performed in Westminster Abbey, 2 vols, folio, \T2/^. 
(^Another edition was issued some forty years later in 
4/0 size). 

t These, the first printed copies of Croft's ' Services in A and E flat, were 
published by Wm.Hawes, of S. Paul's and the Chapel Royal, by subscrip- 
tion, commencing in July, 1840. They appeared in large square folio size 
with a dedication to the Rev. Edmund Goodenough, D.D., Dean of Wells 

Miscellaneous Verse Anthems. 
Blessed is the piople {& 3 v) — Page, Vol I. 
Be merciful unto me [d. 4 v) — Arnold, Vol II. 
Deliver us, O Lord {d. 3 v) — Page, Vol I. 
Give the King thy judgments {a 5 v)—Boyce, Vol II, 



OP s. Paul's catbedral. 235 



God is gone up (d 4 v)—Boyce, Vol Il.-^ivo {Novello). 

Hear my crying {d, 2>v) ■ published by Birchall c 1780. 

/ will qive thanks (^ 5 vy—Artwld, Vol I. 

My soul, be thou joyful (i 3 v) — Cath. Mag. 

O clap your hands {d, 3 v)^-Cath. Mag. 

O praise the Lord all ye heathen (i 3 ij)-^Boy(e,, Vol II. 

Put me not to rebuke (d, 3 v)-^Boyce, Vol II. 

The Lord hath appeared for us (4 3 v)^published by 

Birchall, c. 1780. 
The Lord is my light {d 3 v) — Page, Vol III. 
The Lord of Hosts (d, 8 v) — Cath. Mag. 

Cross, William. Organist of Christ Church Cathe- 
dral, S. John's College, and the University Church, 
Oxford, 1807. Died 1826. 

Collection of Chants, Kyries, and Sanctuses, oblong 6,to. 
Collection of Psalm. Tunes, oblong ^to, 18 18. 

Crotch, William, Mus.B., Oxon. (1794), Mus.D. 
(1799). Born at Norwich, July 5, 1775. Pupil of Dr. 
Randall at Cambridge. Organist of Christ Church Cathe- 
dral, Oxford, 1790—1807 ; of S. John's College, 1797— 
1806. Professor of Music in the University, 1797. 
First Principal of the Royal Academy of Music, 1822. 
Lecturer at the Royal Institution, Died at Taunton, 
Dec. 29, 1847. Buried in the church of Bishop's Hull. 

Ten Anthems dedicated to the Dean and Chapter of 
Christ Church, folio, c. 1798. 

Miscellaneous Anthems, etc. 
O Lord, from W hom all good things {printed in Petti fs 

Sacred Music, folio, 1825) full A 4 v. 
O come hither and hearken {solo) I Edited by Dr. W. 
In God's Word {solo) ) H. Monk. 

The Lord is King {Festival Anthem) folio, 1843. 
Funeral Anthem for the Duke of York, folio, 1827. 
*Holy, Holy, Holy {Heber's Hymn on the Trinity), 

folio and 8vo {Novello). 
Weep not for m£ {words by Milman) Motett, d, ^ v 

{Pettifs Sacred Music). 

' Composed for Trinity Sunday, 1827, and first sung at service at New 
College Cliapel on that day, when the sermon was preacjied by the Rev. W. 
R. Crotch. 



236 THE ORGANISTS AAD COMPOSERS 



Methinks I hear the full celestial choir {words by Thom- 
son) Motett, cL ^v, %vo {Novella). 

Sanctus and Kyrie in F, published in " Lyra Ecclesias- 
tica," 1844. 

Collection of Seventy-two Original Single and Double 
Chants, oblong ^to, 1842. 

Tunes adapted to the Old and New Versions ef the 
Psalms, etc., together with Talus' Litany adapted to 
the Latin Words, with additions by Dean Aldrich. 
Zvo, 1807. 

Davy, John. Bom at Upton-Helions, near Exeter, 
Dec. 23, 1763. Pupil of W. Jackson. Organist of 
Bedford (Episcopal) Chapel, Exeter. Subsequently 
settled in London as composer to the Theatres. Died in 
May's Buildings, S. Martin's Lane, Feb. 22, 1824. Buried 
in S. Martin's burying ground, Pratt St., Camden 
Town. 

Anthem {Op. 9), " Lord who shall dwell " {verse d 3 v), 

folio. 
Sanctus and Kyrie Eleison in F — Hawes. 
Four Single and two Double Chants, in Rimbault's 

Cathedral Chants of the XVL, XVIL, and XVIIL 

Centuries, ^to, 1844. 
Double Chant in E — Hawes. 
Double Chant in C — Bennett and Marshall. 

Dearle Edward, Mus.B., Cantab. (1836), Mus.D. 
(1842). Born at Cambridge, 1806. Chorister in King's 
College Chapel. Organist of S. Paul's, Deptford, 1827 ; 
of Blackheath Park Church, 1830 ; of Wisbeach Parish 
Church, 1832 ; of S. Mary's, Warwick, 1833 ; of Newark 
Parish Church, 1835 — 1864.N0W resident m London. 

Morning and Evening Service in F (1832). 

Morning and Evening Service in C, four Anthems and 

thirty-six Chants, dedicated to Prince Albert, folio, c, 

1843. 
Evening Service in A,foho {Novello). 
Evening Service in Bflat, ?>vo {Novello). 
Anthem, '■^ Turn Thee again" {Gresham. Ptize, 1837). 
Anthem, "With Angels and Archangels" Svo {Novello). 



OF s. Paul's cateedral. 237 



DowLAND, John, Mus.B., Oxon, (1588), ad eundem 
Cantab. (1592). Born in Westminster, 1562. Died 1626. 
Anthem, " Bow Thine ear " {^printed in Hawes' Collec- 
tion of Anthems, folio, 1830). 

Dupuis, Thomas Sanders, Mus.B. and Mus.D., 
Oxon. (1790). Born in London, Nov. 5, 1730. Chorister 
in the Chapel Royal under Gates and Travers. Succeeded 
Dr. Boyce as organist and composer to the Chapel 
Royal, 1779. Died at his residence, Park Lane, July 17, 
1796. 

Cathedral Music in Score, composed for the use of His 
Majesty's Royal Chapels. Edited by his Son-in-law, 
John Spencer, 3 vols, folio, 1798/ — 
Vol I., containing Complete Service in E Aatj Com- 
plete Service in F j Morning and Evening Service 
in Dj Morning Service in C. 
Vol II., containing five Solo Anthems j five Verse 

Anthems ; four Full Anthems. 
Vol III., containing an Organ Part to the above, and 
Six Organ Voluntaries. 

Full Anthem with verse, ^^ I cried unto the Lord" — 

Page, Vol I. 
Solo Anthem, " The Lord, even the most mit^hty God' 

—Pa^e, Vol I. 

Sixteen Single and Double Chants as performed at the 
Chapel Royal, etc., etc., oblong i,to, c. 1780. 

A second Set of Chants, composed for the Chapel Royal, 
oblong J^o, c. 1784. 

Twenty-four Double and Single Chants as performed 
at the Chapel Royal, S. PauPs, etc., oblong i^o, c. 1791. 

Ebdon, Thomas. Bom 1738. Chorister in Durham 
Cathedral. Organist of Durham Cathedral, 1763. Died 
Sept. 23, 181 1. Buried in S. Oswald's Churchyard, 
Durham. 
Sacred Music composed for the use of the Choir of 
Durham Cathedral, folio, 1790, containing a Com- 
plete Service in Cj six Anthems; Preces and Re- 
sponses; five Chants. 



2,38 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



A Second Volume of Sacred Music in Score, folio, 18 10, 
containing sixteen Anthems j two Settings of the 
Kyrie Eleison; six Double Chants. 

Elvey, Sir George Job, Mus.B. Oxon. (1838), Mus.U 
(1840). Son of Mr. John Elvey. Born at Canterbury, 
March 27, 1 8 16. Chorister in Canterbury Cathedral. 
Lay Clerk in Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford, 1833 — 
1834. Organist of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, in suc- 
cession to Highmore Skeats junior, 1835 — 1882. Re- 
ceived knighthood, 1871. 

A Morning and Evenint; Service in F, a Morning 
Service in B flat, a Communion Service in E, and 
Evening Services in D and E, together with twenty 
Anthems and forty-five Chants by Sir George Elvey, 
are published by Novella &" Co. 

Elvey, Stephen, Mus.B. Oxon. (1831), Mus.D. (1838). 
Born at Canterbury, June 27,1805. Son of Mr. John 
Elvey. Chorister and afterwards Lay Clerk in Canter- 
bury Cathedral. Organist of New College, Oxford, and 
of S. Mary's (University) Church, 1830. Cboragus of 
the University, 1840. Died Oct. 6, i86o. 

Evening Service in A {composed in continuation of 
Croft's Morning and Communion Services') folio, 
1828 — ?>vo {Novello), edited by Dr. G. C. Martin. 

ESTE Michael, Mus.B. Oxon. Born early in the 17th 
century. Master of the Choristers at Lichfield Cathe- 
dral. Died 1638. 

Some of his Anthems were printed in Dr. Rimbault's 
Collection of Anthems by Composers of the Madriga- 
lian Era, edited for the Musical Antiquarian Society, 
folio, 1845. 

Evans, Charles Smart. Born 1770. Gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal and Organist of S. Paul's, Covent 
Garden. Died Jan. 4, 1849. 

Two Anthems, being the Collects for the first Sunday 
after Easter, and the first Sunday after Trinity. . . 
Inscribed to the Hon. and Rt. Rev. Father in God, 
Shute Barrington, £j)rd Bishop of Durham, for four 
and five voices, folio, c. 1830. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 239 



Verse Anthem, " T will love Thee" (& 3 v)—Pettifs 
Sacred Music, folio, 1823. 

Farrant, Richard. Born c. 1530. Gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal, 1564 — 1580. Master of the Choristers 
of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, 1564 — 1569. Died Nov. 
30, 1580. 

*Complete Service in G minor — Boyce, Vol I. 

Full Anthem., " Call to remembrance" (cL 4 v) — Boyce, 

Vol II.—%vo {Novello). 
Ditto, " Hide not Thou Thy face " (<J 4 v)— Boyce, Vol 

II.—%vo {Novello). 
■f Ditto, " Lord, for Thy tender mercies' sake " {& 4 v) — 

Cath. Mag.— Page, Vol I. — %vo {Novello). 

* A Morning and Evening Service in D minor assigned by Sir Frederick 
Ouseley in liis Collection of Caihedral Services {folio. 1853), to Richard Far- 
rant, is more probably the composition of John Farrant, organist of Salis- 
bury Cathedral, at the close of the sixteenth century. 

t The authenticity of this anthem is much questioned. By many it is as- 
signed to John Hilton. 

Flintoft, Rev. Luke, B.A., Cantab (1700). Priest 
Vicar of Lincoln Cathedral, 1703 ; Sacrist, 171 1 ; Gen- 
tleman of the Chapel Royal, 17 15. Reader in the Chapel 
Royal, Whitehall; Minor Canon of Westminster, 1719. 
Died Nov. 3, 1727. Buried in the South Cloister ot West- 
minster Abbey. 

A Double Chant in G minor by Flintoft, one of the 
earliest instances of that species of composition, is 
well known. It was first printed in a collection 
by C. and S. Thompson, S. Paul's Church Yard, 
Svo, c. 1769. 

Gadsby, Henry Robert. Born at Hackney, Dec. 
15, 1842. Chorister in S. Paul's Cathedral under W. 
Bayley. Professor of Harmony at the Guildhall School 
of Music, and Queen's College. 

A Complete Service in C, a Festival {Cantate) Service 
in D, and nine Anthems by Mr. Gadsby are published 
by Novello, and an Evening Service in G by 
Metzler. 

Garrett, George Mursell, Mus.B., Cantab (1857), 
IMus.D. (1867), M.A., propter meritis, 1878. Born at 



240 TBE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Winchester, June 8, 1834. Chorister in New College, 
Oxford, 1844 — 1848. Assistant to Dr. S. S. Wesley at 
Winchester Cathedral, 1850. Organist of Madras Cathe- 
dral, 1856; of S. John's College, Cambridge, 1857 ; and 
of S. Mary's, University Church, Cambridge, 1873. 

Five Complete Services in D, E, Eflat, and F, {Nos. 
I and 2), a Communion Service in A, an Evening 
Service for men's voices, and twelve Anthems by 
Dr. Garrett are published by Novella and Co. 

Gates, Bernard. Bom 1685. One of the children 
of the Chapel Royal, 1708. Master of the Choristers of 
the Chapel Royal and of S. Peter's, Westminster, 1740 — 
I7;;8. Died at North Aston, Oxon, Nov. 15, 1773. 
Buried in the North Cloister of Westminster Abbey. 

An excellent Service in F, by Bernard Gates, is in use 
at Canterbury, Durham, Lichfield, S. George's, 
Windsor, and several other places. It is to be re- 
gretted that it has never found an editor. 

Gibbons, Orlando, Mus.B,, Cantab. (1606) Mus.D., 
Oxon (1622J. Born at Cambridge, 1583. Gentleman of 
the Chapel Royal, 1605. Organist of Westminster Abbey, 
1622. Died at Canterbury, Whitsun-Day, June 5, 1625. 
Buried in the North nave aisle of Canterbury Cathedral. 
Com,plete Service in F — Barnard — Boyce, Vol I. 
Ditto {transposed to G), edited by Dr. G. C. Martin, 
Svo {Novelld). 

Anthems. 

Almighty and Everlasting God {d. 4 v) — Barnard, 

—Boyce, Vol Il.—ivo (Novello). 
God is gone up {A 8 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
O clap your hands {& 8 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
Hosanna to the Son of David {& 6 v) — Barnard, — Boyce, 

Vol II.—Zvo {Novello). 
Lift up your heads {d, 6 v) — Barnard, — Boyce, Vol II. 



A Collection oj the Sacred Compositions of Orlando 
Gibbons {of which the Scores are not contained in 
Boyces Collection) frotn the original MSS. and 
Part Books, together with a transposed organ-iart 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 24 1 

to some of his published works, edited by the Rev. Sir 
F. A. Gore Ouseley, folio, 1873. Containing: — 

Two Sets of Preces. 

Two Services. 

Seventeen Anthems. 

Six Hytnn Tunes. 

Gibbons, Christopher, Mus.D., Oxon (1664). Bom 
1615 (Baptised Aug. 22), Son of Orlando Gibbons. 
Chorister in Exeter Cathedral. Organist of Winchester 
Cathedral, 1640 — 1644; ofWestminster Abbey, 1660 — 
1665, and of the Chapels Royal, 1660 — 1676. Bied Oct. 
20, 1676. Buried in the cloisters at Westminster. 

Giles, Nathaniel, Mus.B., Oxon (1585), Mus.D. 
{1622). Born near Worcester, 1548. Organist of S. 
George's Chapel, Windsor, 1595. Gentleman Extraordi- 
nary and Master of the Children of the Chapel Royal^ 
1597. Organist of the Chapel Royal, 1623. Died Jan. 
24, 1633. Buried in S. George's Chapel, Windsor. 
Complete Service in C — Barnard. 

GOLDWIN (or Golding) JOHN. Born 1670. Suc- 
ceeded Dr. Childe as organist of S. George's Chapel, 
Windsor, 1697. Master of the Children, 1703. Died at 
Windsor, Nov. 7, 1719. 

Complete Service in F — Arnold, Vol I. 
Anthems. 
Behold my Servant {verse d. 4 v) — Arnold, Vol I. 
I have set God {verse A 3 v)—Boyce, Vol H.-ivo, 

{Novello.) 
I will sing unto the Lord {verse d. 4 v)—Page, Vol I. 
O love the Lord {full d, 4 v)—Cope. 
O praise God in His holiness {verse d, 2 v) — Page, 

VolIL. 
O praise the Lord {full d 4 v)—Cope. 

Guise, Richard, Mus.B. Cantab. (1758). Born 1735. 
Lay Clerk of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, and Eton 
College, c. 1760— 1773. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, 1779. Lay Vicar and Master of the Choristers 
at S. Peter's, Westminster, 1793. Died March 10, i8o8. 
Buried in the North Cloister of S. Peter's, Westminster. 
S 



242 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Three Single Chants by Guise were printed in Vander- 
nan's Divine Harmony, 1770. 

Hall, Henry. Bom at New Windsor, c. 1655. 
Chorister in the Chapel Royal. Organist of Exeter 
Cathedral, 1674. Organist and Vicar Choral of Here- 
ford Cathedral, 1688. Took holy orders, 1696. Died 
March 30, 1707. Buried in the Cloisters of Hereford 
Cathedral. 

Te Deum in E flat, to which the Jubilate was subse- 
quently added by Wm. Hine of Gloucester— ^Arnold. 
Vol III. 

Hart, Charles. Bom May 19, 1797. Pupil of Dr. 
Crotch. Organist of S. Dunstan's, Stepney, 1829 — 
1833, afterwards, of Beckenham Church. Died March 
29, 1859. 

Te Demn and Jubilate in C {Gresham Prize Com- 
position, 1831. ) 

Three Anthems dedicated to Dr. Crotch {folio, 
Novella). 

Full Anthem, "Almighty and Everlasting God" {in 
Lyra Ecclesiastica, 1844). 

Havergal, Rey. William Henry, B.A., Oxon 
(1815;, M.A. (1819). Born at High Wycombe, Jan. 18, 
1793. Educated at Merchant Taylors School and S. 
Edmund Hall, Oxford. Rector of Astley, Worcester- 
shire, 1829— 1842. Rector of S. Nicholas, Worcester, 
and Honorary Canon of the Cathedral, 1845. Rector 
of Sharesihill, i860. Died at Leamington, April 19, 
1870. ^ 

Morning and Evening Service in E flat and a Hun- 
dred Antiphonal Chants {folio. Novella). 

Evening Service in A (Gresham Prize, 1836). 

Anthem, " Give thanks to the Lord" (Gresham Prise, 
1841). 

Full Anthem {d. 4 v), " O Saviour of the world" {pub- 
lished in Hacketfs National Psalmist, 1842). 

Ditto, " God so loved the world" (d, 4 v) ^fiub. in Lyra 

Ditto, " Arise, O Lord God" (a 4 f ) [ Ecclesias- 

Ditto, " Praise ye the Lord" {d. \v) ) tica, 1844. 



OF S. PAXIL* S CATBEDRAL. 243 



Old Church Psalmody and a Century of Chants, ^0, 
1871. 

Hayes, William, Mus.B., Oxon (1735), Mus.D. 
(1749). Born at Gloucester, 1707. Chorister in Glou- 
cester Cathedral. Organist of S. Mary's, Shrewsbury, 
1729 — 1731 ; of Worcester Cathedral, 1731 — 1734; of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1734, Professor of Music 
in the University of Oxford, 1741. Died at Oxford, 
July 27, 1777. Buried in the Churchyard of S. Peter in 
the East. 

Cathedral Music, in score, edited by his son, Philip 
Hayes, folio, i"]^^, containing : — 

Te Deum and Benedictus in D.* 

Communion Service in Eflat. 

Evening (Cantate) Service in Eflat. 

Eight Solo Anthems. 

Twelve Verse Anthems. 

One Full Anthem, and 

An arrans;ement of the looth Psalm. 

Ten copies of this collection were subscribed for by 
the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's. 

* The Benedictus is by Philip Hayes. 

HAYES, Philip, Mus.B., Oxon (1763), Mus.D. (i777). 
Second son of Wm. Hayes. Born April, 1738. Chorister, 
and afterwards (1767) Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. 
Organist of New College, Oxford, 1776 ; of Magdalen 
College, 1777 ; of S. John's College, 1790. Professor of 
Music in the University, 1777. Died in London, March 
19. 1797- Buried in the crypt of S. Paul's Cathedral. 

Eight Anthems, ^0, Oxford, c. 1780. 

Henley, Rev. Phocion, B.A., Oxon (1749), M.A. 
(Cantab), 1753. Born at Wootton Abbots, Wilts, 1728. 
Rector of S. Andrew Wardrobe, with S. Anne, Black- 
friars, 1759. Died in London, Aug. 29, 1764. 

Solo Anthem, "■Hear my prayer"— Page, Vol HI. 

Hilton, John, Mus.B., Cantab (1626). Born c. 1575. 
Organist of S. Margaret's, Westminster. Died March, 
1657. 

Complete Service in G minor — Rimbault. 



^44 ™-® ORGANISTS AAD COMPOSERS 



HiNE, William. Born at Brightwell, 1687. Chorister 

in Magdalen College, Oxford, 1694 ; Lay Clerk of the 

same, 1705. Articled pupil to Jeremiah Clark at S. 

Paul's. Organist of Gloucester Cathedral, 17 11. Died 

Aug. 28, 1730. Buried in the Cloisters of Gloucester 

Cathedral. 

Harmonia Sacra Glocestriensis, or Select Anthems in 

Score for i, 2 and 3 voices, and a Te Deum and 

Jubilate (in E flat), together with a Voluntary for 

the Organ, folio, c. 1731. 

* This Collection was published posthumously by Hine's widow, Alicia. 
Her initials, "A. H.," appear on the dedication page. She was the 
daughter of Rudhall, a famous bell-founder of Gloucester. 

HiNDLE, John. Mus.B., Oxon (1790). Bom in West- 
minster, 1760. Lay Vicar of Westmmster Abbey, 1785. 
Died 1796. 

HoBBS, John William. Bom at Henley-on-Thames, 
Aug. I, 1799. Chorister in Canterbury Cathedral under 
Highmore Skeats, Sen. Member of the choirs of King's, 
Trinity, and S. John's Colleges, Cambridge, and subse- 
quently of S. George's Chapel, Windsor. Gentleman 
of the Chapel Royal, 1827. Lay Vicar of S. Peter's, 
Westminster, 1836. Died at Croydon, Jan. 12, 1877. 

Holland, Rev. William Woollams, B.A., Oxon. 
(1806), M.A. (1807). Born April 15, 1785. Lay Clerk of 
Magdalen College, Oxford, 1801. Minor Canon of Chi- 
chester Cathedral, 1809 — 1855. Rector of S. Martin's, 
Chichester, 1817. Vicar of Burpham, Sussex, 1809, and 
of Bapchild, Kent, 1825. Died Jan. 17, 1855. Buried in 
S. Paul's Churchyard, Chichester. 

Holmes, George. Born about 1660. Organist of 
Lincoln Cathedral, 1704. Died 1720, 

Verse Anthem, '''■Arise and Shine, O Daughter of 
Zion."—Page, Vol. III. 

Hooper, Edmund. Born at North Halberton, Devon, 
c. 1553. Master of the Choristers of S. Peter's, West- 
minster, 1588. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1604. 
Organist ol Westminster, 1606. Died July 19, 162 1. 

Full Anthem, "Behold, it is Christ^' — Barnard. 

Hopkins, Edward John, Mus.D., Cantuar (1882). 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 24$ 



Born in Westminster, June 30, 1818. Chorister in the 
Chapel Royal, 1826— 1833. Pupil of Hawes and T. 
Forbes Walmisley. Organist of Mitcham Church, 1834 ; 
of S. Peter's, Islington, 1838 ; of S. Luke's, Berwick 
Street, 184.1 ; of the Temple Church. 1843. 

Morning and Evening Services in A and F, and ten 
anthems by Dr. Hopkins are published by Novella 
(Sr» Co. Several other Services by Metsler. 

Hopkins, John Larkin, Mus.B., Cantab, (1842) 
Mus.D., (1867.) Born 1820. Chorister in Westminster 
Abbey. Pupil of James Turle. Succeeded Ralph Banks 
as organist of Rochester Cathedral, 1841, and Professor 
T. A. Walmisley as organist of Trinity College, Cam- 
bridge, 1856. Died at Ventnor, April 25, 1873. Buried 
in S. Catherine's Churchyard, Ventnor. 

Morning and Evening Service in E flat 1 folio, 

Morning and Evening Service in C I {Novella!) 

Twelve Anthems, dedicated to the Dean and Chapter 
of Rochester, published by Surman of Exeter Hall, 
folio, c. 1850. 

Hopkins, John, cousin of the above. Born 1822. 
Chorister in S. Paul's Cathedral, 1831—38. Organist of 
Mitcham Church, 1838 ; of S. Stephen's, Islington, 1839 ; 
of Trinity Church, Islington, 1843; of S. Mark's, Jersey, 
1845 ; of Rochester Cathedral, 1856. 

A Morning Service in G, and a Morning and Evening 
Service in D, by Mr. John Hopkins are published 
by Novella &= Co. 

Humphreys, Pelham. Bom 1647. One of the first 
set of children of the Chapel Royal alter the Restoration. 
Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1667. Master of the 
Children, 1672. Died at Windsor, July 14, 1674. 
Verse Anthems. 

Haste Thee, God(d4 v)—Boyce, Vol HI. 

Have mercy upon me [a 3 v) — Boyce, Vol //. 

Hear, O Heavens ifl 3 v)— Boyce, Vol HI. 

Like as the hart (i 4 v)— Boyce, Vol HI. 

O Lord my God {d. 3 v)— Boyce, Vol H. 

Rejoice in the Lord {d. 4 v)— Boyce, Vol HI. 

Thou art my King O God {d, 4 v)— Boyce, Vol. HL 

Lord, teach us to number {verse i 3 v)—Cath. Mag. 



246 



THE OUGANtSTS AND GOMPO&ERS 



ISHAM, John, Mus.B., Oxon (1713). Born 1685 
Organist ot S. Anne's, Soho, 171 1 ; ot S. Andrew's 
Holborn, 1718 ; of S. Margaret's, Westminster. Died 
June, 1726. 

Kelway, Thomas. Borne. 1695. Organist of Chi- 
chester Cathedral, 1720. Died May 21, 1749. Buried 
in the South aisle of Chichester Cathedral.* 

Evening Service in A minor — Marshall {of Oxford) 

folio {Novello). 
Evening Service in B minor — Rimbault 
t Evening Service in G minor — Ouseley* 
Full Anthem {d 4 v) ^' Not unto us ^^ — Cope. 
Ditto {d 4 v) " Unto Thee, Lords'—Cope, 

Kelway, Joseph. Born c. 1702. Pupil of Gemini- 
ani. Succeeded John Weldon as organist of S. Martin- 
in-the-Fields, 1736. Died 1782. 



* Kelway 's gravestone, having been lost sight of for many years, was 
found and replaced and the inscription recut, about 1846. This circum- 
stance gave rise to the following pleasing sonnet by Mr. Charles Crocker, a 
former well known Verger of Chichester Cathedral : — 

Kelway ! thy memory, fresh as vernal day. 

In many a heart's mobt secret holiest cell, 

Where love of sacred song delights to dwell, 

Lives — and shall live while music holds her sway 

Within these hallowed walls, where day by day, 

Year after year, he plied the wondrous art 

Which bids the spirit from its prison start, 

And soar awhile to happier realms away. 

His strains full oft' still fall upon the ear 

Of those who tread yon aisle, while at their feet 

His name and record of his hope appear. 

Peace to his ashes — be his slumbers sweet, 

Tdl that glad morn when he shall wake to hear 

The angel choir in nightless Heaven's bright sphere. 

Mr. Crocker was altogether a remarkable person. Self-educated, he came 
before the public in a volume of poems, wonderful for one whose training 
was all his own. He was also the author of a little book entitled " A 
Visit to Chichester Cathedral" (1847). This gives a succinct account of 
the erection of the building, of its then state, of the principal monuments, 
of the restorations ; and, avoiding every attempt at fine writing, breathes, 
on the whole, so reverent a spirit, that one is almost carried back to the 
ostwjrius of former days. 

t In the organ-loft of Chichester Cathedral there is a small folio volume, 
most probably in Kelway's hand-writing. It contains these three Services, 
together with a Morning and Evening Service in A major, a Morning 
Service in C» a Morning and Evening (Cantate) Service in F, and eleven 
Anthems. 



OF S. PAULS CATHEDRAL. 247 

Kempton, Thomas. Born at Ely, 1690. Chorister in 
Ely Cathedral under James Hawkins, whom he suc- 
ceeded, in 1729, as organist. Died 1762. Buried in S. 
Mary's Churchyard, Ely. 

Morning and Evening Service in Bflat — Ouseley. 

Kent, James. Bom at Winchester, March 13, 1700. 
Chorister in Winchester Cathedral, 1711 — 1714, and 
afterwards in the Chapel Royal under Croft. Organist 
of Finedon Church,* Northants, 1717 ; of Trinity College, 
Cambridge, 1727; of Winchester Cathedral in succession 
to John Bishop, Jan. 13, 1737. Resigned, 1774. Died 
May 6, 1776. Buried in the North transept of Win- 
chester Cathedral. 

Twelve Anthems, in score, folio, 1773. 

A Morning and Evening Service in C and Eight 

Anthems, edited by Joseph Corfe, folio, 1796. New 

edition by A. T. Corfe, folio, c. 1850. 
Morning and Evening Set vice in D, folio {Novello). 
Anthem {a 5 v) " Hearken unto my voice '"—Arnold, 

Vol I. 

King, William, Mus.B., B.A., Oxon. ("1649), son of 
George King, organist of Winchester Cathedral. Lay 
Clerk of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1648 ; Chaplain, 
1652 — 1654 ; Probationer Fellow of All Souls College, 
1654 ; Organist of New College, 1664. Died Nov. 17, 
1680. Buried in the Cloisters of New College. 

Complete Service in B flat {with Litany) *^edited by 

John Bishop of Cheltenham, c. 1850. 
Full Anthem {d. 4 v) " The Lord is Kin^ " — Cope. 

* One of the cycle of five as used at Lichfield Cathedral. 

* An organ-stool is still preserved at Finedon, on which Kent carved the 
initials and datCj "J. K., 1717" — probably a record of a visit anticipatory of 
his becoming organist there on leaving the Chapel Royal. For this inter- 
esting fact I am indebted to Mr C. E. Stephens' admirable Biographical 
Index to Bemrose's Choir Chant Book /'1882). — J. S. _B, 

t For this collection of Kent's [Church compositions a short account of 
his career from the pen of Dr. Huntingford, Bishop of Hereford and War- 
den of Winchester College, was prefixed. The original manuscript is in my 
possession. It is in " the Warden's own peculiar great square characters, 
each letter standing by itself " as Mr. Thomas Anthony Trollope, an old 
Wintonian, describes Huntingford's handwriting, in his book, " What 1 
pemtmber," published a few years since.— J. S. B. 



248 TSM ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Langdon, Richard, Mus.B., Oxon. (1761). Born at 
Exeter. Son of Rev. Tobias Langdon, Priest Vicar of the 
Cathedral. Organist and Sub-Chanter of Exeter Cathe- 
dral, 1753 ; OrgiUiist of Ely Cathedral, 1777 ; of Bristol 
Cathedra), 1777 ; of Armagh Cathedral, 1782 — 1794. 
Died at Exeter, Sept. 8, 1803. Buried in S. Paul's 
Church. 

Divine Harmony — A Collection, in Score, of Anthems, 

Chants, and Psalms, folio, 1774. 
Verse Anthem, " O pray for the peace of Jerusalem " 

(folio, c. 1800). 
Anthem," Lord,Thou hast been our ^ ,,,.,,. ^, 

refuse." vublished m The 

Ditto, "'O Lord our Governor." 'f Collegiate Series 
Ditto, " Turn Thee unto me." \ y°'^°' ^eekes &= 

Service in A. > '-"v 

Lawes, William. Bom at Salisbury, 1582. Vicar 
Choral of Chichester Cathedral and afterwards (1602), 
a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal. Musciain in Ordi- 
nary to Charles I. Killed at the Siege of Chester, 1645. 

Verse Anthem, " The Lord is tny Light" — Boyce 

Vol in. 

Lawes, Henry. Born at Dinton, near Salisbury, Dec. 
1595. (Baptised Jan. I, 1596). Epistolar and Gentle- 
man of the Chapel Royal, 1625. Member of the Private 
Band of Charles L Died in London, Oct. 21, 1662. 

LiNLEY, Thomas. Bom at Wells, 1725. Died in 
London, Nov. 19, 1795- Buried in the cloisters of Wells 
Cathedral. 

Verse Anthem, " Bow down Thine ear.^' — Page, Vol 

in. 

Locke, Matthew. Bom at Exeter, 1630. Com- 
poser in Ordinary to the King. Died in London, Aug. 
1677. 

Kyrie {set in ten different ways)and Credo, (5666).* 

* a similar setting of the Kyri&, in the Keys of G and G minor, was com- 
posed by Thomas Attwood for use at S. Paul's Cathedral and the Chapel 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 249 

Full Anthems (for Men's Voices only). 
In ike beginning, O Lord {ct 3 v) — Coie. 
Lei God arise (S 3 v) — Cope. 
Sing unto the Lord (i 3 v) — Cope. 

Verse Anthems. 
Lord, let me know mine end {d 5 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
When the Son of Man {ct, 7 w) — Cope. 

LoNGHURST, William Henry, Mus.D., Cantuar 
(1875). Born at Lambeth, Oct. 6, 1819. Chorister in 
Canterbury Cathedral under Highmore Skeats, Sen., 
1828; Assistant Organist, Master of the Choristers and 
Lay Clerk, 1836; Organist and Master of the Choristers, 
1873 '•* succession to T. Evance Jones. Musical Lecturer 
at S. Augustine's College, Canterbury, &c., &c. 

A Morning and Evening Service in E, and nine 
Anthems, composed by Dr. Longhursi, are published by 
Novella. He has also edited a very useful collection of 
Short Anthems by various composers, 3 vols, folio 
{Novello). 

LoosEMORE, Henry, Mus.B., Cantab. (1640). Cho- 
rister and afterwards Lay Clerk in one of the Cambridge 
Colleges, and organist of King's College. Organist of 
Exeter Cathedral, 1660. Died 1667. 



Royal. It appeared in 1831 and was dedicated to Mrs. Hughes, wife of one 
of the Canons Residentiary of S. Paul's. 

The opportunity must here be taken of correcting an error in the bio- 
graphy of Attwood, forming part of Chapter IV. of this work. It was there 
stated that Attwood became organist of S. George the Martyr, Queen 
Square in 1787. Recent research, however, has proved that Attwood never 
hdd this position. Charles Frederick Reinhold was organist of B. George's 
from 1772, until his death in 1815, but it is not at all unlikely that Attwood 
may have officiated for some time as his assistant, as we know another emi- 
nent musician, J. W. Callcott, did. In this way the error, made by all Att- 
wood's biographers in styling him organist instead of assistant organist has, 
no doubt, arisen. 

Reinhold was brought up as a boy in the choir of S. Paul's under the 
Almoner, Charles King, and his successor, William Savage, He afterwards 
achieved great fame as a bass vocalist. He bequeathed £$ to Sir William 
Blizard on the express condition that he divided the windpipe of Reinhold's 
throat before his interment ; so great was his fear of being buried alive. 
This operation was duly performed. For further particulars of Reinhold see 
an account of him contributed by Dr. Rimbault to The MvMcal Times, 
June, 1877; also Parke's Musical Memoi/rs, Vol I., p. 24^. 

T 



2 so TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



Gloria in Excelsis — Par Ch. 

Litany in D minor (published in Jebb's Choral 

Responses and Litanies^ One of the cycle of five in 

■use at Lichfield. 

Henry Loosemore's son John built the organ of Exeter Cathedral in 
1665. 

Lowe, Edward. Born at Salisbury, c. 1615. Suc- 
ceeded Stonard as organist of Christ Church, Oxford, 
and as Professor of Music in the University, 1630 ; 
organist of the Chapel Royal, 1660. Died July n, 1682. 
Buried in the Divinity Chapel, Oxford Cathedral, 

A Short Direction fof the Performance of Cathedral 
Service, oblong iimo, Oxford, 1661. {Second Edition, 
1664). 

This curious and interesting manual has recently been reprinted in fac- 
simile by the photo-lithographic process, from a copy in the Bodleian 
Library. 

Lucas, Charles. Born at Salisbury, July 28, 1808. 
Pupil of A. T. Corfe. Succeeded Cipriani Potter in 1859 
as Principal of the Royal Academy of Music. Died 
March 30, 1869. 

Magnificat in F {Gresham Ptize, 1835), folio 
{Novello). 

Full Anthem {d 4 v) Blessed is He ) published by 
Ditto (d, 4 v) Hosanna \ Addison S-» 

Ditto {d 4 v) Sing; Heavens ) Co. 

Mann, Arthur Henry, Mus.B., Oxon. (1874), Mus.D., 
1880. Born at Norwich, May i6, 1850. Chorister in 
Norwich Cathedral under Dr. Z. Buck. Organist of S. 
Peter's, Wolverhampton, 1870; of Tettenhall Church, 
1875 ; of Beverley Minster, 1876 ; of King's College, 
Cambridge, 1876. 

Four Evening Services and four Anthems by Dr. 
Mann are published by Novello and Co. 

Marsh, John. Born at Dorking, 1752. Died at 
Chichester, 1828. An able and enthusiastic amateur, 
resident successively at Salisbury (1776), Canterbury 
(1785), and Chichester (1787), where he directed the 
Subscription Concerts, and occasionally officiated for the 
cathedral organists. 



OF &. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 2$ I 



Six Anthems in Four Parts, with a Verse Sanctus and 

Kyrie Eleison, folio, c. 1789. 
The Cathedral Chant Book — being a Collection of nearly 

200 of the most approved Ancient and Modem Chants 

in Score, oblong ^to. 
Twenty-four New Chants, dedicated to the Rev. Weldon 

Champneys, Subdean and Succentor of S. PauTs, 

Precentor of Westminster Abbey, etc., etc., oblong 

/\,to. 

A long account of the career of William Marsh will be found in the Rev. 
W, Bingley's Dictionary/ of Musicians, 2 vols, 8vo, 1827. 

Marshall, William, Mus.B., Oxon (1826), Mus.D. 
(1840). Born 1806. Chorister in the Chapel Royal 
under Stafford Smith and Hawes. Organist of Christ 
Church Cathedral and S. John's College, Oxford, 1826, 
in succession to W. Cross. Organist of S. Mary's, Kid- 
derminster, 1846. Died at Handsworth, Aug. 17, 1875. 

Cathedral Chants, edited in conjunction with Alfred 

Bennett, ^0, 1829. 
Collection of Cathedral Services by various Composers, 

folio, 12 parts, 1846. 
The Art ef Reading Church Music, Zvo, 1843. 
Collection of Words of Anthems, i2mo, 1840— 1874. 

Mason, Rev. William, M.A., Cantab (1749). Bom 
at Hull, 1725. Rector of Aston, Yorks ; Canon Resi- 
dentiary (1756) and Precentor (1763) of York Minster. 
Died at Aston, April 7, 1794. 

Anthem, " Lord of all power and might " — Page, 
Vol I. 

MORNINGTON, GARRET WESLEY (or WELLESLEY), 
first Earl of, B.A., Dublin (l754), M.A. (l7S7), Mus.D. 
(1764). Son of Richard Colley (afterwards Wesley), first 
Baron Mornington. Born July 19, 1735. Professor of 
Music in the University of Dublin, 1764— 1774. Father 
of the Duke of Wellington. Died at Kensington, May 
22, 1781. 

Nalson, Rev. Valentine. One of the Priest Vicars- 
Choral of York Minster. Died 1722. 



2^2 THE ORGANISTS AJSD COMPOSMrS 



Nares, James, Mus.D., Cantab. (1757). Bom at 
Stainwell, 1715 (baptized April 19). Chorister in the 
Chapel Royal under Bernard Gates. Organist of York 
Minster, 1734. Organist of the Chapel Royal, 1756. 
Master of the Children, 1757 — 1780. Died Feb. 10, 
1783. Buried in S. Margaret's, Westminster. 

Twenty Anthems in Score for i, 2, 3, 4, and 5 Voices. 
Composed for the Use of His Majesty's Chapel Royal, 
foho, 1778. New edition, by Vincent Novella, folio. 

Ten copies of this collection were subscribed for by tbe Dean and Chapter 
of S. Paul's, 

A Morning and Evening Service in C , together with 

Six Anthems in Score for 2, 3, 4, and 5 Voices, edited 

by Dr. Edmund Ayrton,Jolio, 1788. New edition, by 

Dr. J. L. Hopkins, folio (Novello). 

Complete Service in F — Arnold, Vol III. — Cath. Ch. 

Bk.—ivo {Novella). 
Morning Service in D — Rimbault. 
Verse Anthem (i 5 v) " Blessed is he" — Arnold, Vol 
ni.—ivo {Novella). 
Ditto (cL sv)"0 Lard, grant the King" — Arnold, 

Vol HI. 
Ditto (i 5 v) " Try me, O God''— Arnold, Vol 

III. 
Ditto {d, 5 v) "Blessed be the Lord"— Page, Vol 
III.—Zvo {Novello). 

Novello, Vincent. Bom at 240, Oxford Street 
Sept. 6, 1781. Chorister in the Sardinian Embassy's 
Chapel, Lmcoln's Inn Fields. Deputy organist there 
for Samuel Webbe, and for John Danby at the Spanish 
Embassy's Chapel, Manchester Square. Organist of the 
Portuguese Embassy's Chapel, South Street, Grosvenor 
Square, 1797 — 1822. Organist of S. Mary's R. C. 
Church, Mooriields, 1840— 1843. Founded the firm of 
Novello and Co., 1811. Retired to Nice, 1848. Died 
there Aug. 9, 1861. 

Works edited by Vincent Novello for Church Use : — 

Boyc^s Cathedral Music, 3 vols, folio, 1845. 

Ditto ditto organ part, i vol, folio, 1845. 

Boyc^s Own Services and Anthems, 4 vols, folio, 1846 

—9- 



OP S. PAUL*S CATBEDRAL. 253 



Clarke-Whitfeld s Services and Anthems, 4 vols, 

folio, 1845. 
Croffs Thirty Select Anthems and Burial Service, 

2 vols, felio, 1846. 
Greene's Forty Select Anthems, 2 vols, folio, 1846. 
Kenfs Service in C and Twenty Anthems, 2 vols, folio 

and 8vo. 
Nares" Twenty Anthems, folio. 
Novello's Cathedral Choir Book, 2 vols, folio and Svo, 

1848. 
PurcelPs Sacred Music, 4 vols, folio, 1829 — 32. 

Oakeley, Sir Herbert Stanley, Knt., B.A., Oxon. 
(1853), M.A. (1856), Mus.D., Cantuar (1871), Oxon. 
(1879), Aberdeen (1879), LL.D., Aberdeen (1881). Born 
at Ealing, July 22, 1830. Second Son of the Rev. Sir 
Herbert Oakeley, Bart., Dean and Rector of Booking, 
Essex, and Prebendary of S. Paul's (died 1845). Edu- 
cated at Rugby and Christ Church College, Oxford. 
Professor of Music in the University of Edinburgh, 1865 
— 1890. Received Knighthood, 1865. 

A Morning, Communion and Evening Service in E 
fiat, and ten Anthems, by Sir Herbert Oakeley, are 
published by Novello. 

OusELEY, Rev. Sir Frederick Arthur Gore, 
Bart. Born in Grosvenor Square, Aug.. 12, 1825. Son 
of Sir William Ouseley, whom he succeeded in the 
baronetcy, 1844. B.A., Oxon. (1846), M.A. (1849). Mus.B., 
Oxon. (1850). Mus.D. (1854), adeundem Dunelm (1856), 
adeundem, Cantab. (1862). Hon. LL.D., Cantab. (1883) ; 
Hon. LL.D., Edinburgh (1885). Educated at Christ 
Chnrch, Oxford. Took holy orders, 1849. Curate of 
S. Paul'Sj Knightbridge and S. Barnabas, Pimlico, 1849 
— 51. Resident at Lovehill House, Langley Marish, 
Bucks, 1852 — 1856. Warden and first vicar of ' S. 
Michael's College, Tenbury, 1856. Professor of Music 
in the University of Oxford, 1855. Prascentor of Here- 
ford Cathedral, 1855. Canon Residentiary, 1886. Died 
at Hereford, April 6, 1889. Buried at S. Michael's 
College, Tenbury. 

Eleven Services and Sixty-seven Anthems by Sir 
Frederick Ouseley are published by Novello &» Co. 



254 THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 

Parsons, Robert. Born c. 1570. Organist of West- 
minster Abbey, 1621. Died 1623. 

Complete Service in F — Barnard. 

Patrick, Richard. One of the Lay Vicars of West- 
minster Abbey between 1616 and 1624. 

Complete Service in G tnindr — Arnold, Vol I. 

Pepusch, John Christopher, Mus.D., Oxon. (1713). 
F.R.S. (1746). Born at Berlin, 1667. Organist and 
Chapel Master to the Duke of Chandos, 1712 ; of the 
Charterhouse, 1737. Died July 20, 1752. 

Porter, Samuel. Born at Norwich, 1733. Choris- 
ter in S. Paul's Cathedral under Charles King. Suc- 
ceeded William Raylton, as organist of Canterbury 
Cathedral, 1759; resigned 1803. Died Dec. 11, 1810. 
Buried in the West cloister of Canterbury Cathedral. 

Cathedral Music in score, edited by W .J. Porter, A.M., 
Head Master of the King's School, Worcester, 
Rector of Himbleton, and Chaplain to Viscount 
Fitzwilliam, folio, 181 3, containing : — 

t Complete Service in D. 

Morning and Evening Service in B flat. 

Five Anthems. 

Sanctus as used with King's Service in C. 

The Suffrages as used with Tallin Responses on the 
King's Accession Day. 

Kyrie Eleison in D, and Nine Chants. 

t This pleasing Service has been reprinted by Novello in 8vo size, under 
the editorship of Mr. Joseph Barnby. 

Pring, Isaac, Mus.B., Oxon. (1799)- Bom at Ken- 
sington, 1777. Chorister in S. Paul's under R Hudson. 
Succeeded Dr. Philip Hayes in 1797, as organist of 
New College, Oxford. Died, Sept. 18, 1799. 

PeinG, Jacob Cubitt, Mus.B., Oxon. (1797). Brother 
of the above. Born at Lewisham, Kent, 1771. Cho- 
rister in S. Paul's. Organist of S. Botolph, Botolph, 
Aldersgate Street. Died 1799. 

Eight Anthems as performed at S. Paul's Cathedral, 



OF s. Paul's cathedral. 255 



composed and humbly dedicated {by permission) to the 
Dean and Chapter, large \to, c. 1790. 

Ten copies subscribed for by the Dean and Chapter of S. Paul's. 
The choristers of S. Paul's subscribed for a copy. 

Pring, Joseph, Mus.B. and Mus.D., Oxon. (1808). 
Born at Kensington, Jan. 15, 1776. Brother of the pre- 
ceding. Chorister in S. Paul's. Organist of Bangor 
Cathedral, 1793. Died at Bangor, Feb. 13, 1842. Buried 
in the Cathedral graveyard. 

Twenty Anthems in score for i, 2, 3, 4, and 5 voices, 
folio, 1805. 

PURCELL, Henry. Born in Westminster, 1658. 
Chorister in the Chapel Royal. 1664. Organist of West- 
minster Abbey, 1680 ; of the Chapel Royal, 1682. Died 
in Westminster, Nov, 21, 1695. 

PurcelPs Sacred Music, edited by Vincent Novello, 4 

vols, folio, 1829 — 1832 : — 
Vol I., containing Verse Anthems in major keys. 
Vol II., containing Verse Anthems in minor keys. 
Vol III., containing Full Anthems, Hymns, Sacred 

Songs and Latin Pieces. 
Vol IV., containing Services and Chants. 

PURCELL, Daniel. Born in London, 1660. Youngest 
brother of the above. Organist of Magdalen College, 
Oxford, 1688 — 1695 ; of S. Andrew's Holborn, 1713. 
Died 1717. 

Pye, Kellow John, Mus.B. Oxon. (1842). Born at 
Exeter, Feb. 9, 1812. The first pupil of the Royal 
Academy of Music. Studied under Dr. Crotch and 
Cipriani Potter, 1823 — 1829. Chairman of the Committee 
of Management of the R.A.M., 1864 — 7. 

Anthein (d. 5 v) " Turn Thee again " (Gresham Prize, 

1834)- 
Anthem {d, 5 v) '^ Rend your hearts" {published m 

Fawcetfs Lyra Ecclesiastica, 1844). 
Three short full Anthems, %vo {Novello). 

Pyne, James Kendrick. Born in London, August 



256 TEE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



21,1810. Pupil of the Royal Academy of Music. Organ- 
ist of S. Marks, Pentonville, 1829; of Bath Abbey, 1839. 

Anthem, " Proclaim ye this^^ {Gresham Prize, 1839). 
Jubilate and Nunc Dimittis, folio, 1835 

Randall, John, Mus.B. Cantab. (1744), Regal Mus.D. 
(1756). Born c. 1718. Chorister in the Chapel Royal, 
1730—1735. Organist of King's College, Cambridge, 
1743 ; of Trinity College, 1777; also of S. Mary's 
(University) Church, and Pembroke Hall. Succeeded 
Dr. Greene as Professor of Music, 1755. Died March 
18, 1799. Buried in All Saints Church, Cambridge. 

Reading, John. Bom 1677. Chorister in the Chapel 
Royal under Blow. Organist of Uulwich College, 1700 — 2. 
Lay Vicar, and Master of the boys at Lincoln Cathedral, 
1703. Organist successively of S. John at Hackney, S. 
Dunstan in the West, and S. Mary Woolnoth, London. 
Died 1764. 

By subscription : A Book of {five) new Anthems, con- 
taining a hundred plates, fairly engraven, with a 
thorough bass figured for the organ or harpsichord, 
with proper Retornels, small folio, 1 741. 

Reynolds, John. One of the Gentlemen of the 
Chapel Royal, 1765 — 1770. Died at Lambeth, Nov. 1778. 
Verse Anthem, ^' My God, My God, look upon me" 
— Page, Vol I.—Zvo {Novello). 

Richakdson, Vaughan. Born c. 1670. Chorister in 
the Chapel Royal. Organist of ^Winchester Cathedral 
and College, 1693. Died 1729. 

Full Anthem (i 4 ?/) " how amiable " — Page, Vol L, 
8vo {Novello). 

RiMBAUT.T, Edward Francis, F.S.A. (1842), LL.D. 
Gottingen (1848). Son of S. F. Rimbault^ Organist of S. 
Giles-in-the-Fields. Born in London, June 16, 1816. 
Died there Sept. 26, 1875. Pupil of Samuel Wesley and 
Dr. Crotch. For some time organist of Curzon (Episco- 
pal) Chapel, Mayfair, and afterwards (1866-71) of S, 
Peter's, Vere Street. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 257 



Works edited by Dr. Rimbault for Church use : — 

Arfwld's Cathedral Music, 3 vols, folio, 1843 — 7. 

The Order of Daily Service, as used in the Abbey Church 
of S. Peter, Westminster, small ^to, 1844. 

Tallis Service, with an Historical Introduction, Zvo, 
1846. {This contains the Preces, Responses, and 
Litany, only). 

Tains' Complete Service, folio, 1845. 

Cathedral Chants of the XVI., XVII. and XVIII. Cen- 
turies, 6,t0, 1844. 

The Order of Morning and Evening Prayer, with the 
Plain Song in the tenor, folio and 8vo (Novello). 

The Handbook for the Parish Choir — a Collection of 
Chants, Services, Psalm Tunes and Chants, %vo, c. 

1847. 

A Collection of Anthems for Voices and Instruments, 
by Composers of the Madris^alian Era, folio. 

Cathedral Services by Tye, Peter Rogers, Creighton, 
Clark, Hilton, Wise, Kelway, Barrow, Coolie, Lroft, 
Dean, Nares, and B. Rogers, folio, 1847. 

The Order of Chanting the Cathedral Service as pub- 
lished by Edward Lowe, A.D., 1664, small 4to, 

1843. 
The Booke of Common Prayer with Musical Notes as 
used in the Chapel Royal of Edward VI., 1550, Com- 
piled by John Mar beck, reprinted in facsimile. 

■ Robinson, John. Bom 1682. Chorister in the Chapel 
Royal. Organist of S. Lawrence Jewry, 1710, ^nd of S. 
.Magnus, London Bridge, 1713. Organist of Westminster 
Abbey, 1727, retaining his previous appointments. Died 
April 30, 1762. Buried in the North aisle of Westminster 
Abbey, and in the same grave as Dr. Croft. 

Rogers, Benjamin, Mus.B. Cantab. (1658), Mus.D. 
Oxon. (1669). Born at Windsor, 1614 (baptized June 2). 
Chorister and afterwards Lay Clerk ot S. George's Chapel. 
Succeeded Randolph Jewett as organist of Christ Church 
Cathedral, Dublin, 1639—41. Again Lay Clerk of S. 
George's, 1641—44. Organist of Eton College, 1660; 
of Magdalen College, Oxford, 1664—1685. Died in New- 
Inn-Hall Lane, Oxford, June, 1698. Buried on June 21st 
in the Churchyard of S. Peter-le-Bailey. 
U 



258 THE ORGAytSTS AND COMPOSERS 



Services. 
Complete Se7-vice in D major — Boyce, Vol I.—Zvo 

{Novello). 
Complete Service in E ininor—Ouseley. 
* Morni7io^ and Evening Service in F — Ouseley. 

Evening Service in A minor — Rimbault — Goss and 

furle. — Cath. Ch. Bh. 

Anthems. 
Behold how good and joyjul {d, 4 v) — Cope. 
Behold now praise the Lord, (d, 4 v) — Boyce, Vol II., 

i,vo {Novello). 
How long wilt Thou forget me ? (d, 4 v") — Cope. 
Lord, who shall dwell? {d. /^v)~Page, VolIII.—%vo 

{Novello). 
O give thanks {full with verse d, 4 v) — Cope. 
O pray for the peace {full with verse ct, ^ v) — Cope — 

%vo {Novello). 
O that the salvation (k 4 v) — Cope. 
Praise the Lord, O my soul (^ 4 •Z') — Cope. 
Save me, O God {A 4 v) — Cope. 
Teach me, O Lord {ci 4 v)— Boyce, Vol IL — Zvo 

{Novello). 

Rogers, Peter. Father of the above. Lay Clerk of 
S. Geoige's, Windsor, 1610 to 1640. 

Morning and Evening Verse Service in G — Rimbault. 

Rogers, Sir John Leman, B^rt. Bom April 18, 
1780. Eldest son of Sir Frederick Leman Rogers, Bart., 
M.P., Recorder of Plymouth. An eminent amateur 
musician and patron of musical merit. President of the 
Madrigal Sociey, 1820— 1841. Died at Blachford, Ivy 
Bridge, Devon, Dec. 10, 1847. 

Complete Service in F, folio, 1839. 

One Single Chant and six Double Chajits published in 

Goss' Collection, 1841. 
Three Psalm Tunes — " Blachford" " Canterbury," and 



^ The Sanctus, Kyric, and Credo beloneing to this Service, which 
were not given by Sir F. Ouseley, are in an old MS. Organ Book in my 
possession. — J, S. B. 



OF S. PAULS CATHJiDRAL. 259 



" Maidstone ■' — printed in Hacketts National Psalm- 
ist (1842). 

Shepharde, John. Organist of Magdalene College. 
Oxford, 1542 10 1547. Died about 1597. 

Full Anthem (d. 4 v\ " I give you a new command- 
ment" — Par. Ch. 

Full Anthem {d. 4 v) "Haste Thee, O God"—Motett 
Soc. 

Shield William. Born at Swallwell, Durham, 1748. 
Succeeded Sir William Parsons as Mas er of the King's 
Band, 1817. Died Jin. 25, 1829. Buried in the South 
cloister of Westminster Abbey. 

Anthem, " Behold how good and ■pleasant." 
Anthem, " When I was a child." {Both printed in 
Pettefs Sacred Music, 1825). 

Skeats, Highmore (Senior). Succeeded Richard 
Langdon as organist ot Ely Cathedral, 1778. Succeeded 
Samuel Porter as organist of Canterbury Cathedral, 
1804. Died 1831. 
Metrical Anthem, " Thou Lord, by strictest search " 
{published in Bunnell's " Sacred Harmony " {folio, 
1865). 
Ditto, '' The righteous souls that take their flight {pub- 
lished in Dr. Longhurst's Short Anthems). 
Metrical Anthem, " O render thanks to God" {a 4 v). 
Ditto " O praise ye the LoTd" {d. 4 v). 

Ditto " Praise the Lord enthroned on high " 

(i 4 ■v). 
Ditto " Ve Saints and Servants of the 

Lord " {a 4 ») 
Ditto " My soul inspired" {a 4 z/). 

Ditto " How just and merciful" {a d^xi). 

All published in Rev. J. Powell Metcall's Metrical 
Anthems {?tV0, Novella). 

There is a complete service by Highmore Slteats, senior, in the key of C 
(triple time) in the MS. rhoir b oks of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, and of 
Canterbu y Cathedral. At the latier place tnere is aJso an Eveninj; S;i- 
vice in ihe key * f A. 

Cathedral Music, composed by the late John Stephens, 
Doctor in Music, organist* of the Cathedral at Salis- 

* From i;46 to 1781.— J. S. g. 



26o THE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



bury, carefully corrected and 7tow first published by 
Hi^hmore Skeats, organist of the Metropolitical 
Church of Canterbury, folio, 1805. 

Skeats, Highmore (Jun.) Born 1787. Succeeded 
his father as organist of Ely Cathedral, 1804. Succeeded 
C. F. Horn as organist of S. George's Chapel, Windsor, 
1830. Died Feb. 24, 1835. Buritd in ihe Cloisters at 
Windsor. 

Slatter, Rev. George Maximilian, B.D. Cantab. 
(1827), D.D. (1850). Born 1790. Chorister in Magdalen 
College, Oxford. Priest Vicar and Sub-Treasurer of 
Exeter Cathedral, 1817. Rector of West Anstey, Devon, 
1819. Died 1868. 

Ten Collects {as Anthems), a Collection of Chants, and a 

Sanctus andKyrie Eleison for 4 voices, folio, c. 1825. 
Cathedral Music, folio, 1855, containing : — ' 

Morning and Evening Service in F. 

Morning and Evening Service in G. 

Three Anthems. 

Three Psalm Tunes. 

Eight Single andDouble Chants. 

Smart, Sir George Thomas, Knt. Born in 
London, May 10, 1776. Chorister in the Chapel Royal, 
1786. Received Knighthood from the Duke of Rich- 
mond when Lord Lieutenant of IrcUnd, 1811. Organi'it 
of the Chaptl Royal, 1822. Composer to the same 1838. 
Dii-'d in Bedford Square, Feb. 23, 1867. Buried in llie 
Catacombs at Kensal Green. There is a tablet to his 
memory in the church of S. Giles-in-the-Fields. 

A Collection of Sacred Music, respectfully dedicated by 
express permission to He? Most Gracious Mafesiy 
Queen Victoria, I vol, folio, i860, containing: — 
Morning and Evening Service in A. 
Morning and Evening Service in D. 
Sanctus and Kyrie in D {for the Queen's Corona- 
tion, 1838). 
Kyrie (adapted from Beethoven). 
Five Anthems. 
Five Single, and fifteen Double Chants. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 26 1 



Smart, Henry. Born in London, Oct. 26, 1813. 
Pupil of W. H. Kearns. Organist of Blackburn Parish 
Church, 1831— 1838 ; of S. Philip's, Regent S'reet, 1839; 
of S. Luke's, Old Street, 1844; of S. Pancras, Eusion 
Road, 1865. Died at King Henry's Road, N.W., July 
6, 1879. 

Services. 
In B flat. Evening Service {composed for the Festival 
of the Sons of the Clergy at S. Pauts, May, 1870), 
Zvo, and folio {Novell^. 
In F. Complete Service {dedicated to Sir John Goss, 

1&68), /olio and Svo {Novella). 
In G. Evening Service {composed, 1850), folio, 

{Addison fir» Co). 
In G. Complete Service {composed, 1871), %vo 
{Metzler). 

Anthems. 

Be glad, O ye righteous. \pniblished in No- 

O God the King 0/ Glory. { vello's Series of 

The Lord hath done great things. \ Octavo Anthems. 
The Angel Gabriel. ) published in The Musical 

The Lord is 7ny strength. \ Times {Noyello). 

i>ing to the Lord {Anthem for the Festival of the 

London Church Choir Association at S. Paul's, Oct. 

26, 1876)— 8z/o {Novella). 
Lord, Thou hast been our Refuge {composed iot the 

same Festival Nov. 24, 1878), ivo {Metzler). 
Grant, we beseech Thee. | published in " The Choralist " 

bejoyful in God. \ {Boosey S-" Co). 

The Lord is my Shepherd. %vo {Nisbet, Berners 
Street). 

1 saw an Angel fly {Anthem for the Tercentenary Com- 
7nemoration of the Refonnatioii), folio {Chappell 
1835). Dedicated to Archbishop Howley. 

Smith, John Stafford. Son of Martin Smith, 
organist of Gloucester Cathedral. Born at Gloucester, 
1750. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1784 ; Lay Vicar 
of S. Peter's, Westminster, 1794 ; Organist of the Chapel 
Royal, 1802 ; Master of the Children and Lutenist, 1805 
— 1817. Died Sept. 21, 1836. Buried in the churchyartj 
pf S. L ikc'r, Chelsea, 



262 THE ORGANISTS AXD COMPOSERS 



Twenty-one Anthems, composed for the Choir Service 
of the Church of England, folio, :793. Dedicated to 
Archbp. Moore. 

Twelve Chants, composed for the Use of the Choirs of 
the Church of England, oblong i,to. Dedicated to the 
Rev. W. Holmes, Sub-dean of the Chapel Royal, 
Minor Canon of S. Paul's and Rector of Cripplegate. 

Smith, John, Mus.D. (?) Dublin (1827J. Born at 
Cambridge, 1795. Stipendiary choirman in Christ 
Church Cathedral, Dublin, 1815. Vicar Choral of S. 
Patrick's Cathedral, 1816. Organist of the Chapel of 
Dublin Castle, 1833 — 35. Professor of Music in the 
University of Dublin, 1847. Composer of the State 
Music for Ireland. Died at Black Rock, near Dublin, 
Nov. 12, 1861. 

Cathedral Music, dedicated to King William IV. and 
Queen Adelaide, folio, 1837, containing : — 
Morning and Evening Services in Bfiat. 
Communion Service in C. 
Veni Creator Spiritus. 
Twelve Double Chants. 

Stanford, Charles Villiers, Mus.D., M.A., 
Cantab. Born in Dublin, Sept. 30, 1852. Pupil of 
Arthur O'Leary .ind Sir Robert .Stewart ; also of Reinecke 
at Leipsic and Kiel at Berlin. Succeeded J. L. Hopkins 
as organist of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1873, and Sir 
G. A. Macfarren as Professor of Music in the University, 
1887. 

An Evening Service in A, two Complete Services in F 
and B flat, and six Anthems byProfessor Stanford, 
are published by Novella S-" Co. 

Stanley, John, Mus.B., Oxon. (July 19, 1729). Born 
Jan. 17, 1713. Pupil of John Reading and Dr. Greene. 
Organist of AUhaliows, Bread Street, 1724 ; of S. 
Andrew's, Holborn, 1726; of the Temple Church, 1734. 
Master of the King's Band, 1779. Died May 19, 1786. 
Buried in the new graveyard of S. Andrew's, Holborn, 
Gray's Inn Road. 

^JEGGALL, Charles, Mus.B. and Mus.D. by accumij- 



OP s. Paul's catbedral. 263 



lation, Cantab. (1852). Born in Londor, June 3, 1826. 
Pupil of ihe K.A.M. Studied under Sterndale bennett. 
Organist of Christ Church, IVIaida Hill, 1847. Pio'essor 
at the R.A.M., 1851. Organist of Christ Church, Lan- 
caster Gate, 1855 ; of Lincohi's Inn Chapel, 1864. 

Two Complete Services in F and G, two Evening Ser- 
vices in C, and Eleven Anthems by Dr. Steggall are 
published by Novella &" Co. 

Stevens, Richard John Samuel. Bom in London, 
1753. Chorister in S. Paul's Cathedral. Organist of the 
Charterhouse and the Temple Church in succession to 
John Jones, 1796. Succeeded Dr. Aylward as Professor 
of Music flt Gresham College, i8oi. Died at Peckham, 
Sept. 23, 1837. 

Stevenson, Sir John Andrew, Knt., Mus.D., 
Dublin (1791). Born in Dublin, 1762. Chcrister in 
Christ Church Cathedral, 1771 — 1775, in S. Patrick's, 
1775— 1780 ; Stipendiary in Christ Church, 1781. Vicar 
Choral of S. Patrick's, 1783 ; of Christ Church, 1800. 
Received knighthood, ,1803. Died at Headfort, Co. 
Meatb, Sept. 14, 1833. Buried in the Lambart Vault, 
Painstown Church. 

Cathedral Music, 2 vols, folio, 1825. Dedicated to 
King George IV., containins; : — 
Complete Service in C {The " Short Service "). 
Morning and Communion Service in F. 
Communion Service in Eflat. 
Two Evening Services in Eflat. 
Morning Service in C {The "■ Royal Service'"). 
Twelve Double Chants. 
Twelve Verse Anthe7ns. 

Stewart, Sir Robert Prescott, Knt., Mus.D. Dublin 
(1851). Son of Mr. Charles Frederick Stewart, Librarian 
of the King's Inns, Dublin. Born in Dublin, Dec. 16, 
1825. Chorister in Christ Church Cathedral, 1833— 1840; 
organist of Christ Church, 1844 ; of the Chapel of Trinity 
College, 1844; organist of S. Patrick's Cathedral, 1852; 
Vicar Choral of S. Patrick's 1861 ; Professor of Music in 
the University, 1861. Received knighthood, 1872. 



264 THIS ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



A Morning and Evening Service in E flat {for a 
double choir), a complete Service in G, and four An- 
thems by Sir R. P. Stewart are published by Novella. 

Stonard, William, Mus.D., Oxon. (1608). Organist 
of Christ Church Cathedral, Oxford. Died 1630. 

Evening Service in C — Motett Soc, Vol U. 

Stroud, Charles. Born 1705. One of the Children 
of the Chapel Royal, pupil ot Dr. Croft, and deputy 
organ'St of the Chapel Royal, Whitehall. Died April 
26, 1726. 

Anthem {& 4 ■z/) " Hear my prayer " — Page, Vol I — 
%vo {ISiovello). 

Sullivan, Sir Arthur Seymour. Knt., Mus.D., 
Cantab, honoris causA (1876), ad eundem, Oxon. 1879, 
Born in London, May 12, 1842. Chorister in the Chapel 
Royal under Rev. Thomas Helmore, 1854 — 1857. Pupil 
of Sir John Goss and Sir W. Sterndale Benne't ; also of 
Hauptmann and Moscheies at Leipsic, 1858 — 1861. 
Organist of S. Michael's, Chester Square, and subse- 
quently, till 1871, of S. Peter's, Cranley Gardens. Prin- 
cipal of the Natiocial Training School of Music, 1876 — -. 
i88i. Received Knighthood, May 15, 1883. 

A Morning Set vice in D, and twelve Anthems by Sir 
Arthur Sullivan are published by Novello &" Co. 

Talus, Thomas. Bom c. 1520. Chorister of S. 
Paul's and the Chapel Royal. Gentleman of the Chapels 
Royal. Sometime organist of Waltham Abbey till 1540. 
Died at Greenwich, Nov. 23, 1585. 

Complete Service in the Dorian Mode, with Preces, 
Responses, and Litany. Barnard — Boyce, Vol I. — 
Oliphant — Bishop -Rimbault. 

Three Sets of Preces with Psalms — Barnard. 

Anthems. 
All people that on earth do dwell {d, 4 v) — Arnold, 

Vol I.—Zvo {Novello). 
Blessed are those {d. 5 v) — Motett Soc. 



OF &. PAXIL'S CATHEDRAL. 26$ 



Blessed 6e Thy Name (d. 5 v) — Barnard. 

Come, Holy Ghost (i 4 v) — Par. Ch. — ivo {Novella). 

Great and marvellous (i S ^) — Motett Soc. 

Hear the voice and prayer {d 4 v) — Arnold, Vol HI. 

I call and cry {d, 5 ») — Barnard — Boyce, Vol II. 

If ye love Me \h, 4 v) — Motett Soc. — Zvo {Novello). 

O Lord, give Jhy Holy Spirit (i 4 v) — Barnard, 

Travers, John. Born 1706. Chorister in S. George's 
Chapel, Windsor. Pupil of Greene and Pepusch, 
Organist of S. Paul's, Covent Garden, 1725, and of 
Fulham Parish Church. Organist of the Chapel Royal, 
1737. Died 1758. 

Complete Service in F — Arnold, Vol II. — Cath. Ch. 
Bk.—%vo {Novello). 

Verse Anthem, " Ascribe unto the Lord" — Arnold, 
Vol III.—Zvo {Novello). 

Full Anthem, "Ponder my words" — Arnold, Vol 

in. 

Full Anthem {a 4 v) " Keep, we beseech Thee " — Page, 

VolIL 
Te Deum Laudamus in D — Arnold, Vol II. 

Tucker, Rev. William. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, and Junior Priest at the Coronation of King 
Charles II. ; Minor Canon and Precentor of Westminster 
Abbey. Died Feb. 28, 1678. 

Full Anthem {d, 5 v), " give thanks "—Cath. Mag. 
Zvo {Novello). 

TURPIN, Edmund Hart, Mus.D. Cantuar., F.C.O» 
Born at Nottingham, May 4, 1835. Pupil of C. Noble, 
HuUah, and Pauer. Organist of S. Barnabas (R. C.) 
Cathedral, Nottingham, 1850; of S. George's, Blooms- 
bury, 1869; of S. Bride's, Fleet Street. 1887. Secretary 
of the College of Organists. Musical Examiner for the 
College of Preceptors. Professor at Trinity College, 
London, &c., &c. 

TURLE, James. Bom at Somerton, March 5, 1802. 
Chorister in Wells Cathedral, 1810— 1813. Organist of 
Christ Church, Blackfriars, 1819— 1829 ; of S. James', 
Bermondsey, 1829— 1831. Deputy Organist of West. 



266 TBE ORGANISTS AND COMPOSERS 



minster Abbey, 1819— 1831. Full organist, 1831 — 1875. 
Died at Westminster, June 28, 1882. Buried in Norwood 
Cemetery. 

Complete Service in D, folio and %vo {Novella). Dedi- 
cated to Dr. Turton, Dean of Westminster (1842) and 
afterwards (1845 — 1864) Bishop of Ely. 

Morning and Eveniitg Chant Service in E flat, Svo 
{Novella). 

Anthems. 

Almighty and Most Merciful God {full d, i,v') dedicated 
to Sir J. L. Rogers, folio {Novelto). 
' Hear my crying {Verse iJ 3 7/), folio {Novello). 

The Lord that made Heaven \ j- ,, •- . /nr 77 \ 
This is the day. V"" ^ ^^ {Novello). 

Father of Life (i 4 v). Marriage Chorale, Svo {No- 
vello). 



Seven Single, and Twenty-four Double Chants, Com- 
posed for the Use of the Choral Set vice of Westmin- 
ster Abbey, Svo, 1855. 

The Westminster Abbey Chant Book, i2mo, 1855. 

Services, Ancient and Modern, edited in conjunction 
with John Goss, 2 vols, folio, 1848. 

Tye, Christopher, Mus.B., Cantab. (1536), Mus.D,., 
Cantab. (1545), ad eundem, Oxon. (1548). Born in West- 
minster, c. 1508. Chorister in the Chapel Royal. Organ- 

■ist of Ely Cathedral, 1541 — 1562. Was in holy orders, 
holding in succession the rectories of Little Wilbraham, 

, Newton and Doddington-cum-March in the diocese of 
Ely. Died c. 1580. 

Evening Service in G minor — Rimbault. 

Anthems. 

God be merciful {d. 4 v) — Barnard. 

I lift my heart {d, 5 v) — Barnard. 

T will exalt Thee {d. 4 v) — Barnard.— ^ Boy ce, Vol II. 

O come ye seivants (d, 4 v) — Svo {Novello). 

Walmisley, Thomas Attwood, Mcs.B., Cantab. 
J833), B.A. (1838), M,A. (1841), Mus.D. (1846), Son of 



OP S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 26f 



Thomas Forbes Walmisley and godson and pupil of 
Thomas Attwood. Born Jan. 21, 1814. Organist of 
Croydon Parish Church, 1830 ; of Trinity and S. John's 
Colleges, Cambridge, in succession to Samuel Matthews, 
1833. Professor of Music in the University, 1836. Died 
at Caroline Place, Hastings, Jan. 17, 1856. Buried in 
Fairlight Churchyard.H- 

Cathedral Music, dedicated to the Prince Consort, 
edited by his affectionate father, Thomas Forbes 
Walmisley, folio, 1857, containing : — 

Complete Service in D (1843). 

Complete Service in F (1839). 

Morning and Evening Service in C. 

Morning Service in Bflat (1834). 

Evening Service in D minor (1855). 

Two Settings of the Sanctus. 

Ten Anthems. 

Miscellaneous Church Compositions. 

* Evening Service in B flat for Double Choir (1845), 
folio (Novello). 

Full Anthem (i 4 v), " From all that dwelV {pub- 
lished in Racket fs Nat. Psalmist, 1842). 

*" Remember, Lord" (Dublin Prize Anthem, 1836), 
folio {Novello). 

"Hail! Gladdening Lighf^i^d, 5 v), published in Hul- 
lah's Vocal Scores, 1846. 

"Praise the Lord" {Canon 4 in 2), ditto. 

Sixteen original Double Chants, published in the Cam- 
bridge Collection of Chants {edited by T. A. Walmis- 
ley), 8vo, 1847. 

Four Single Chants, published in Monk and Ouseley's 
Anglican Psalter Chants. 

Sanctus in D, published in Lyra Ecclesiastica, {i%i^. 

* These compositions have been included in the later editions of Walmisley 's 
CaXheAral Mmic. 



t It is gratifying to observe that a mural brass to the memory of Pro- 
fessor Walmisley has, in the most api>ropriate manner, been placed in the 
ante-chapel of Trinity College, Cambridge, Engraved thereon are the last 
four bars of the expressive quartet to the words, "The snare is broken, and 
we are delivered," from the composer's truly grand anthem, " If the Lord 
Himself." 



268 THE OR&ANIStS AAD COMPOSERS 



Walmisley, Thomas Forbes. Son of William Wal- 
misley, Clerk of the Papers to the House of Lords. 
Father of T. A. Walmisley. Born in London, 1783. 
Chorister in Westminster Abbey. Pupil of Attwood. 
Succeeded Robert Cooke in 1814 as organist of S. 
Martin-in-the-Fields. Died July 23, 1866. 

Six Anthems and a Short Morning and Evening Ser- 
vice in C, folio, c. 1848. 

Three Canons forming an Anthem, folio, {Cramer), 
1851. 

Full Anthem («J 4 v), " O God the Protector" published 
in Pettet's Sacred Music, folio, 1825. 

Wanless, Thomas, Mus.B., Cantab. (1690). Organist 
of York Minster in 1700. 

Composer of the Litany in C Minor, used in the cycle of 
five, at Lichfield Cathedral. 

Warde, John. Bom c. ijSo. Died c. 1640. 
Evening Service in G minor — Barnard. 

Weelkes, Thomas, Mus.B., Oxon. (1602). Born 
1578. Organist of Chichester Cathedral, 1608. Died c. 
1640. 

Anthem, " Lord, grant the King," — Barnard. 

Wesley, Samuel. Son of the Rev. Charles Wesley, 
and nephew of the Rev. John Wesley. Born at Bristol, 
Feb. 24, 1766. Eminent as an organist and composer. 
For some time organist of Camden Town Parish Church, 
the organ of which was built by Gray under his direction 
in 1824. Died in London, Oct. 11, 1837. Buried in the 
graveyard of S. Mary-le-bone. 

Morning and Evening Service in F, respectfully dedi- 
cated to all choirs, folio, 1824. Cath. Ch. Book, 
%vo {Novello), edited by Dr. G. C. Martin. 

A nthem, " / said I will take heed " — Page, Vol II. 

Ditto, '■'■Thou, O God art praised" {published in Pettefs 
Sacred Music, folio, 1825)— 8»^ {Novello). 

Wesley, Charles. Brother of the above. Born 
1757. Died 1834. 



OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 269 



Anihem, " My soul hath patiently " — Page, Vol II. 
Ditto, "O worship the Lord" (Weekes' Collegiate 
Set ies). 

Wesley, Samuel Sebastian. (Son of Samuel Wes- 
ley), Mus.B. and D., Oxon. 1839. Born in London, Aug. 
14, 1810. Chorister in the Chapel Royal. Organist of 
S. James', Hampstead Road, 1819; soon after of S. Giles, 
Camberwell ; of S. John's, Waterloo Road, 1828 ; of 
Hampton Parish Church, 1831. Succeeded Dr. Clarke- 
Whitfeld as organist of Hereford Cathedral, 1833, and 
James Paddon as organist of Exeter Cathedral, 1835. 
Organist of the Parish Church, Leeds, 1842 ; of Winches- 
ter Cathedral and College in succession to Dr. Chard, 
1849 ; of Gloucester Cathedral in succession to John 
Amott, 1865. Died at Gloucester, April 19, 1876. 
Buried in the Old Cemetery at Exeter. 

Complete Service in E, folio {Novello), 1845. 

Complete Service in F, folio and %vo {Novello), 1869. 

Chant Services in F and G. 

Gloria in Excelsis in C. 

Twelve Anthems, folio, 1853. Dedicated to Dr. 

Gamier, Dean of Winchester. 
Nine Anthems {published separately by Novello). 
Four Anthems (published separately by Weekes). 
The Psalter Pointed, with Chants, 8vo (1843). 
The European Psalmist {edited) oblong 4to. 

Weldon, John. Born at Chichester c. 1680. Organist 
of New College, Oxford. Gentleman of the Chapel 
Royal, 1701. Organist of the same, 1708. Composer, 
171 5. Organist of S. Bride's, Fleet Street, and S. Martin- 
in-the-Fields, 1726. Died May 7, 1736. Buried in S. 
Paul's churchyard, Covent Garden. 
Sanctus arid Gloria in Excelsis in E flat {published in 
The Choir, 12,64). 

' Anthems. 

Hear my crying {verse i 6 v) — Boyce, Vol II. 
In Thee, O Lord {verse d, 2 v)— Boyce, Vol II. 
I will lift up mine eyes {solo) — Page, Vol I. 
O praise God in His holiness {full i 4 v)—Par. Ch. 



275 THE ORGANIST^ AND COMPO&MRS 



O praise the Lord {full ci 4 v) — Par. Ch. 

O God, Thou hast cast us out {solo) — Arnold, Vol I. 

Who can tell how oft {d, 7 v) — Arnold, Vol II. 

Divine Harmony, or Six Select Anthems for a Voice 
alone .... composed on several occasions by Mr. 
John Weldon, organist of his Majesty's Chapell 
Royal and there performed by the late famous Mr. 
Richard Elford. Small folio {Walsh) c. 1720. 

Westmoreland, Earl of (John Fane, D.C.L.) and 
Baron Burghursh. Born Feb. 3, 1784. Succeeded his 
father as eleventh Earl, 1841. Married, June 26, 181 1, 
Priscilla Anne, daughter of the Rt. Hon. Wm. Wellesley- 
Pole, third Earl of Mornington. Died at Apethorpe 
House, Northants, Oct, 16, 1859. 

Morning, Cathedral Service in F, folio {Lonsdale), 1841. 

Anthem '•' On the third Day in the Morning" folio, 
1 84 1. Both these were composed when Lord Burg- 
hursh. 

Williams, George Ebenezer. Born at Clerkenwell, 
Aug. 30, 1783. Chorister of S. Paul's Cathedral under 
R. Hudson and R. Bellamy. Organist of the Chapel of 
the Philanthropic Society, S. George's Road, 1805. 
Succeeded Robert Cooke as Organist and Master of the 
Choristers of Westminster Abbey, 1814. Died April 17, 
18191 Buried in the South Cloister of Westminster 
Abbey. * 

Wise, Michael. Bom at Salisbury, 1638. Chorister 
in the Chapel Royal. Organist of Salisbury Cathedral, 
1668. Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, 1675. Almoner 
and Master of the Boys at S. Paul's, Jan. 27, 1686. f 

* A curious and very scarce little book is in my possession entitled Sixty 
Charnis, Single and Double, also Twelve Sanciuses in Score, composed by the 
Chmrsters oj S. PauVs Cathedral Published at Messrs. Thompson's S. Paul's 
Church Yard, t&c. Oblong ^to. 179s, Pri^e 5s. The collection contains com- 
positions by G. E. Williams, T. Stikeman, W. Stikeman, W. Heather, 
J. C. Clifton, W. Wilson, C. Stokes and J. Suett. These eight boys were 
all pupils of Richard Bellamy, the then Almoner. — J. S. B. 

t Michael Wise's connexion with S. Paul's as Almoner was of but short 
duration. He was not an unpleasant man by all accounts, but unfortunately 
given to ungovernable fits of passion from his childhood. He was much 
^voured by Charles 11., and one of his privileges was that of playing upon 



OF S, PAUL'S CATHEDRAL, 27 1 



Died at Salisbury, Aug. 1687. Buried in the Cathedral, 
near the great West door. 

Evening Service in Eflat — Rimbault, 

Anthems. 

Awake, put on thy strength {Verse d 3 v) — Boyce 

VolII.—Zvo {Noveilo). 
Awake, up, my glory {Verse d 3 v) — Boyce, Vol III., 

Svo {Noveilo)* 
Blessed is he that consider eth ( Verse d 3 v) — Boyce, 

VolIIL 
I will sing a new song ( Verse d 3 v), published in 

La7igydon^s Divine Harmony, 1774. 
Prepare ye the way of the Lord [Verse d 4 v) — Boyce, 
■ Vol IL~^vo {Noveilo). 
The ways of Sion do mourn ( Verse d 2 v) — Boyce, 

Vol III. 
* Thy beauty y O Israel ( Verse d 3 z/) — Boyce, Vol III, 



the organ of an^ church the king attended. It appears that upon one oc- 
casion Wise, thinking the Sermon somewhat long and dry, struck up a 
voluntary of his own in the middle of it, thereby incurring his Majesty's dis- 
pleasure. This story may or may not be true, but it is certain that upon the 
death of Charles II. he was under a suspension from his duties at the Chapel 
Royal, and, at the Coronation of James II., one Edward Morton officiated 
in his place (See The Cheque Book of the Chapel Royal, pp. 129, 218). Wise's 
unhappy temper^ cost him his Ufe. Being at Salisbury in August 1687, he 
had a quarrel with t is wife one night upoa some trifling matter, and, in a 
paroxysm of rage, rushed from his house. The waichmaa met him while 
he was yet boiling with passion, and commanded him to stand, and ^ive an 
account of himself. Instead of this he struck the guardian of the night to 
the ground, who, in return aimed a blow at his assailant with his bill, which 
broke his skull, " ol the consequence whereof he died." 

It is to be lamented that the published works of this pathetic and ex- 
pressive Church composer are so few. There is a Morning and Evening 
Service iu D minor, contained in the large collection of Church music 
transcribed in score by Dr. Tudway lor the Earl of Harley, and now in the 
British Museum. At Christ Church Cathedral, Dublin, there is a complete 
Morning, Communion and Evening Service in E flat, while in the large and 
valuable Manuscript music library at Ely Cathedral there are preserved a 
Gloria in £zcelsis, and sixteen Anthems, including the six published by 
Boyce. (See Catalogue of Ancient Choral Services and ATitTiems preserved 
amoTug the MS. scores and part-books in the Cathedral Church of Ely by Rev. 
W. B. Dickson, M.A. Precentor^ Svo, Cambridge 1861). In the choir-books of 
Salisbury Cathedral there is a setting of the Easter Anthem " Christ being 
raised from the dead." This was at one time always^ performed instead of 
Fenite at Salisbury Cathedral on Easter Day, for which occasion Wise ex' 
pressly composed it. 

* The second part of this anihem (pp. 905 — 907 in Boyce's score) is said to 
have been composed by Dean Aldrich on hearing of the untimely death of 
fiis friend, Michael Wise.- 



272 THE ORGANISTS OF S. PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. 



Wood, David. Organist of Ely Cathedral, 177 1. 
Afterwards a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, and one of 
the deputies at S. Paul's. 

Anthem, "Lord of all power and mi^ht." — Page, 
Vol II. 

Woodward, Richard, Mus.B., Dublin (1768), 
Mus.D. (1771). Born in Dublin, c. 1744. Succeeded 
George Walsh as organist of Christ Church Cathedral, 
1765 ; Vicar Choral of S. Patrick's, 1772, and Master of 
the Choristers of both Cathedrals. Died in Dublin, 
Nov. 22, 1777. Buried in Christ Church Cathedral. 

Cathedral Music, consisting of one Compleat Service 
(in Bflat), Seveti Anthems, several Chants, and Vent 
Creator Spiritusj in Score j for i, 2, 3, 4, 5i '^^'■d 6 
voices [Opera Terza), folio, lyyi. 



•^ 



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